Influence of Vegetable Oil-Based Controlled Cutting Fluid Impinging Supply System on Micro Hardness in Machining of Ti-6Al-4V
A controlled cutting fluid impinging supply system (CUT-LIST) was developed to deliver an accurate amount of cutting fluid into the machining zone via well-positioned coherent nozzles based on a calculation of the heat generated. The performance of the CUT-LIST was evaluated against a conventional flood cutting fluid supply system during step shoulder milling of Ti-6Al-4V using vegetable oil-based cutting fluid. In this paper, the micro-hardness of the machined surface was used as the main criterion to compare the two systems. CUT-LIST provided significant reductions in cutting fluid consumption (up to 42%). Both systems caused increased micro-hardness value at 100 µm from the machined surface, whereas a slight reduction in micro-hardness of 4.5% was measured when using CUL-LIST. It was noted that the first 50 µm is the soft sub-surface promoted by thermal softening, whereas down to 100 µm is the hard sub-surface caused by the cyclic internal work hardening and then gradually decreased until it reached the base material nominal hardness. It can be concluded that the CUT-LIST has always given lower micro-hardness values near the machined surfaces in all conditions investigated.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1130299Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 597
 El Baradie, M.A., Cutting fluids: Part I. Characterisation. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 1996. 56(1–4): p. 786-797.
 Sharma, A.K., A.K. Tiwari, and A.R. Dixit, Effects of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in machining processes using conventional and nanofluid based cutting fluids: A comprehensive review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2016. 127: p. 1-18.
 Veiga, C., J. Davim, and A. Loureiro, Review on machinability of titanium alloys: the process perspective. Reviews on Advanced Materials Science, 2013. 34(2): p. 148-164.
 Ezugwu, E.O., J. Bonney, and Y. Yamane, An overview of the machinability of aeroengine alloys. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2003. 134(2): p. 233-253.
 S. A. Lawal, I.A.C., I. Q. Sadiq and A. Oyewole, Vegetable-oil based metalworking fluids research developments for machining processes: survey, applications and challenges. 2014, Manufacturing Review.
 Srikant, R.R. and V.S.N.V. Ramana, Performance evaluation of vegetable emulsifier based green cutting fluid in turning of American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) 1040 steel – an initiative towards sustainable manufacturing. Journal of Cleaner Production.
 Kuram, E., B. Ozcelik, and E. Demirbas, Environmentally friendly machining: vegetable based cutting fluids, in Green Manufacturing Processes and Systems. 2013, Springer. p. 23-47.
 Debnath, S., M.M. Reddy, and Q.S. Yi, Environmental friendly cutting fluids and cooling techniques in machining: a review. Journal of Cleaner Production, 2014. 83(0): p. 33-47.
 Jayal, A.D. and A.K. Balaji, Effects of cutting fluid application on tool wear in machining: Interactions with tool-coatings and tool surface features. Wear, 2009. 267(9–10): p. 1723-1730.
 Babic, D., D.B. Murray, and A.A. Torrance, Mist jet cooling of grinding processes. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2005. 45(10): p. 1171-1177.
 Ginting, A. and M. Nouari, Surface integrity of dry machined titanium alloys. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2009. 49(3–4): p. 325-332.
 Ezugwu, E.O., et al., Surface integrity of finished turned Ti–6Al–4V alloy with PCD tools using conventional and high pressure coolant supplies. International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture, 2007. 47(6): p. 884-891.
 Antonialli, A.Í.S., A.E. Diniz, and H.K. Neto, Tool Life and Machined Surface Damage on Titanium Alloy Milling Using Different Cooling-Lubrication Conditions. 2009.
 De Angelo Sanchez, L.E., et al., Effect of different methods of cutting fluid application on turning of a difficult-to-machine steel (SAE EV-8). Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 2013. 227(2): p. 220-234.
 Webster, J., Improving surface integrity and economics of grinding by optimum coolant application, with consideration of abrasive tool and process regime. Proceedings of the institution of mechanical engineers, Part B: journal of engineering manufacture, 2007. 221(12): p. 1665-1675.
 Morgan, M.N. and V. Baines-Jones, On the coherent length of fluid nozzles in grinding. Key Engineering Materials, 2009. 404: p. 61-67.
 Boothroyd, G. and W.A. Knight, Fundamental of Machining and Machine Tool. 2005, USA: CRC Press and Francis & Taylor.
 David A. Stephenson, J.S.A., Metal cutting Theory and Practice. 2005, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 425.
 Shaw, M.C., in Metal Cutting Principles. 1954, 1957, M.I.T Press Massachusetts Institute of Technology: USA. p. 12-1.
 Metzger, J.L., Superabrasive Grinding. 1986, UK: Butterworths. pp134.
 Luchesi, V.M. and R.T. Coelho, Experimental investigations of heat transfer coefficients of cutting fluids in metal cutting processes: analysis of workpiece phenomena in a given case study. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 2012: p. 0954405412442459.
 Kennametal. Titanium Machining Guide. 2016 (cited 2016 28 April).
 Webster, J.A., Coolant Calculus, in Cutting Tool Engineering. 2008, Cutting Tool Engineering: USA. p. 8.