Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 189

Search results for: micro pitting

189 Pressure Capacity Reduction of X52 Pipeline Steel Damaged by a Semi-Elliptical Pitting Corrosion

Authors: S. M. Kazerouni Sangi, Y. Gholipour

Abstract:

Steel made pipelines with different diameters are used for transmitting oil and gas which in many cases are buried in soil under the sea bed or immersed in sea water. External corrosion of pipes is an important form of deterioration due to the aggressive environment of sea water. Corrosion normally results in pits. Hence, using the finite element method, namely ABAQUS software, this paper estimates the amount of pressure capacity reduction of a pipecontaining a semi-elliptical pitting corrosion and the rate of corrosion during the pipeline life of 25 years.

Keywords: Petroleum Transmission, Pipeline, PressureCapacity, Semi-Elliptical Pitting Corrosion.

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188 The Effect of Molybdate on Corrosion Behaviour of AISI 316Ti Stainless Steel in Chloride Environment

Authors: Viera Zatkalíková, Lenka Markovičová, Aneta Tor-Swiatek

Abstract:

The effect of molybdate addition to chloride environment on resistance of AISI 316Ti stainless steel to pitting corrosion was studied. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests were performed in 1 M and 0.1 M chloride acidified solutions with various additions of sodium molybdate at room temperature. The presented results compare the effect of molybdate anions on quality of passive film (expressed by the pitting potential) in both chloride solutions. The pitting potential increases with the increase inhibitor concentration. The inhibitive effect of molybdate ions is stronger in chloride solution of lower aggressiveness (0.1M).

Keywords: AISI 316Ti steel, molybdate inhibitor, pitting corrosion, pitting potential, potentiodynamic polarization.

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187 Effect of Crystallographic Orientation on the Pitting Corrosion Resistance of Laser Surface Melted AISI 304L Austenitic Stainless Steel

Authors: S. Krishnan, J. Dumbre, S. Bhatt, Esther T. Akinlabi, R. Ramalingam

Abstract:

The localized corrosion behavior of laser surface melted 304L austenitic stainless steel was studied by potentiodynamic polarization test. The extent of improvement in corrosion resistance was governed by the preferred orientation and the percentage of delta ferrite present on the surface of the laser melted sample. It was established by orientation imaging microscopy that the highest pitting potential value was obtained when grains were oriented in the most close- packed [101] direction compared to the random distribution of the base metal and other laser surface melted samples oriented in [001] direction. The sample with lower percentage of ferrite had good pitting resistance.

Keywords: Crystallographic orientation, Ferrite percentage, Laser melting, Pitting corrosion, 304L SS.

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186 Vibration, Lubrication and Machinery Consideration for a Mixer Gearbox Related to Iran Oil Industries

Authors: Omid A. Zargar

Abstract:

In this paper, some common gearboxes vibration analysis methods and condition monitoring systems are explained. In addition, an experimental gearbox vibration analysis is discussed through a critical case history for a mixer gearbox related to Iran oil industry. The case history also consists of gear manufacturing (machining) recommendations, lubrication condition of gearbox and machinery maintenance activities that caused reduction in noise and vibration of the gearbox. Besides some of the recent patents and innovations in gearboxes, lubrication and vibration monitoring systems explained. Finally micro pitting and surface fatigue in pinion and bevel of mentioned horizontal to vertical gearbox discussed in details.

Keywords: Gear box, condition monitoring, time wave form (TWF), fast Fourier transform (FFT), gear mesh frequency (GMF), Shock Pulse measurement (SPM), bearing condition unit (BCU), pinion, bevel gear, micro pitting, surface fatigue.

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185 Longitudinal Vibration of a Micro-Beam in a Micro-Scale Fluid Media

Authors: M. Ghanbari, S. Hossainpour, G. Rezazadeh

Abstract:

In this paper, longitudinal vibration of a micro-beam in micro-scale fluid media has been investigated. The proposed mathematical model for this study is made up of a micro-beam and a micro-plate at its free end. An AC voltage is applied to the pair of piezoelectric layers on the upper and lower surfaces of the micro-beam in order to actuate it longitudinally. The whole structure is bounded between two fixed plates on its upper and lower surfaces. The micro-gap between the structure and the fixed plates is filled with fluid. Fluids behave differently in micro-scale than macro, so the fluid field in the gap has been modeled based on micro-polar theory. The coupled governing equations of motion of the micro-beam and the micro-scale fluid field have been derived. Due to having non-homogenous boundary conditions, derived equations have been transformed to an enhanced form with homogenous boundary conditions. Using Galerkin-based reduced order model, the enhanced equations have been discretized over the beam and fluid domains and solve simultaneously in order to obtain force response of the micro-beam. Effects of micro-polar parameters of the fluid as characteristic length scale, coupling parameter and surface parameter on the response of the micro-beam have been studied.

Keywords: Micro-polar theory, Galerkin method, MEMS, micro-fluid.

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184 Design of Electromagnetic Drive Module for Micro-gyroscope

Authors: Nan-Chyuan Tsai, Jiun-Sheng Liou, Chih-Che Lin, Tuan Li

Abstract:

For micro-gyroscopes, the angular rate detection components have to oscillate forwards and backwards alternatively. An innovative design of micro-electromagnetic drive module is proposed to make a Π-type disc reciprocally and efficiently rotate within a certain of angular interval. Twelve Electromagnetic poles enclosing the thin disc are designed to provide the magnetic drive power. Isotropic etching technique is employed to fabricate the high-aspect-ratio trench, so that the contact angle of wire against trench can be increased and the potential defect of cavities and pores within the wire can be prevented. On the other hand, a Π-type thin disc is designed to conduct the pitch motion as an angular excitation, in addition to spinning, is exerted on the gyroscope. The efficacy of the micro-magnetic drive module is verified by the commercial software, Ansoft Maxewll. In comparison with the conventional planar windings in micro-scale systems, the magnetic drive force is increased by 150%.

Keywords: Micro-gyroscope, micro-electromagnetic, micro actuator.

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183 Visualization of Flow Behaviour in Micro-Cavities during Micro Injection Moulding

Authors: Reza Gheisari, Paulo J. Bartolo, Nicholas Goddard

Abstract:

Polymeric micro-cantilevers (Cs) are rapidly becoming popular for MEMS applications such as chemo- and biosensing as well as purely electromechanical applications such as microrelays. Polymer materials present suitable physical and chemical properties combined with low-cost mass production. Hence, micro-cantilevers made of polymers indicate much more biocompatibility and adaptability of rapid prototyping along with mechanical properties. This research studies the effects of three process and one size factors on the filling behaviour in micro cavity, and the role of each in the replication of micro parts using different polymer materials i.e. polypropylene (PP) SABIC 56M10 and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) Magnum 8434 . In particular, the following factors are considered: barrel temperature, mould temperature, injection speed and the thickness of micro features. The study revealed that the barrel temperature and the injection speed are the key factors affecting the flow length of micro features replicated in PP and ABS. For both materials, an increase of feature sizes improves the melt flow. However, the melt fill of micro features does not increase linearly with the increase of their thickness.

Keywords: Flow length, micro-cantilevers, micro injection moulding, microfabrication.

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182 Using Finite Element Analysis on Dynamic Characteristics in a Micro Stepping Mill

Authors: Bo Wun Huang, Pu Ping Yu, Jao-Hwa Kuang

Abstract:

For smaller mechatronic device, especially for micro Electronic system, a micro machining is a must. However, most investigations on vibration of a mill have been limited to the traditional type mill. In this article, vibration and dynamic characteristics of a micro mill were investigated in this study. The trend towards higher precision manufacturing technology requires producing miniaturized components. To improve micro-milled product quality, obtain a higher production rate and avoid milling breakage, the dynamic characteristics of micro milling must be studied. A stepped pre-twisted mill is used to simulate the micro mill. The finite element analysis is employed in this work. The flute length and diameter effects of the micro mill are considered. It is clear that the effects of micro mill shape parameters on vibration in a micro mill are significant.

Keywords: micro system, micro mill, vibration.

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181 An Experimental Study on the Effect of Operating Parameters during the Micro-Electro-Discharge Machining of Ni Based Alloy

Authors: Asma Perveen, M. P. Jahan

Abstract:

Ni alloys have managed to cover wide range of applications such as automotive industries, oil gas industries, and aerospace industries. However, these alloys impose challenges while using conventional machining technologies. On the other hand, Micro-Electro-Discharge machining (micro-EDM) is a non-conventional machining method that uses controlled sparks energy to remove material irrespective of the materials hardness. There has been always a huge interest from the industries for developing optimum methodology and parameters in order to enhance the productivity of micro-EDM in terms of reducing machining time and tool wear for different alloys. Therefore, the aims of this study are to investigate the effects of the micro-EDM process parameters, in order to find their optimal values. The input process parameters include voltage, capacitance, and electrode rotational speed, whereas the output parameters considered are machining time, entrance diameter of hole, overcut, tool wear, and crater size. The surface morphology and element characterization are also investigated with the use of SEM and EDX analysis. The experimental result indicates the reduction of machining time with the increment of discharge energy. Discharge energy also contributes to the enlargement of entrance diameter as well as overcut. In addition, tool wears show reduction with the increase of discharge energy. Moreover, crater size is found to be increased in size along with the increment of discharge energy.

Keywords: Micro EDM, Ni alloy, discharge energy, micro-holes.

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180 Electrical Equivalent Analysis of Micro Cantilever Beams for Sensing Applications

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, J. S. Kadadevarmath

Abstract:

Microcantilevers are the basic MEMS devices, which can be used as sensors, actuators and electronics can be easily built into them. The detection principle of microcantilever sensors is based on the measurement of change in cantilever deflection or change in its resonance frequency. The objective of this work is to explore the analogies between mechanical and electrical equivalent of microcantilever beams. Normally scientists and engineers working in MEMS use expensive software like CoventorWare, IntelliSuite, ANSYS/Multiphysics etc. This paper indicates the need of developing electrical equivalent of the MEMS structure and with that, one can have a better insight on important parameters, and their interrelation of the MEMS structure. In this work, considering the mechanical model of microcantilever, equivalent electrical circuit is drawn and using force-voltage analogy, it is analyzed with circuit simulation software. By doing so, one can gain access to powerful set of intellectual tools that have been developed for understanding electrical circuits Later the analysis is performed using ANSYS/Multiphysics - software based on finite element method (FEM). It is observed that both mechanical and electrical domain results for a rectangular microcantlevers are in agreement with each other.

Keywords: Electrical equivalent circuit analogy, FEM analysis, micro cantilevers, micro sensors.

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179 Concentration of Micro Minerals in Fiber Fraction of Forages

Authors: Lili Warly, Evitayani, A. Fariani

Abstract:

This study was carried out to evaluate concentration of micro minerals (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Se) of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber/NDF and acid detergent fiber/ADF) in South Sumatra during dry and rainy seasons. Seven species of commonly forages namely Axonopus compressus, Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpuphoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Centrocema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides and Acacia mangium were collected at native pasture during rainy and dry seasons. The results showed that micro minerals concentration of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction varied among species and season. In general, concentration of micro minerals was slightly higher in rainy season compared to dry season either in grass or legumes forages. In grass, concentration of Fe and Mn were above the critical level, while 33.3 %, 100 % and 16.7 % of evaluated grass were deficient in Zn, Cu and Se. Data on legume forages show that 75 % of legumes were deficient in Zn and Mn, 62.5 % deficient in Cu and 50 % deficient in Se. There was no species of legume deficient in Fe. Distribution of micro minerals in NDF and ADF were also significantly affected by species and season and depends on the kinds of element measured. Generally, micro minerals were associated in fiber fractions much higher during dry season compared to rainy season. Iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) in forages were the highest elements associated in NDF and ADF, while the lowest was found in Copper (Cu).

Keywords: Seasons, forages, micro mineral distribution, fiberfraction.

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178 Analysis of Boiling in Rectangular Micro Channel Heat Sink

Authors: Ahmed Jassim Shkarah, Mohd Yusoff Bin Sulaiman, Md Razali bin Hj Ayob

Abstract:

A 3D-conjugate numerical investigation was conducted to predict heat transfer characteristics in a rectangular cross-sectional micro-channel employing simultaneously developing Tow-phase flows. The sole purpose for analyzing two phase flow heat transfer in rectangular micro channel is to pin point what are the different factors affecting this phenomenon. Different methods and techniques have been undertaken to analyze the equations arising constituting the flow of heat from gas phase to liquid phase and vice versa.Different models of micro channels have been identified and analyzed. How the geometry of micro channels affects their activity i.e. of circular and non-circular geometry has also been reviewed. To the study the results average Nusselt no plotted against the Reynolds no has been taken into consideration to study average heat exchange in micro channels against applied heat flux. High heat fluxes up to 140 W/cm2 were applied to investigate micro-channel thermal characteristics.

Keywords: Tow Phase flow, Micro channel, VOF.

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177 Entrepreneurial Challenges Confronting Micro Enterprise of Malaysian Malays

Authors: Abu Bakar Sedek Abdul Jamak, Rohani Salleh, Subarna Sivapalan, Azrai Abdullah

Abstract:

This research focuses on micro-enterprise of Malaysian Malays that are involved in very small-scaled business activities. Among them include food stall and burger stall operators, night market hawkers, grocery store operators as well as construction and small service activities works. The study seeks to explore why some micro-entrepreneurs still lag in entrepreneurship and what needs to be rectified. This quantitative study is conducted on 173 Malay micro-enterprise owners (MEOs) and 58 Malay failed microenterprise owners (FMEOs) involved in all range of businesses throughout the state of Perak, Malaysia. The main aims are to identify the gaps between the failed micro-enterprise owners (FMEOs) and existing micro-enterprise owners (MEOs) and the problems faced among FMEOs. The results reveal that the MEOs had strong motivations and better marketing approaches as compared to FMEOs. Furthermore, the FMEOs failed in the business ventures mainly due to lack of management, sales and marketing skills and poor competitive abilities to keep up with rivals.

Keywords: Micro-enterprises, Malays, entrepreneurship, Malaysia

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176 Micro-Study of Dissimilar Welded Materials

Authors: E. M. Anawa, A. G. Olabi

Abstract:

The dissimilar joint between aluminum/titanium alloys (Al 6082 and Ti G2) were successfully achieved by CO2 laser welding with a single pass and without filler material using the overlap joint design. Laser welding parameters ranges combinations were experimentally determined using Taguchi approach with the objective of producing welded joint with acceptable welding profile and high quality of mechanical properties. In this study a joining of dissimilar Al 6082 / Ti G2 was resulted in three distinct regions fusion area in the weldment. These regions are studied in terms of its microstructural characteristics and microhardness which are directly affecting the welding quality. The weld metal was mainly composed of martensite alpha prime. In two different metals in the two different sides of joint HAZ, grain growth was detected. The microhardness of the joint distribution also has shown microhardness increasing in the HAZ of two base metals and a varying microhardness in fusion zone.

Keywords: Micro-hardness, Microstructure, laser welding, dissimilar jointed materials.

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175 Effect of Oxygen and Micro-Cracking on the Flotation of Low Grade Nickel Sulphide Ore

Authors: Edison Muzenda, Ayo S Afolabi

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of oxygen and micro-cracking on the flotation of low grade nickel sulphide ore. The ore treated contained serpentine minerals which have a history of being difficult to process efficiently. The use of oxygen as a bubbling gas has been noted to be effective because it increases the pulp potential. The desired effect of micro cracking the ore is that the nickel sulphide minerals will become activated and this activation will render these minerals more susceptible to react with potassium amyl xanthate collectors, resulting in a higher recovery of nickel and hinder the recovery of other undesired minerals contained in the ore. Higher nickel recoveries were obtained when pure oxygen was used as a bubbling gas rather than the conventional air. Microwave cracking favored the recovery of nickel.

Keywords: Flotation, Conventional air, Oven micro-cracking, Recovery.

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174 Critical Analysis of Different Actuation Techniques for a Micro Cantilever

Authors: B. G. Sheeparamatti, Prashant Hanasi, Vanita Abbigeri

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to carryout critical comparison of different actuation mechanisms like electrostatic, thermal, piezoelectric, and magnetic with reference to a micro cantilever. The relevant parameters like force generated, displacement are compared in actuation methods. With these results, helps in choosing the best actuation method for a particular application. In this study, Comsol/Multiphysics software is used. Modeling and simulation is done by considering the micro cantilever of same dimensions as an actuator using all the above mentioned actuation techniques. In addition to their small size, micro actuators consume very little power and are capable of accurate results. In this work, a comparison of actuation mechanisms is done to decide the efficient system in micro domain.

Keywords: Actuation techniques, microswitch, micro actuator, microsystems.

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173 The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Micro-enterprise Development in Kenya: A Study of Obunga Slum in Kisumu

Authors: C. A. Oloo, C. Ojwang

Abstract:

The performances of small and medium enterprises have stagnated in the last two decades. This has mainly been due to the emergence of HIV / Aids. The disease has had a detrimental effect on the general economy of the country leading to morbidity and mortality of the Kenyan workforce in their primary age. The present study sought to establish the economic impact of HIV / Aids on the micro-enterprise development in Obunga slum – Kisumu, in terms of production loss, increasing labor related cost and to establish possible strategies to address the impact of HIV / Aids on microenterprises. The study was necessitated by the observation that most micro-enterprises in the slum are facing severe economic and social crisis due to the impact of HIV / Aids, they get depleted and close down within a short time due to death of skilled and experience workforce. The study was carried out between June 2008 and June 2009 in Obunga slum. Data was subjected to computer aided statistical analysis that included descriptive statistic, chi-squared and ANOVA techniques. Chi-squared analysis on the micro-enterprise owners opinion on the impact of HIV / Aids on depletion of microenterprise compared to other diseases indicated high levels of the negative effects of the disease at significance levels of P<0.01. Analysis of variance on the impact of HIV / Aids on the performance and productivity of micro-enterprises also indicated a negative effect on the general performance of micro-enterprise at significance levels of P<0.01. Therefore reducing the negative impacts of HIV/Aids on micro-enterprise development, there is need to improve the socioeconomic environment, mobilize donors and stake holders in training and funding, and review the current strategies for addressing the disease. Further conclusive research should also be conducted on a bigger scale.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, HIV-AIDS, Micro-enterprise, Poverty.

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172 Long-Term Study for the Effect of Ovariectomy on Rat Bone - Use of In-Vivo Micro-CT -

Authors: Dae Gon Woo, Chang Yong Ko, Tae Woo Lee, Han Sung Kim, Beob Yi Lee

Abstract:

In the present study, changes of morphology and mechanical characteristics in the lumbar vertebrae of the ovariectomised (OVX) rat were investigated. In previous researches, there were many studies about morphology like volume fraction and trabecular thickness based on Micro - Computed Tomography (Micro - CT). However, detecting and tracking long-term changes in the trabecular bone of the lumbar vertebrae for the OVX rat were few. For this study, one female Sprague-Dawley rat was used: an OVX rat. The 4th Lumbar of the OVX rat was subjected to in-vivo micro-CT. Detecting and tracking long-term changes could be investigated in the trabecular bone of the lumbar vertebrae for an OVX rat using in-vivo micro-CT. An OVX rat was scanned at week 0 (just before surgery), at week 4, at week 8, week 16, week 22 and week 56 after surgery. Finite element (FE) analysis was used to investigate mechanical characteristics of the lumbar vertebrae for an OVX rat. When the OVX rat (at week 56) was compared with the OVX rat (at week 0), volume fraction was decreased by 80% and effective modulus was decreased by 75%.

Keywords: OVX rats, Trabecular bone, In-vivo Micro-CT, FE analysis

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171 One-Dimensional Numerical Investigation of a Cylindrical Micro-Combustor Applying Electrohydrodynamics Effect

Authors: Behrouzinia P., Irani R. A., Saidi M.H.

Abstract:

In this paper, a one-dimensional numerical approach is used to study the effect of applying electrohydrodynamics on the temperature and species mass fraction profiles along the microcombustor. Premixed mixture is H2-Air with a multi-step chemistry (9 species and 19 reactions). In the micro-scale combustion because of the increasing ratio of area-to-volume, thermal and radical quenching mechanisms are important. Also, there is a significant heat loss from the combustor walls. By inserting a number of electrodes into micro-combustor and applying high voltage to them corona discharge occurs. This leads in moving of induced ions toward natural molecules and colliding with them. So this phenomenon causes the movement of the molecules and reattaches the flow to the walls. It increases the velocity near the walls that reduces the wall boundary layer. Consequently, applying electrohydrodynamics mechanism can enhance the temperature profile in the microcombustor. Ultimately, it prevents the flame quenching in microcombustor.

Keywords: micro-combustor, electrohydrodynamics, temperature profile, wall quenching

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170 Forgeability Study of Medium Carbon Micro-Alloyed Forging Steel

Authors: M. I. Equbal, R.K. Ohdar, B. Singh, P. Talukdar

Abstract:

Micro-alloyed steel components are used in automotive industry for the necessity to make the manufacturing process cycles shorter when compared to conventional steel by eliminating heat treatment cycles, so an important saving of costs and energy can be reached by reducing the number of operations. Microalloying elements like vanadium, niobium or titanium have been added to medium carbon steels to achieve grain refinement with or without precipitation strengthening along with uniform microstructure throughout the matrix. Present study reports the applicability of medium carbon vanadium micro-alloyed steel in hot forging. Forgeability has been determined with respect to different cooling rates, after forging in a hydraulic press at 50% diameter reduction in temperature range of 900-11000C. Final microstructures, hardness, tensile strength, and impact strength have been evaluated. The friction coefficients of different lubricating conditions, viz., graphite in hydraulic oil, graphite in furnace oil, DF 150 (Graphite, Water-Based) die lubricant and dry or without any lubrication were obtained from the ring compression test for the above micro-alloyed steel. Results of ring compression tests indicate that graphite in hydraulic oil lubricant is preferred for free forging and dry lubricant is preferred for die forging operation. Exceptionally good forgeability and high resistance to fracture, especially for faster cooling rate has been observed for fine equiaxed ferrite-pearlite grains, some amount of bainite and fine precipitates of vanadium carbides and carbonitrides. The results indicated that the cooling rate has a remarkable effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties at room temperature.

Keywords: Cooling rate, Hot forging, Micro-alloyed, Ring compression.

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169 A Feasibility-study of a Micro- Communications Sonobuoy Deployable by UAV Robots

Authors: B. Munro, D. Lim, A. Anvar

Abstract:

This paper describes a feasibility study that is included with the research, development and testing of a micro communications sonobuoy deployable by Maritime Fixed wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (M-UAV) and rotor wing Quad Copters which are both currently being developed by the University of Adelaide. The micro communications sonobuoy is developed to act as a seamless communication relay between an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) and an above water human operator some distance away. Development of such a device would eliminate the requirement of physical communication tethers attached to submersible vehicles for control and data retrieval.

Keywords: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, AUV, Maritime, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, UAV, Micro Sonobuoy, Communication.

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168 Noise Depressed in a Micro Stepping Motor

Authors: Bo-Wun Huang, Jao-Hwa Kuang, J.-G. Tseng, Yan-De Wu

Abstract:

An investigation of noise in a micro stepping motor is considered to study in this article. Because of the trend towards higher precision and more and more small 3C (including Computer, Communication and Consumer Electronics) products, the micro stepping motor is frequently used to drive the micro system or the other 3C products. Unfortunately, noise in a micro stepped motor is too large to accept by the customs. To depress the noise of a micro stepped motor, the dynamic characteristics in this system must be studied. In this article, a Visual Basic (VB) computer program speed controlled micro stepped motor in a digital camera is investigated. Karman KD2300-2S non-contract eddy current displacement sensor, probe microphone, and HP 35670A analyzer are employed to analyze the dynamic characteristics of vibration and noise in a motor. The vibration and noise measurement of different type of bearings and different treatment of coils are compared. The rotating components, bearings, coil, etc. of the motor play the important roles in producing vibration and noise. It is found that the noise will be depressed about 3~4 dB and 6~7 dB, when substitutes the copper bearing with plastic one and coats the motor coil with paraffin wax, respectively.

Keywords: micro motor, noise, vibration

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167 Preparation of Fe3Si/Ferrite Micro- and Nano-Powder Composite

Authors: R. Bures, M. Streckova, M. Faberova, P. Kurek

Abstract:

Composite material based on Fe3Si micro-particles and Mn-Zn nano-ferrite was prepared using powder metallurgy technology. The sol-gel followed by autocombustion process was used for synthesis of Mn0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 ferrite. 3 wt.% of mechanically milled ferrite was mixed with Fe3Si powder alloy. Mixed micro-nano powder system was homogenized by the Resonant Acoustic Mixing using ResodynLabRAM Mixer. This non-invasive homogenization technique was used to preserve spherical morphology of Fe3Si powder particles. Uniaxial cold pressing in the closed die at pressure 600 MPa was applied to obtain a compact sample. Microwave sintering of green compact was realized at 800°C, 20 minutes, in air. Density of the powders and composite was measured by Hepycnometry. Impulse excitation method was used to measure elastic properties of sintered composite. Mechanical properties were evaluated by measurement of transverse rupture strength (TRS) and Vickers hardness (HV). Resistivity was measured by 4 point probe method. Ferrite phase distribution in volume of the composite was documented by metallographic analysis. It has been found that nano-ferrite particle distributed among micro- particles of Fe3Si powder alloy led to high relative density (~93%) and suitable mechanical properties (TRS >100 MPa, HV ~1GPa, E-modulus ~140 GPa) of the composite. High electric resistivity (R~6.7 ohm.cm) of prepared composite indicate their potential application as soft magnetic material at medium and high frequencies.

Keywords: Micro- and nano-composite, soft magnetic materials, microwave sintering, mechanical and electric properties.

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166 Flow inside Micro-Channel Bounded by Superhydrophobic Surface with Eccentric Micro-Grooves

Authors: Yu Chen, Weiwei Ren, Xiaojing Mu, Feng Zhang, Yi Xu

Abstract:

The superhydrophobic surface is widely used to reduce friction for the flow inside micro-channel and can be used to control/manipulate fluid, cells and even proteins in lab-on-chip. Fabricating micro grooves on hydrophobic surfaces is a common method to obtain such superhydrophobic surface. This study utilized the numerical method to investigate the effect of eccentric micro-grooves on the friction of flow inside micro-channel. A detailed parametric study was conducted to reveal how the eccentricity of micro-grooves affects the micro-channel flow under different grooves sizes, channel heights, Reynolds number. The results showed that the superhydrophobic surface with eccentric micro-grooves induces less friction than the counter part with aligning micro-grooves, which means requiring less power for pumps.

Keywords: Superhydrophobic, transverse grooves, heat transfer, slip length, microfluidics.

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165 A Review: Comparative Analysis of Arduino Micro Controllers in Robotic Car

Authors: C. Rajan, B. Megala, A. Nandhini, C. Rasi Priya

Abstract:

Robotics brings together several very different engineering areas and skills. There are various types of robot such as humanoid robot, mobile robots, remotely operated vehicles, modern autonomous robots etc. This survey paper advocates the operation of a robotic car (remotely operated vehicle) that is controlled by a mobile phone (communicate on a large scale over a large distance even from different cities). The person makes a call to the mobile phone placed in the car. In the case of a call, if any one of the button is pressed, a tone equivalent to the button pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is known as DTMF (Dual Tone Multiple Frequency). The car recognizes this DTMF tone with the help of the phone stacked in the car. The received tone is processed by the Arduino microcontroller. The microcontroller is programmed to acquire a decision for any given input and outputs its decision to motor drivers in order to drive the motors in the forward direction or backward direction or left or right direction. The mobile phone that makes a call to cell phone stacked in the car act as a remote.

Keywords: Arduino Micro-controller, Arduino UNO, DTMF, Mobile phone, Robotic car.

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164 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani

Abstract:

In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, micro emulsion, performance, SI engine.

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163 Corrosion Analysis and Interfacial Characterization of Al – Steel Metal Inert Gas Weld - Braze Dissimilar Joints by Micro Area X-Ray Diffraction Technique

Authors: S. S. Sravanthi, Swati Ghosh Acharyya

Abstract:

Automotive light weighting is of major prominence in the current times due to its contribution in improved fuel economy and reduced environmental pollution. Various arc welding technologies are being employed in the production of automobile components with reduced weight. The present study is of practical importance since it involves preferential substitution of Zinc coated mild steel with a light weight alloy such as 6061 Aluminium by means of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) – Brazing technique at different processing parameters. However, the fabricated joints have shown the generation of Al – Fe layer at the interfacial regions which was confirmed by the Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy. These Al-Fe compounds not only affect the mechanical strength, but also predominantly deteriorate the corrosion resistance of the joints. Hence, it is essential to understand the phases formed in this layer and their crystal structure. Micro area X - ray diffraction technique has been exclusively used for this study. Moreover, the crevice corrosion analysis at the joint interfaces was done by exposing the joints to 5 wt.% FeCl3 solution at regular time intervals as per ASTM G 48-03. The joints have shown a decreased crevice corrosion resistance with increased heat intensity. Inner surfaces of welds have shown severe oxide cracking and a remarkable weight loss when exposed to concentrated FeCl3. The weight loss was enhanced with decreased filler wire feed rate and increased heat intensity. 

Keywords: Automobiles, welding, corrosion, lap joints, Micro XRD.

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162 Numerical Simulation of Wall Treatment Effects on the Micro-Scale Combustion

Authors: R. Kamali, A. R. Binesh, S. Hossainpour

Abstract:

To understand working features of a micro combustor, a computer code has been developed to study combustion of hydrogen–air mixture in a series of chambers with same shape aspect ratio but various dimensions from millimeter to micrometer level. The prepared algorithm and the computer code are capable of modeling mixture effects in different fluid flows including chemical reactions, viscous and mass diffusion effects. The effect of various heat transfer conditions at chamber wall, e.g. adiabatic wall, with heat loss and heat conduction within the wall, on the combustion is analyzed. These thermal conditions have strong effects on the combustion especially when the chamber dimension goes smaller and the ratio of surface area to volume becomes larger. Both factors, such as larger heat loss through the chamber wall and smaller chamber dimension size, may lead to the thermal quenching of micro-scale combustion. Through such systematic numerical analysis, a proper operation space for the micro-combustor is suggested, which may be used as the guideline for microcombustor design. In addition, the results reported in this paper illustrate that the numerical simulation can be one of the most powerful and beneficial tools for the micro-combustor design, optimization and performance analysis.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, Micro-combustion, MEMS, CFD, Chemical reaction.

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161 Transformation Building of Micro- Entrepreneurs: A Conceptual Model

Authors: Abu Bakar Sedek Abdul Jamak, Saridan Abu Bakar, Zulkipli Ghazali, Roselind Wan

Abstract:

The majority of micro-entrepreneurs in Malaysia operate very small-scaled business activities such as food stalls, burger stalls, night market hawkers, grocery stores, constructions, rubber and oil palm small holders, and other agro-based services and activities. Why are they venturing into entrepreneurship - is it for survival, out of interest or due to encouragement and assistance from the local government? And why is it that some micro-entrepreneurs are lagging behind in entrepreneurship, and what do they need to rectify this situation so that they are able to progress further? Furthermore, what are the skills that the micro entrepreneurs should developed to transform them into successful micro-enterprises and become small and medium-sized enterprises (SME)? This paper proposes a 7-Step approach that can serve as a basis for identification of critical entrepreneurial success factors that enable policy makers, practitioners, consultants, training managers and other agencies in developing tools to assist micro business owners. This paper also highlights the experience of one of the successful companies in Malaysia that has transformed from micro-enterprise to become a large organization in less than 10 years.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Micro-entrepreneurs, Transformation, Customers

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160 The Effect of Micro Tools Fabricated Dent on Alumina/Alumina Oxide Interface

Authors: Taposh Roy, Dipankar Choudhury, Belinda Pingguan-Murphy

Abstract:

The tribological outcomes of micro dent are found to be outstanding in many engineering and natural surfaces. Ceramic (Al2O3) is considered one of the most potential material to bearing surfaces particularly, artificial hip or knee implant. A well-defined micro dent on alumina oxide interface could further decrease friction and wear rate, thus increase their stability and durability. In this study we fabricated circular micro dent surface profiles (Dia: 400µm, Depth 20µm, P: 1.5mm; Dia: 400µm, Depth 20µm, P: 2mm) on pure Al2O3 (99.6%) substrate by using a micro tool machines. A preliminary tribological experiment was carried out to compare friction coefficient of these fabricated dent surfaces with that of non-textured surfaces. The experiment was carried on well know pin-on-disk specimens while other experimental parameters such as hertz pressure, speed, lubrication, and temperature were maintained to standard of simulated hip joints condition. The experiment results revealed that micro dent surface texture reduced 15%, 8% and 4% friction coefficient under 0.132,0.162, 0.187 GPa contact pressure respectively. Since this is a preliminary tribological study, we will pursue further experiments considering higher ranges of dent profiles and longer run experiments. However, the preliminary results confirmed the suitability of fabricating dent profile to ceramic surfaces by using micro tooling, and also their improved tribological performance in simulated hip joints.

Keywords: Micro dent, tribology, ceramic on ceramic hipjoints.

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