Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: fiber reinforced concrete

16 Durability of Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete to Corrosion in Chloride Environment: An Experimental Study, Part I

Authors: M. F. Alrubaie, S. A. Salih, W. A. Abbas

Abstract:

Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) is considered as a special type of high strength high-performance fiber reinforced concrete, extremely strong, and ductile. The objective of this study is to investigate the durability of SIFCON to corrosion in chloride environments. Six different SIFCON mixes were made in addition to two refinance mixes with 0% and 1.5% steel fiber content. All mixes were exposed to 10% chloride solution for 180 days. Half of the specimens were partially immersed in chloride solution, and the others were exposed to weekly cycles of wetting and drying in 10% chloride solution. The effectiveness of using corrosion inhibitors, mineral admixture, and epoxy protective coating were also evaluated as protective measures to reduce the effect of chloride attack and to improve the corrosion resistance of SIFCON mixes. Corrosion rates, half-cell potential, electrical resistivity, total permeability tests had been monitored monthly. The results indicated a significant improvement in performance for SIFCON mixes exposed to chloride environment, when using corrosion inhibitor or epoxy protective coating, whereas SIFCON mix contained mineral admixture (metakaolin) did not improve the corrosion resistance at the same level. The cyclic wetting and drying exposure were more aggressive to the specimens than the partial immersion in chloride solution although the observed surface corrosion for the later was clearer.

Keywords: Chloride attack, chloride environments, corrosion inhibitor, corrosion resistance, durability, SIFCON, Slurry infiltrated fiber concrete.

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15 Stress Analysis of Hexagonal Element for Precast Concrete Pavements

Authors: J. Novak, A. Kohoutkova, V. Kristek, J. Vodicka, M. Sramek

Abstract:

While the use of cast-in-place concrete for an airfield and highway pavement overlay is very common, the application of precast concrete elements is very limited today. The main reasons consist of high production costs and complex structural behavior. Despite that, several precast concrete systems have been developed and tested with the aim to provide a system with rapid construction. The contribution deals with the reinforcement design of a hexagonal element developed for a proposed airfield pavement system. The sub-base course of the system is composed of compacted recycled concrete aggregates and fiber reinforced concrete with recycled aggregates place on top of it. The selected element belongs to a group of precast concrete elements which are being considered for the construction of a surface course. Both high costs of full-scale experiments and the need to investigate various elements force to simulate their behavior in a numerical analysis software by using finite element method instead of performing expensive experiments. The simulation of the selected element was conducted on a nonlinear model in order to obtain such results which could fully compensate results from experiments. The main objective was to design reinforcement of the precast concrete element subject to quasi-static loading from airplanes with respect to geometrical imperfections, manufacturing imperfections, tensile stress in reinforcement, compressive stress in concrete and crack width. The obtained findings demonstrate that the position and the presence of imperfection in a pavement highly affect the stress distribution in the precast concrete element. The precast concrete element should be heavily reinforced to fulfill all the demands. Using under-reinforced concrete elements would lead to the formation of wide cracks and cracks permanently open.

Keywords: Imperfection, numerical simulation, pavement, precast concrete element, reinforcement design, stress analysis.

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14 Experimental and Numerical Study of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to Axial and Eccentric Loads

Authors: Chengfeng Fang, Mohamed Ali Sadakkathulla, Abdul Sheikh

Abstract:

Ultra-high-performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is a specially formulated cement-based composite characterized with an ultra-high compressive strength (fc = 240 MPa) and a low water-cement ratio (W/B= 0.2). With such material characteristics, UHPFRC is favored for the design and constructions of structures required high structural performance and slender geometries. Unlike conventional concrete, the structural performance of members manufactured with UHPFRC has not yet been fully studied, particularly, for UHPFRC columns with high slenderness. In this study, the behaviors of slender UHPFRC columns under concentric or eccentric load will be investigated both experimentally and numerically. Four slender UHPFRC columns were tested under eccentric loads with eccentricities, of 0 mm, 35 mm, 50 mm, and 85 mm, respectively, and one UHPFRC beam was tested under four-point bending. Finite element (FE) analysis was conducted with concrete damage plasticity (CDP) modulus to simulating the load-middle height or middle span deflection relationships and damage patterns of all UHPFRC members. Simulated results were compared against the experimental results and observation to gain the confidence of FE model, and this model was further extended to conduct parametric studies, which aim to investigate the effects of slenderness regarding failure modes and load-moment interaction relationships. Experimental results showed that the load bearing capacities of the slender columns reduced with an increase in eccentricity. Comparisons between load-middle height and middle span deflection relationships as well as damage patterns of all UHPFRC members obtained both experimentally and numerically demonstrated high accuracy of the FE simulations. Based on the available FE model, the following parametric study indicated that a further increase in the slenderness of column resulted in significant decreases in the load-bearing capacities, ductility index, and flexural bending capacities.

Keywords: Eccentric loads, ductility index, RC column, slenderness, UHPFRC.

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13 Design Approach to Incorporate Unique Performance Characteristics of Special Concrete

Authors: Devendra Kumar Pandey, Debabrata Chakraborty

Abstract:

The advancement in various concrete ingredients like plasticizers, additives and fibers, etc. has enabled concrete technologists to develop many viable varieties of special concretes in recent decades. Such various varieties of concrete have significant enhancement in green as well as hardened properties of concrete. A prudent selection of appropriate type of concrete can resolve many design and application issues in construction projects. This paper focuses on usage of self-compacting concrete, high early strength concrete, structural lightweight concrete, fiber reinforced concrete, high performance concrete and ultra-high strength concrete in the structures. The modified properties of strength at various ages, flowability, porosity, equilibrium density, flexural strength, elasticity, permeability etc. need to be carefully studied and incorporated into the design of the structures. The paper demonstrates various mixture combinations and the concrete properties that can be leveraged. The selection of such products based on the end use of structures has been proposed in order to efficiently utilize the modified characteristics of these concrete varieties. The study involves mapping the characteristics with benefits and savings for the structure from design perspective. Self-compacting concrete in the structure is characterized by high shuttering loads, better finish, and feasibility of closer reinforcement spacing. The structural design procedures can be modified to specify higher formwork strength, height of vertical members, cover reduction and increased ductility. The transverse reinforcement can be spaced at closer intervals compared to regular structural concrete. It allows structural lightweight concrete structures to be designed for reduced dead load, increased insulation properties. Member dimensions and steel requirement can be reduced proportionate to about 25 to 35 percent reduction in the dead load due to self-weight of concrete. Steel fiber reinforced concrete can be used to design grade slabs without primary reinforcement because of 70 to 100 percent higher tensile strength. The design procedures incorporate reduction in thickness and joint spacing. High performance concrete employs increase in the life of the structures by improvement in paste characteristics and durability by incorporating supplementary cementitious materials. Often, these are also designed for slower heat generation in the initial phase of hydration. The structural designer can incorporate the slow development of strength in the design and specify 56 or 90 days strength requirement. For designing high rise building structures, creep and elasticity properties of such concrete also need to be considered. Lastly, certain structures require a performance under loading conditions much earlier than final maturity of concrete. High early strength concrete has been designed to cater to a variety of usages at various ages as early as 8 to 12 hours. Therefore, an understanding of concrete performance specifications for special concrete is a definite door towards a superior structural design approach.

Keywords: High performance concrete, special concrete, structural design, structural lightweight concrete.

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12 Stress-Strain Relation for Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Josef Novák, Alena Kohoutková

Abstract:

The performance of concrete structures in fire depends on several factors which include, among others, the change in material properties due to the fire. Today, fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) belongs to materials which have been widely used for various structures and elements. While the knowledge and experience with FRC behavior under ambient temperature is well-known, the effect of elevated temperature on its behavior has to be deeply investigated. This paper deals with an experimental investigation and stress‑strain relations for hybrid fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) which contains siliceous aggregates, polypropylene and steel fibers. The main objective of the experimental investigation is to enhance a database of mechanical properties of concrete composites with addition of fibers subject to elevated temperature as well as to validate existing stress-strain relations for HFRC. Within the investigation, a unique heat transport test, compressive test and splitting tensile test were performed on 150 mm cubes heated up to 200, 400, and 600 °C with the aim to determine a time period for uniform heat distribution in test specimens and the mechanical properties of the investigated concrete composite, respectively. Both findings obtained from the presented experimental test as well as experimental data collected from scientific papers so far served for validating the computational accuracy of investigated stress-strain relations for HFRC which have been developed during last few years. Owing to the presence of steel and polypropylene fibers, HFRC becomes a unique material whose structural performance differs from conventional plain concrete when exposed to elevated temperature. Polypropylene fibers in HFRC lower the risk of concrete spalling as the fibers burn out shortly with increasing temperature due to low ignition point and as a consequence pore pressure decreases. On the contrary, the increase in the concrete porosity might affect the mechanical properties of the material. To validate this thought requires enhancing the existing result database which is very limited and does not contain enough data. As a result of the poor database, only few stress-strain relations have been developed so far to describe the structural performance of HFRC at elevated temperature. Moreover, many of them are inconsistent and need to be refined. Most of them also do not take into account the effect of both a fiber type and fiber content. Such approach might be vague especially when high amount of polypropylene fibers are used. Therefore, the existing relations should be validated in detail based on other experimental results.

Keywords: Elevated temperature, fiber reinforced concrete, mechanical properties, stress strain relation.

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11 The Effect of Air Entraining Agents on Compressive Strength

Authors: Demet Yavuz

Abstract:

Freeze-thaw cycles are one of the greatest threats to concrete durability. Lately, protection against this threat excites scientists’ attention. Air-entraining admixtures have been widely used to produce freeze-thaw resistant at concretes. The use of air-entraining agents (AEAs) enhances not only freeze-thaw endurance but also the properties of fresh concrete such as segregation, bleeding and flow ability. This paper examines the effects of air-entraining on compressive strength of concrete. Air-entraining is used between 0.05% and 0.4% by weight of cement. One control and four fiber reinforced concrete mixes are prepared and three specimens are tested for each mix. It is concluded from the test results that when air entraining is increased the compressive strength of concrete reduces for all mixes with AEAs.

Keywords: Concrete, air-entraining, compressive strength, mechanical properties.

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10 An Investigation on Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Soner Guler, Demet Yavuz, Refik Burak Taymuş, Fuat Korkut

Abstract:

Because of the easy applying and not costing too much, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) is one of the most used non-destructive techniques to determine concrete characteristics along with impact-echo, Schmidt rebound hammer (SRH) and pulse-echo. This article investigates the relationship between UPV and compressive strength of hybrid fiber reinforced concretes. Water/cement ratio (w/c) was kept at 0.4 for all concrete mixes. Compressive strength of concrete was targeted at 35 MPa. UPV testing and compressive strength tests were carried out at the curing age of 28 days. The UPV of concrete containing steel fibers has been found to be higher than plain concrete for all the testing groups. It is decided that there is not a certain relationship between fiber addition and strength.

Keywords: Ultrasonic pulse velocity, hybrid fiber, compressive strength, fiber.

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9 Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Investigation of Polypropylene and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Erjola Reufi, Jozefita Marku, Thomas Bier

Abstract:

Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method has been shown for some time to provide a reliable means of estimating properties and offers a unique opportunity for direct, quick and safe control of building damaged by earthquake, fatigue, conflagration and catastrophic scenarios. On this investigation hybrid reinforced concrete has been investigated by UPV method. Hooked end steel fiber of length 50 and 30 mm was added to concrete in different proportion 0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 % by the volume of concrete. On the other hand, polypropylene fiber of length 12, 6, 3 mm was added to concrete of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 % by the volume of concrete. Fifteen different mixture has been prepared to investigate the relation between compressive strength and UPV values and also to investigate on the effect of volume and type of fiber on UPV values.

Keywords: Compressive strength, polypropylene fiber, steel fiber, ultrasonic pulse velocity, volume, type of fiber.

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8 Development of Tensile Stress-Strain Relationship for High-Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: H. A. Alguhi, W. A. Elsaigh

Abstract:

This paper provides a tensile stress-strain (σ-ε) relationship for High-Strength Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete (HSFRC). Load-deflection (P-δ) behavior of HSFRC beams tested under four-point flexural load were used with inverse analysis to calculate the tensile σ-ε relationship for various tested concrete grades (70 and 90MPa) containing 60 kg/m3 (0.76 %) of hook-end steel fibers. A first estimate of the tensile (σ-ε) relationship is obtained using RILEM TC 162-TDF and other methods available in literature, frequently used for determining tensile σ-ε relationship of Normal-Strength Concrete (NSC) Non-Linear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA) package ABAQUS® is used to model the beam’s P-δ behavior. The results have shown that an element-size dependent tensile σ-ε relationship for HSFRC can be successfully generated and adopted for further analyses involving HSFRC structures.

Keywords: Tensile stress-strain, flexural response, high strength concrete, steel fibers, non-linear finite element analysis.

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7 Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Flexural Behavior of Macro-Synthetic FRC

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Ahamd Fahimifar, Sajjad V. Maghvan

Abstract:

Promotion of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) as a construction material for civil engineering projects has invoked numerous researchers to investigate their mechanical behavior. Even though there is satisfactory information about the effects of fiber type and length, concrete mixture, casting type and other variables on the strength and deformability parameters of FRC, the numerical modeling of such materials still needs research attention. The focus of this study is to investigate the feasibility of Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) model in prediction of Macro-synthetic FRC structures behavior. CDP model requires the tensile behavior of concrete to be well characterized. For this purpose, a series of uniaxial direct tension and four point bending tests were conducted on the notched specimens to define bilinear tension softening (post-peak tension stress-strain) behavior. With these parameters obtained, the flexural behavior of macro-synthetic FRC beams were modeled and the results showed a good agreement with the experimental measurements.

Keywords: Concrete damaged plasticity, fiber reinforced concrete, finite element modeling, macro-synthetic fibers, direct tensile test.

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6 Mechanical Behavior of Recycled Pet Fiber Reinforced Concrete Matrix

Authors: Comingstarful Marthong, Deba Kumar Sarma

Abstract:

Concrete is strong in compression however weak in tension. The tensile strength as well as ductile property of concrete could be improved by addition of short dispersed fibers. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber obtained from hand cutting or mechanical slitting of plastic sheets generally used as discrete reinforcement in substitution of steel fiber. PET fiber obtained from the former process is in the form of straight slit sheet pattern that impart weaker mechanical bonding behavior in the concrete matrix. To improve the limitation of straight slit sheet fiber the present study considered two additional geometry of fiber namely (a) flattened end slit sheet and (b) deformed slit sheet. The mix for plain concrete was design for a compressive strength of 25 MPa at 28 days curing time with a watercement ratio of 0.5. Cylindrical and beam specimens with 0.5% fibers volume fraction and without fibers were cast to investigate the influence of geometry on the mechanical properties of concrete. The performance parameters mainly studied include flexural strength, splitting tensile strength, compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV). Test results show that geometry of fiber has a marginal effect on the workability of concrete. However, it plays a significant role in achieving a good compressive and tensile strength of concrete. Further, significant improvement in term of flexural and energy dissipation capacity were observed from other fibers as compared to the straight slit sheet pattern. Also, the inclusion of PET fiber improved the ability in absorbing energy in the post-cracking state of the specimen as well as no significant porous structures.

Keywords: Concrete matrix, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers, mechanical bonding, mechanical properties, UPV.

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5 Effect of Fiber Types and Elevated Temperatures on the Bond Characteristic of Fiber Reinforced Concretes

Authors: Erdoğan Özbay, Hakan T. Türker, Müzeyyen Balçıkanlı, Mohamed Lachemi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effects of fiber types and elevated temperatures on compressive strength, modulus of rapture and the bond characteristics of fiber reinforced concretes (FRC) are presented. By using the three different types of fibers (steel fiber-SF, polypropylene-PPF and polyvinyl alcohol-PVA), FRC specimens were produced and exposed to elevated temperatures up to 800 ºC for 1.5 hours. In addition, a plain concrete (without fiber) was produced and used as a control. Test results obtained showed that the steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) had the highest compressive strength, modulus of rapture and bond stress values at room temperatures, the residual bond, flexural and compressive strengths of both FRC and plain concrete dropped sharply after exposure to high temperatures. The results also indicated that the reduction of bond, flexural and compressive strengths with increasing the exposed temperature was relatively less for SFRC than for plain, and FRC with PPF and PVA.

Keywords: Bond stress, Compressive strength, Elevated temperatures, Fiber reinforced concrete, Modulus of rapture.

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4 Non-Homogeneous Layered Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Vitalijs Lusis, Andrejs Krasnikovs

Abstract:

Fiber reinforced concrete is important material for load bearing structural elements. Usually fibers are homogeneously distributed in a concrete body having arbitrary spatial orientations. At the same time, in many situations, fiber concrete with oriented fibers is more optimal. Is obvious, that is possible to create constructions with oriented short fibers in them, in different ways. Present research is devoted to one of such approaches- fiber reinforced concrete prisms having dimensions 100mm ×100mm ×400mmwith layers of non-homogeneously distributed fibers inside them were fabricated.

Simultaneously prisms with homogeneously dispersed fibers were produced for reference as well. Prisms were tested under four point bending conditions. During the tests vertical deflection at the center of every prism and crack opening were measured (using linear displacements transducers in real timescale). Prediction results were discussed.

Keywords: Fiber reinforced concrete, 4-point bending, steel fiber.

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3 The Influence of Zeolitic Spent Refinery Admixture on the Rheological and Technological Properties of Steel Fiber Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete

Authors: Ž. Rudžionis, P. Grigaliūnas, D. Vaičiukynienė

Abstract:

By planning this experimental work to investigate the effect of zeolitic waste on rheological and technological properties of self-compacting fiber reinforced concrete, we had an intention to draw attention to the environmental factor. Large amount of zeolitic waste, as secondary raw materials are not in use properly and large amount of it is collected without a clear view of its usage in future. The principal aim of this work is to assure, that zeolitic waste admixture takes positive effect to the self-compacting fiber reinforced concrete mixes stability, flowability and other properties by using the experimental research methods. In addition to that a research on cement and zeolitic waste mortars were implemented to clarify the effect of zeolitic waste on properties of cement paste and stone. Primary studies indicates that zeolitic waste characterizes clear pozzolanic behavior, do not deteriorate and in some cases ensure positive rheological and mechanical characteristics of self-compacting concrete mixes.

Keywords: Self compacting concrete, steel fiber reinforced concrete, zeolitic waste, rheological properties of concrete, slump flow.

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2 Experimental Study on the Creep Characteristics of FRC Base for Composite Pavement System

Authors: Woo-tai Jung, Sung-yong Choi, Young-hwan Park

Abstract:

The composite pavement system considered in this paper is composed of a functional surface layer, a fiber reinforced asphalt middle layer and a fiber reinforced lean concrete base layer. The mix design of the fiber reinforced lean concrete corresponds to the mix composition of conventional lean concrete but reinforced by fibers. The quasi-absence of research on the durability or long-term performances (fatigue, creep, etc.) of such mix design stresses the necessity to evaluate experimentally the long-term characteristics of this layer composition. This study tests the creep characteristics as one of the long-term characteristics of the fiber reinforced lean concrete layer for composite pavement using a new creep device. The test results reveal that the lean concrete mixed with fiber reinforcement and fly ash develops smaller creep than the conventional lean concrete. The results of the application of the CEB-FIP prediction equation indicate that a modified creep prediction equation should be developed to fit with the new mix design of the layer.

Keywords: Creep, Lean concrete, Pavement, Fiber reinforced concrete, Base.

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1 The Effects of Aggregate Sizes and Fiber Volume Fraction on Bending Toughness and Direct Tension of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Hyun-Woo Cho, Jae-Heum Moon, Jang-Hwa Lee

Abstract:

In order to supplement the brittle property of concrete, fibers are added into concrete mixtures. Compared to general concrete, various characteristics such as tensile strength, bending strength, bending toughness, and resistance to crack are superior, and even when cracks occur, improvements on toughness as well as resistance to shock are excellent due to the growth of fracture energy. Increased function of steel fiber reinforced concrete can be differentiated depending on the fiber dispersion, and sand percentage can be an important influence on the fiber dispersion. Therefore, in this research, experiments were planned on sand percentage in order to apprehend the influence of sand percentage on the bending properties and direct tension of SFRC and basic experiments were conducted on bending and direct tension in order to recognize the properties of bending properties and direct tension following the size of the aggregates and sand percentage.

Keywords: Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete, Bending Toughness, Direct tension.

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