Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 131

Search results for: array

131 Theoretical Analysis of a Crossed-Electrode 2D Array for 3D Imaging

Authors: Yuriy Tasinkevych, Eugene Danicki

Abstract:

Planar systems of electrodes arranged on both sides of dielectric piezoelectric layer are applied in numerous transducers. They are capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wave both in azimuth and elevation. The wave-beam control is achieved by addressable driving of two-dimensional transducer through proper voltage supply of electrodes on opposite surfaces of the layer. In this paper a semi-analytical method of analysis of the considered transducer is proposed, which is a generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. It was earlier exploited with great success in the theory of interdigital transducers of surface acoustic waves, theory of elastic wave scattering by cracks and certain advanced electrostatic problems. The corresponding nontrivial electrostatic problem is formulated and solved numerically.

Keywords: Beamforming, transducer array, BIS-expansion.

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130 Theoretical Analysis of a Crossed-Electrode 2D Array for 3D Imaging

Authors: Yuriy Tasinkevych, Eugene Danicki

Abstract:

Planar systems of electrodes arranged on both sides of dielectric piezoelectric layer are applied in numerous transducers. They are capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wave both in azimuth and elevation. The wave-beam control is achieved by addressable driving of two-dimensional transducer through proper voltage supply of electrodes on opposite surfaces of the layer. In this paper a semi-analytical method of analysis of the considered transducer is proposed, which is a generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. It was earlier exploited with great success in the theory of interdigital transducers of surface acoustic waves, theory of elastic wave scattering by cracks and certain advanced electrostatic problems. The corresponding nontrivial electrostatic problem is formulated and solved numerically.

Keywords: Beamforming, transducer array, BIS-expansion.

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129 Thinned Elliptical Cylindrical Antenna Array Synthesis Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Rajesh Bera, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti P. Ghoshal

Abstract:

This paper describes optimal thinning of an Elliptical  Cylindrical Array (ECA) of uniformly excited isotropic antennas  which can generate directive beam with minimum relative Side Lobe  Level (SLL). The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) method, which  represents a new approach for optimization problems in  electromagnetic, is used in the optimization process. The PSO is used  to determine the optimal set of ‘ON-OFF’ elements that provides a  radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction. Optimization is done  without prefixing the value of First Null Beam Width (FNBW). The  variation of SLL with element spacing of thinned array is also  reported. Simulation results show that the number of array elements  can be reduced by more than 50% of the total number of elements in  the array with a simultaneous reduction in SLL to less than -27dB.

 

Keywords: Thinned array, Particle Swarm Optimization, Elliptical Cylindrical Array, Side Lobe Label.

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128 Ankh Key Broadband Array Antenna for 5G Applications

Authors: Noha M. Rashad, W. Swelam, M. H. Abd ElAzeem

Abstract:

A simple design of array antenna is presented in this paper, supporting millimeter wave applications which can be used in short range wireless communications such as 5G applications. This design enhances the use of V-band, according to IEEE standards, as the antenna works in the 70 GHz band with bandwidth more than 11 GHz and peak gain more than 13 dBi. The design is simulated using different numerical techniques achieving a very good agreement.

Keywords: 5G Technology, array antenna, microstrip, millimeter wave.

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127 Single-Crystal Kerfless 2D Array Transducer for Volumetric Medical Imaging: Theoretical Study

Authors: Jurij Tasinkiewicz

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to present a theoretical analysis of a 2D ultrasound transducer comprised of crossed arrays of metal strips placed on both sides of thin piezoelectric layer (a). Such a structure is capable of electronic beam-steering of generated wavebeam both in elevation and azimuth. In this paper a semi-analytical model of the considered transducer is developed. It is based on generalization of the well-known BIS-expansion method. Specifically, applying the electrostatic approximation, the electric field components on the surface of the layer are expanded into fast converging series of double periodic spatial harmonics with corresponding amplitudes represented by the properly chosen Legendre polynomials. The problem is reduced to numerical solving of certain system of linear equations for unknown expansion coefficients.

Keywords: Beamforming, transducer array, BIS-expansion.

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126 Investigation of Hydraulic and Thermal Performances of Fin Array at Different Shield Positions without By-Pass

Authors: Ramy H. Mohammed

Abstract:

In heat sinks, the flow within the core exhibits separation and hence does not lend itself to simple analytical boundary layer or duct flow analysis of the wall friction. In this paper, we present some findings from an experimental and numerical study aimed to obtain physical insight into the influence of the presence of the shield and its position on the hydraulic and thermal performance of square pin fin heat sink without top by-pass. The variations of the Nusselt number and friction factor are obtained under varied parameters, such as the Reynolds number and the shield position. The numerical code is validated by comparing the numerical results with the available experimental data. It is shown that, there is a good agreement between the temperature predictions based on the model and the experimental data. Results show that, as the presence of the shield, the heat transfer of fin array is enhanced and the flow resistance increased. The surface temperature distribution of the heat sink base is more uniform when the dimensionless shield position equals to 1/3 or 2/3. The comprehensive performance evaluation approach based on identical pumping power criteria is adopted and shows that the optimum shield position is at x/l=0.43.

Keywords: Shield, Fin array, Performance evaluation, Heat transfer, Validation.

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125 Localization of Near Field Radio Controlled Unintended Emitting Sources

Authors: Nurbanu Guzey, S. Jagannathan

Abstract:

Locating Radio Controlled (RC) devices using their unintended emissions has a great interest considering security concerns. Weak nature of these emissions requires near field localization approach since it is hard to detect these signals in far field region of array. Instead of only angle estimation, near field localization also requires range estimation of the source which makes this method more complicated than far field models. Challenges of locating such devices in a near field region and real time environment are analyzed in this paper. An ESPRIT like near field localization scheme is utilized for both angle and range estimation. 1-D search with symmetric subarrays is provided. Two 7 element uniform linear antenna arrays (ULA) are employed for locating RC source. Experiment results of location estimation for one unintended emitting walkie-talkie for different positions are given.

Keywords: Localization, angle of arrival (AoA), range estimation, array signal processing, ESPRIT, uniform linear array (ULA).

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124 A Design of Array Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Coil System

Authors: Sheng Ge, Jian-Peng Wang, Hai-Ying Tang, Xi Xiao, Wen Wu

Abstract:

This research proposed a new design of helmet-shaped array transcranial magnetic stimulation coil system. It was constructed using several sagittal directional wires and several coronal directional wires. By varying the current direction and strength on each wire, this array coil system could be constructed into the circular coil and figure-eight coil of different size. Also, this proposed coil system can flexibly not only change the stimulation location, range, type and strength, but also change the shape and the channel number of coil dynamically.

Keywords: TMS, circular coils, figure-eight coil, array coil

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123 The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array

Authors: Anatoly D. Pluzhnikov, Elena N. Pribludova, Alexander G. Ryndyk

Abstract:

In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.

Keywords: Antenna pattern, array, signal processing, spatial resolution.

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122 Array Signal Processing: DOA Estimation for Missing Sensors

Authors: Lalita Gupta, R. P. Singh

Abstract:

Array signal processing involves signal enumeration and source localization. Array signal processing is centered on the ability to fuse temporal and spatial information captured via sampling signals emitted from a number of sources at the sensors of an array in order to carry out a specific estimation task: source characteristics (mainly localization of the sources) and/or array characteristics (mainly array geometry) estimation. Array signal processing is a part of signal processing that uses sensors organized in patterns or arrays, to detect signals and to determine information about them. Beamforming is a general signal processing technique used to control the directionality of the reception or transmission of a signal. Using Beamforming we can direct the majority of signal energy we receive from a group of array. Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) is a highly popular eigenstructure-based estimation method of direction of arrival (DOA) with high resolution. This Paper enumerates the effect of missing sensors in DOA estimation. The accuracy of the MUSIC-based DOA estimation is degraded significantly both by the effects of the missing sensors among the receiving array elements and the unequal channel gain and phase errors of the receiver.

Keywords: Array Signal Processing, Beamforming, ULA, Direction of Arrival, MUSIC

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121 Electromagnetic Source Direction of Arrival Estimation via Virtual Antenna Array

Authors: Meiling Yang, Shuguo Xie, Yilong Zhu

Abstract:

Nowadays, due to diverse electric products and complex electromagnetic environment, the localization and troubleshooting of the electromagnetic radiation source is urgent and necessary especially on the condition of far field. However, based on the existing DOA positioning method, the system or devices are complex, bulky and expensive. To address this issue, this paper proposes a single antenna radiation source localization method. A single antenna moves to form a virtual antenna array combined with DOA and MUSIC algorithm to position accurately, meanwhile reducing the cost and simplify the equipment. As shown in the results of simulations and experiments, the virtual antenna array DOA estimation modeling is correct and its positioning is credible.

Keywords: Virtual antenna array, DOA, localization, far field.

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120 Towards Self-ware via Swarm-Array Computing

Authors: Blesson Varghese, Gerard McKee

Abstract:

The work reported in this paper proposes Swarm-Array computing, a novel technique inspired by swarm robotics, and built on the foundations of autonomic and parallel computing. The approach aims to apply autonomic computing constructs to parallel computing systems and in effect achieve the self-ware objectives that describe self-managing systems. The constitution of swarm-array computing comprising four constituents, namely the computing system, the problem/task, the swarm and the landscape is considered. Approaches that bind these constituents together are proposed. Space applications employing FPGAs are identified as a potential area for applying swarm-array computing for building reliable systems. The feasibility of a proposed approach is validated on the SeSAm multi-agent simulator and landscapes are generated using the MATLAB toolkit.

Keywords: Swarm-Array computing, Autonomic computing, landscapes.

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119 Study on the Characteristics of the Measurement System for pH Array Sensors

Authors: Jung-Chuan Chou, Wei-Lun Hsia

Abstract:

A measurement system for pH array sensors is introduced to increase accuracy, and decrease non-ideal effects successfully. An array readout circuit reads eight potentiometric signals at the same time, and obtains an average value. The deviation value or the extreme value is counteracted and the output voltage is a relatively stable value. The errors of measuring pH buffer solutions are decreased obviously with this measurement system, and the non-ideal effects, drift and hysteresis, are lowered to 1.638mV/hr and 1.118mV, respectively. The efficiency and stability are better than single sensor. The whole sensing characteristics are improved.

Keywords: Array sensors, measurement system, non-ideal effects, pH sensor, readout circuit.

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118 Nearfield UWB Pulse Array Beamformer based on Multirate Filter Bank

Authors: Min Wang , Shuyuan Yang

Abstract:

The paper presents a method of designing ultrawide band (UWB) pulse array beamformer in the case of nearfield. Firstly the principle of space-time processing of UWB pulse array is discussed. The radical beampattern transform based on spherical coordinates is employed to solve the nearfield beamforming of UWB pulse array. The frequency invariant technology is considered for the frequency dependent beampattern of UWB pulse array. We use a multirate bank scheme of to implement the FI beamformer of UWB pulse array. By using multirate filters in each element channel, it can make the response of the UWB array to avoid distortion in the whole band. The simulation resultes are given to prove the efficiency and feasibility of this method.

Keywords: UWB pulse array, frequency invariant, multiratebank, nearfield beamformer, radical transform

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117 Nine-Level Shunt Active Power Filter Associated with a Photovoltaic Array Coupled to the Electrical Distribution Network

Authors: Zahzouh Zoubir, Bouzaouit Azzeddine, Gahgah Mounir

Abstract:

The use of more and more electronic power switches with a nonlinear behavior generates non-sinusoidal currents in distribution networks, which causes damage to domestic and industrial equipment. The multi-level shunt power active filter is subsequently shown to be an adequate solution to the problem raised. Nevertheless, the difficulty of adjusting the active filter DC supply voltage requires another technology to ensure it. In this article, a photovoltaic generator is associated with the DC bus power terminals of the active filter. The proposed system consists of a field of solar panels, three multi-level voltage inverters connected to the power grid and a non-linear load consisting of a six-diode rectifier bridge supplying a resistive-inductive load. Current control techniques of active and reactive power are used to compensate for both harmonic currents and reactive power as well as to inject active solar power into the distribution network. An algorithm of the search method of the maximum power point of type Perturb and observe is applied. Simulation results of the system proposed under the MATLAB/Simulink environment shows that the performance of control commands that reassure the solar power injection in the network, harmonic current compensation and power factor correction.

Keywords: MPPT, active power filter, PV array, perturb and observe algorithm, PWM-control.

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116 Real-Time Digital Oscilloscope Implementation in 90nm CMOS Technology FPGA

Authors: Nasir Mehmood, Jens Ogniewski, Vinodh Ravinath

Abstract:

This paper describes the design of a real-time audiorange digital oscilloscope and its implementation in 90nm CMOS FPGA platform. The design consists of sample and hold circuits, A/D conversion, audio and video processing, on-chip RAM, clock generation and control logic. The design of internal blocks and modules in 90nm devices in an FPGA is elaborated. Also the key features and their implementation algorithms are presented. Finally, the timing waveforms and simulation results are put forward.

Keywords: CMOS, VLSI, Oscilloscope, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), VHDL, Video Graphics Array (VGA)

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115 Fabrication of Immune-Affinity Monolithic Array for Detection of α-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen

Authors: Li Li, Li-Ru Xia, He-Ye Wang, Xiao-Dong Bi

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented a highly sensitive immune-affinity monolithic array for detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Firstly, the epoxy functionalized monolith arrays were fabricated using UV initiated copolymerization method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image showed that the poly(BABEA-co-GMA) monolith exhibited a well-controlled skeletal and well-distributed porous structure. Then, AFP and CEA immune-affinity monolithic arrays were prepared by immobilization of AFP and CEA antibodies on epoxy functionalized monolith arrays. With a non-competitive immune response format, the presented AFP and CEA immune-affinity arrays were demonstrated as an inexpensive, flexible, homogeneous and stable array for detection of AFP and CEA.

Keywords: Chemiluminescent detection, immune-affinity, monolithic copolymer array, UV-initiated copolymerization.

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114 Efficient Antenna Array Beamforming with Robustness against Random Steering Mismatch

Authors: Ju-Hong Lee, Ching-Wei Liao, Kun-Che Lee

Abstract:

This paper deals with the problem of using antenna sensors for adaptive beamforming in the presence of random steering mismatch. We present an efficient adaptive array beamformer with robustness to deal with the considered problem. The robustness of the proposed beamformer comes from the efficient designation of the steering vector. Using the received array data vector, we construct an appropriate correlation matrix associated with the received array data vector and a correlation matrix associated with signal sources. Then, the eigenvector associated with the largest eigenvalue of the constructed signal correlation matrix is designated as an appropriate estimate of the steering vector. Finally, the adaptive weight vector required for adaptive beamforming is obtained by using the estimated steering vector and the constructed correlation matrix of the array data vector. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Adaptive beamforming, antenna array, linearly constrained minimum variance, robustness, steering vector.

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113 PIN-Diode Based Slotted Reconfigurable Multiband Antenna Array for Vehicular Communication

Authors: Gaurav Upadhyay, Nand Kishore, Prashant Ranjan, Shivesh Tripathi, V. S. Tripathi

Abstract:

In this paper, a patch antenna array design is proposed for vehicular communication. The antenna consists of 2-element patch array. The antenna array is operating at multiple frequency bands. The multiband operation is achieved by use of slots at proper locations at the patch. The array is made reconfigurable by use of two PIN-diodes. The antenna is simulated and measured in four states of diodes i.e. ON-ON, ON-OFF, OFF-ON, and OFF-OFF. In ON-ON state of diodes, the resonant frequencies are 4.62-4.96, 6.50-6.75, 6.90-7.01, 7.34-8.22, 8.89-9.09 GHz. In ON-OFF state of diodes, the measured resonant frequencies are 4.63-4.93, 6.50-6.70 and 7.81-7.91 GHz. In OFF-ON states of diodes the resonant frequencies are 1.24-1.46, 3.40-3.75, 5.07-5.25 and 6.90-7.20 GHz and in the OFF-OFF state of diodes 4.49-4.75 and 5.61-5.98 GHz. The maximum bandwidth of the proposed antenna is 16.29%. The peak gain of the antenna is 3.4 dB at 5.9 GHz, which makes it suitable for vehicular communication.

Keywords: Antenna, array, reconfigurable, vehicular.

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112 A Study of Structural Damage Detection for Spacecraft In-Orbit Based on Acoustic Sensor Array

Authors: Lei Qi, Rongxin Yan, Lichen Sun

Abstract:

With the increasing of human space activities, the number of space debris has increased dramatically, and the possibility that spacecrafts on orbit are impacted by space debris is growing. A method is of the vital significance to real-time detect and assess spacecraft damage, determine of gas leak accurately, guarantee the life safety of the astronaut effectively. In this paper, acoustic sensor array is used to detect the acoustic signal which emits from the damage of the spacecraft on orbit. Then, we apply the time difference of arrival and beam forming algorithm to locate the damage and leakage. Finally, the extent of the spacecraft damage is evaluated according to the nonlinear ultrasonic method. The result shows that this method can detect the debris impact and the structural damage, locate the damage position, and identify the damage degree effectively. This method can meet the needs of structural damage detection for the spacecraft in-orbit.

Keywords: Acoustic sensor array, spacecraft, damage assessment, leakage location.

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111 Optimized Vector Quantization for Bayer Color Filter Array

Authors: M. Lakshmi, J. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

Digital cameras to reduce cost, use an image sensor to capture color images. Color Filter Array (CFA) in digital cameras permits only one of the three primary (red-green-blue) colors to be sensed in a pixel and interpolates the two missing components through a method named demosaicking. Captured data is interpolated into a full color image and compressed in applications. Color interpolation before compression leads to data redundancy. This paper proposes a new Vector Quantization (VQ) technique to construct a VQ codebook with Differential Evolution (DE) Algorithm. The new technique is compared to conventional Linde- Buzo-Gray (LBG) method.

Keywords: Color Filter Array (CFA), Biorthogonal Wavelet, Vector Quantization (VQ), Differential Evolution (DE).

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110 Infrared Lamp Array Simulation Technology Used during Satellite Thermal Testing

Authors: Wang Jing, Liu Shouwen, Pei Yifei

Abstract:

A satellite is being integrated and tested by BISEE (Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering). This paper describes the infrared lamp array simulation technology used for satellite thermal balance and thermal vacuum test. These tests were performed in KM6 space environmental simulator in Beijing, China. New software and hardware developed by BISEE, along with enhanced heat flux uniformity, provided for well accomplished thermal balance and thermal vacuum tests. The flux uniformity of lamp array was satisfied with test requirement. Monitored background radiometer offered reliable heat flux measurements with remarkable repeatability. Simulation software supplied accurate thermal flux distribution predictions.

Keywords: Satellite, Thermal test, Infrared lamp array, Heatflux

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109 Circular Patch Microstrip Array Antenna for KU-band

Authors: T.F.Lai, Wan Nor Liza Mahadi, Norhayati Soin

Abstract:

This paper present a circular patch microstrip array antenna operate in KU-band (10.9GHz – 17.25GHz). The proposed circular patch array antenna will be in light weight, flexible, slim and compact unit compare with current antenna used in KU-band. The paper also presents the detail steps of designing the circular patch microstrip array antenna. An Advance Design System (ADS) software is used to compute the gain, power, radiation pattern, and S11 of the antenna. The proposed Circular patch microstrip array antenna basically is a phased array consisting of 'n' elements (circular patch antennas) arranged in a rectangular grid. The size of each element is determined by the operating frequency. The incident wave from satellite arrives at the plane of the antenna with equal phase across the surface of the array. Each 'n' element receives a small amount of power in phase with the others. There are feed network connects each element to the microstrip lines with an equal length, thus the signals reaching the circular patches are all combined in phase and the voltages add up. The significant difference of the circular patch array antenna is not come in the phase across the surface but in the magnitude distribution.

Keywords: Circular patch microstrip array antenna, gain, radiation pattern, S-Parameter.

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108 Automatic Deactivation in Phased Array Probe for Human Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 1.5T

Authors: Fotios N. Vlachos, Anastasios D. Garetsos, Nikolaos K. Uzunoglu, Efstathios D. Gotsis

Abstract:

A four element prototype phased array surface probe has been designed and constructed to improve clinical human prostate spectroscopic data. The probe consists of two pairs of adjacent rectangular coils with an optimum overlap to reduce the mutual inductance. The two pairs are positioned on the anterior and the posterior pelvic region and two couples of varactors at the input of each coil undertake the procedures of tuning and matching. The probe switches off and on automatically during the consecutive phases of the MR experiment with the use of an analog switch that is triggered by a microcontroller. Experimental tests that were carried out resulted in high levels of tuning accuracy. Also, the switching mechanism functions properly for various applied loads and pulse sequence characteristics, producing only 10 μs of latency.

Keywords: Automatic tuning, prostate imaging, phased array, spectroscopy.

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107 Parallel Double Splicing on Iso-Arrays

Authors: V. Masilamani, D.K. Sheena Christy, D.G. Thomas

Abstract:

Image synthesis is an important area in image processing. To synthesize images various systems are proposed in the literature. In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired system to synthesize image and to study the generating power of the system, we define the class of languages generated by our system. We call image as array in this paper. We use a primitive called iso-array to synthesize image/array. The operation is double splicing on iso-arrays. The double splicing operation is used in DNA computing and we use this to synthesize image. A comparison of the family of languages generated by the proposed self restricted double splicing systems on iso-arrays with the existing family of local iso-picture languages is made. Certain closure properties such as union, concatenation and rotation are studied for the family of languages generated by the proposed model.

Keywords: DNA computing, splicing system, iso-picture languages, iso-array double splicing system, iso-array self splicing.

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106 An Improved Adaptive Dot-Shape Beamforming Algorithm Research on Frequency Diverse Array

Authors: Yanping Liao, Zenan Wu, Ruigang Zhao

Abstract:

Frequency diverse array (FDA) beamforming is a technology developed in recent years, and its antenna pattern has a unique angle-distance-dependent characteristic. However, the beam is always required to have strong concentration, high resolution and low sidelobe level to form the point-to-point interference in the concentrated set. In order to eliminate the angle-distance coupling of the traditional FDA and to make the beam energy more concentrated, this paper adopts a multi-carrier FDA structure based on proposed power exponential frequency offset to improve the array structure and frequency offset of the traditional FDA. The simulation results show that the beam pattern of the array can form a dot-shape beam with more concentrated energy, and its resolution and sidelobe level performance are improved. However, the covariance matrix of the signal in the traditional adaptive beamforming algorithm is estimated by the finite-time snapshot data. When the number of snapshots is limited, the algorithm has an underestimation problem, which leads to the estimation error of the covariance matrix to cause beam distortion, so that the output pattern cannot form a dot-shape beam. And it also has main lobe deviation and high sidelobe level problems in the case of limited snapshot. Aiming at these problems, an adaptive beamforming technique based on exponential correction for multi-carrier FDA is proposed to improve beamforming robustness. The steps are as follows: first, the beamforming of the multi-carrier FDA is formed under linear constrained minimum variance (LCMV) criteria. Then the eigenvalue decomposition of the covariance matrix is ​​performed to obtain the diagonal matrix composed of the interference subspace, the noise subspace and the corresponding eigenvalues. Finally, the correction index is introduced to exponentially correct the small eigenvalues ​​of the noise subspace, improve the divergence of small eigenvalues ​​in the noise subspace, and improve the performance of beamforming. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can make the multi-carrier FDA form a dot-shape beam at limited snapshots, reduce the sidelobe level, improve the robustness of beamforming, and have better performance.

Keywords: Multi-carrier frequency diverse array, adaptive beamforming, correction index, limited snapshot, robust.

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105 Orthogonal Array Application and Response Surface Method Approach for Optimal Product Values: An Application for Oil Blending Process

Authors: Christopher C. Ihueze, Constance C. Obiuto, Christian E. Okafor, Charles C. Okpala

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodical approach for designing and optimizing process parameters in oil blending industries. Twenty seven replicated experiments were conducted for production of A-Z crown super oil (SAE20W/50) employing L9 orthogonal array to establish process response parameters. Power law model was fitted to experimental data and the obtained model was optimized applying the central composite design (CCD) of response surface methodology (RSM). Quadratic model was found to be significant for production of A-Z crown supper oil. The study recognized and specified four new lubricant formulations that conform to ISO oil standard in the course of analyzing the batch productions of A-Z crown supper oil as: L1: KV = 21.8293Cst, BS200 = 9430.00Litres, Ad102=11024.00Litres, PVI = 2520 Litres, L2: KV = 22.513Cst, BS200 = 12430.00 Litres, Ad102 = 11024.00 Litres, PVI = 2520 Litres, L3: KV = 22.1671Cst, BS200 = 9430.00 Litres, Ad102 = 10481.00 Litres, PVI= 2520 Litres, L4: KV = 22.8605Cst, BS200 = 12430.00 Litres, Ad102 = 10481.00 Litres, PVI = 2520 Litres. The analysis of variance showed that quadratic model is significant for kinematic viscosity production while the R-sq value statistic of 0.99936 showed that the variation of kinematic viscosity is due to its relationship with the control factors. This study therefore resulted to appropriate blending proportions of lubricants base oil and additives and recommends the optimal kinematic viscosity of A-Z crown super oil (SAE20W/50) to be 22.86Cst.

Keywords: Additives, control factors, kinematic viscosity, lubricant, orthogonal array, process parameter.

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104 A Fast Directionally Constrained Minimization of Power Algorithm for Extracting a Speech Signal Perpendicular to a Microphone Array

Authors: Yasuhiko Okuma, Yuichi Suzuki, Takahiro Murakami, Yoshihisa Ishida

Abstract:

In this paper, an extended method of the directionally constrained minimization of power (DCMP) algorithm for broadband signals is proposed. The DCMP algorithm is one of the useful techniques of extracting a target signal from observed signals of a microphone array system. In the DCMP algorithm, output power of the microphone array is minimized under a constraint of constant responses to directions of arrival (DOAs) of specific signals. In our algorithm, by limiting the directional constraint to the perpendicular direction to the sensor array system, the calculating time is reduced.

Keywords: Beamformer, directionally constrained minimizationof power, direction of arrival, microphone array.

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103 Design of Parity-Preserving Reversible Logic Signed Array Multipliers

Authors: Mojtaba Valinataj

Abstract:

Reversible logic as a new favorable design domain can be used for various fields especially creating quantum computers because of its speed and intangible power consumption. However, its susceptibility to a variety of environmental effects may lead to yield the incorrect results. In this paper, because of the importance of multiplication operation in various computing systems, some novel reversible logic array multipliers are proposed with error detection capability by incorporating the parity-preserving gates. The new designs are presented for two main parts of array multipliers, partial product generation and multi-operand addition, by exploiting the new arrangements of existing gates, which results in two signed parity-preserving array multipliers. The experimental results reveal that the best proposed 4×4 multiplier in this paper reaches 12%, 24%, and 26% enhancements in the number of constant inputs, number of required gates, and quantum cost, respectively, compared to previous design. Moreover, the best proposed design is generalized for n×n multipliers with general formulations to estimate the main reversible logic criteria as the functions of the multiplier size.

Keywords: Array multipliers, Baugh-Wooley method, error detection, parity-preserving gates, quantum computers, reversible logic.

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102 Flexible Sensor Array with Programmable Measurement System

Authors: Jung-Chuan Chou, Wei-Chuan Chen, Chien-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

This study is concerned with pH solution detection using 2 × 4 flexible sensor array based on a plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate that is coated a conductive layer and a ruthenium dioxide (RuO2) sensitive membrane with the technologies of screen-printing and RF sputtering. For data analysis, we also prepared a dynamic measurement system for acquiring the response voltage and analyzing the characteristics of the working electrodes (WEs), such as sensitivity and linearity. In this condition, an array measurement system was designed to acquire the original signal from sensor array, and it is based on the method of digital signal processing (DSP). The DSP modifies the unstable acquisition data to a direct current (DC) output using the technique of digital filter. Hence, this sensor array can obtain a satisfactory yield, 62.5%, through the design measurement and analysis system in our laboratory.

Keywords: Flexible sensor array, PET, RuO2, dynamic measurement, data analysis.

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