Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 103

Search results for: Teachers

103 Teachers’ Perceptions of the Negative Impact of Tobephobia on Their Emotions and Job Satisfaction

Authors: Prakash Singh

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of teachers’ experiences of tobephobia (TBP) in their heterogeneous classrooms and what impact this had on their emotions and job satisfaction. The expansive and continuously changing demands for quality and equal education for all students in educational organisations that have limited resources connotes that the negative effects of TBP cannot be simply ignored as being non-existent in the educational environment. As this quantitative study reveals, teachers disliking their job with low expectations, lack of motivation in their workplace and pessimism, result in their low self-esteem. When there is pessimism in the workplace, then the employees’ self-esteem will inevitably be low, as pointed out by 97.1% of the respondents in this study. Self-esteem is a reliable indicator of whether employees are happy or not in their jobs and the majority of the respondents in this study agreed that their experiences of TBP negatively impacted on their self-esteem. Hence, this exploratory study strongly indicates that productivity in the workplace is directly linked to the employees’ expectations, self-confidence and their self-esteem. It is therefore inconceivable for teachers to be productive in their regular classrooms if their genuine professional concerns, anxieties, and curriculum challenges are not adequately addressed. This empirical study contributes to our knowledge on TBP because it clearly outlines some of the teaching problems that we are grappling with and constantly experience in our schools in this century. Therefore, it is imperative that the tobephobic experiences of teachers are not merely documented, but appropriately addressed with relevant action by every stakeholder associated with education so that our teachers’ emotions and job satisfaction needs are fully taken care of.

Keywords: Demotivated teachers’ pessimism, low expectations of teachers’ job satisfaction, Self-esteem, Tobephobia.

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102 Professional Development of Pre-Service Teachers: The Case of Practicum Experience

Authors: G. Lingam, N. Lingam, K. Raghuwaiya

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The reported study focuses on pre-service teachers’ professional development during the teaching practice. The cohort studied comprised participants in their final year in the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science with Graduate Certificate in Education programmes of a university in Fiji. Analysis of the data obtained using a survey questionnaire indicates that overall, the pre-service teachers were satisfied with the practicum experience. This is assumed to demonstrate that the practicum experience contributed well towards their professional preparation for work expected of them in Fiji secondary schools. Participants also identified some concerns as needing attention. To conclude, the paper provides suggestions for improving the preparation of teachers by strengthening the identified areas of the practicum offered by the university. The study has implications for other teacher education providers in small developing island states and even beyond for the purpose of enhancing learning in student teachers’ for future work.

Keywords: Pre-service, teacher education, practicum, teachers’ world of work, student teachers.

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101 Developing Student Teachers to Be Professional Teachers

Authors: Suttipong Boonphadung

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Practicum placements are an critical factor for student teachers on Education Programs. How can student teachers become professionals? This study was to investigate problems, weakness and obstacles of practicum placements and develop guidelines for partnership in the practicum placements. In response to this issue, a partnership concept was implemented for developing student teachers into professionals. Data were collected through questionnaires on attitude toward problems, weaknesses, and obstacles of practicum placements of student teachers in Rajabhat universities and included focus group interviews. The research revealed that learning management, classroom management, curriculum, assessment and evaluation, classroom action research, and teacher demeanor are the important factors affecting the professional development of Education Program student teachers. Learning management plan and classroom management concerning instructional design, teaching technique, instructional media, and student behavior management are another important aspects influencing the professional development for student teachers.

Keywords: Developing student teacher, Partnership concepts, Professional teachers.

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100 Integrating HOTS Activities with GeoGebra in Pre-Service Teachers’ Preparation

Authors: Wajeeh Daher, Nimer Baya'a

Abstract:

High Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) are suggested today as essential for the cognitive development of students and as preparing them for real life skills. Teachers are encouraged to use HOTS activities in the classroom to help their students develop higher order skills and deep thinking. So it is essential to prepare preservice teachers to write and use HOTS activities for their students. This paper describes a model for integrating HOTS activities with GeoGebra in pre-service teachers’ preparation. This model describes four aspects of HOTS activities and working with them: activity components, preparation procedure, strategies and processes used in writing a HOTS activity and types of the HOTS activities. In addition, the paper describes the pre-service teachers' difficulties in preparing and working with HOTS activities, as well as their perceptions regarding the use of these activities and GeoGebra in the mathematics classroom. The paper also describes the contribution of a HOTS activity to pupils' learning of mathematics, where this HOTS activity was prepared and taught by one pre-service teacher.

Keywords: Higher order thinking, HOTS activities, pre-service teachers, teachers' preparation.

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99 Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Principals’ Interpersonal Emotionally Intelligent Behaviours Affecting Their Job Satisfaction

Authors: Prakash Singh

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For schools to be desirable places in which to work, it is necessary for principals to recognise their teachers’ emotions, and be sensitive to their needs. This necessitates that principals are capable to correctly identify their emotionally intelligent behaviours (EIBs) they need to use in order to be successful leaders. They also need to have knowledge of their emotional intelligence and be able to identify the factors and situations that evoke emotion at an interpersonal level. If a principal is able to do this, then the control and understanding of emotions and behaviours of oneself and others could improve vastly. This study focuses on the interpersonal EIBS of principals affecting the job satisfaction of teachers. The correlation coefficients in this quantitative study strongly indicate that there is a statistical significance between the respondents’ level of job satisfaction, the rating of their principals’ EIBs and how they believe their principals’ EIBs will affect their sense of job satisfaction. It can be concluded from the data obtained in this study that there is a significant correlation between the sense of job satisfaction of teachers and their principals’ interpersonal EIBs. This means that the more satisfied a teacher is at school, the more appropriate and meaningful a principal’s EIBs will be. Conversely, the more dissatisfied a teacher is at school the less appropriate and less meaningful a principal’s interpersonal EIBs will be. This implies that the leaders’ EIBs can be construed as one of the major factors affecting the job satisfaction of employees.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, teachers’ emotions, teachers’ job satisfaction, principals’ emotionally intelligent behaviours.

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98 The Development and Examination of a Teaching Commitment Scale for Elementary School Health and Physical Education Teachers

Authors: Yi-Hsiang Pan, Wei-Ting Hsu, Chang-Pang Lin

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The purpose of this study was to develop and examine a Teaching Commitment Scale of Health and Physical Education (TCS-HPE) for Taiwanese elementary school teachers. First of all, based on teaching commitment related theory and literatures to develop a original scale with 40 items, later both stratified random sampling and cluster sampling were used to sample participants. During the first stage, 300 teachers were sampled and 251 valid scales (83.7%) returned. Later, the data was analyzed by exploratory factor analysis to obtain 74.30% of total variance for the construct validity. The Cronbach-s alpha coefficient of sum scale reliability was 0.94, and subscale coefficients were between 0.80 and 0.96. In the second stage, 400 teachers were sampled and 318 valid scales (79.5%) returned. Finally, this study used confirmatory factor analysis to test validity and reliability of TCS-HPE. The result showed that the fit indexes reached acceptable criteria(¤ç2 (246 ) =557.64 , p<.05, RMSEA= 0.03, GFI = 0.96, AGFI = 0.95, NFI = 0.91, CFI = 0.98, RMR = 0.04, SRMR = 0.03). In conclusion, TCS-HPE has four dimensions with 24 items, including teaching identification, teaching involvement, teaching objectives and tendency towards work continuation. It is an acceptable measurement instrument with reliability and validity.

Keywords: Attitude, belief, construct validity, teachers' professional development.

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97 Pre-Service Teachers’ Assessment of Information Technology Application to Instruction

Authors: Adesanya Anuoluwapo Olusola

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Technology has moved into the classroom, and it becomes difficult talking of achievement in and attitude to learning without making mention of it. The use of technology makes learning easy, real and practical as it motivates learners, sustains their interest and improves their attitude to learning. This study, therefore examined the pre-service teachers’ assessment of information technology application to instruction. The use of technology emphasizes and encourages active learning in the classroom. The study involved 100 pre-service teachers in the selected two (2) Colleges of Education, Nigeria. Purposive random sampling was used in selecting the participants and ex-post facto design was adopted the in which there is no manipulation of variables. Two valid and reliable instruments were used for data collection: Access Point ICT facilities and Application of ICT. The study established that pre-service teachers have less access to ICT facilities and Application of ICT in the college, apart from those students having the access outside the college. Also fewer pre-service teachers used ICT facilities on weekly and monthly bases. It was concluded that the establishment of students’ resources centres and Campus wide wireless connectivity must be implemented so as to improve and enhance students’ achievement in and attitude to learning. The time and attention devoted to learning activities and strategic specialized ICT skills and requisite entrepreneur skills should be increased so as to have easy access to information sources and be able to apply it in teaching process.

Keywords: Computer, ICT Application, Learning Facilities, Pre-Service Teachers.

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96 Teachers’ Awareness of the Significance of Lifelong Learning: A Case Study of Secondary School Teachers of Batna – Algeria

Authors: Bahloul Amel

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This study is an attempt to raise the awareness of the stakeholders and the authorities on the sensitivity of Algerian secondary school teachers of English as a Foreign Language about the students’ loss of English language skills learned during formal schooling with effort and at expense and the supposed measures to arrest that loss. Data was collected from secondary school teachers of EFL and analyzed quantitatively using a questionnaire containing open-ended and close-ended questions. The results advocate a consensus about the need for actions to be adopted to make assessment techniques outcome-oriented. Most of the participants were in favor of including curricular activities involving contextualized learning, problem-solving learning critical selfawareness, self and peer-assisted learning, use of computers and internet so as to make learners autonomous.

Keywords: Contextualized learning, EFL, Lifelong learning.

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95 Assessing Reading Habits of Future Classroom Teachers in the Context of Their Socio-Demographic Features

Authors: E. Oguz, Yıldız, A., Hayırsever, F.

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The purpose of the present study is to determine the level of reading habit of future classroom teachers, to discuss the obtained results according to their socio-demographic features and to define the factors which are influential on taking up reading in the context of future teachers experiences. The target population of the study consists of the fourth grade students at 62 faculties of education, department of classroom teaching from Turkish state universities. The sampling of the study consists of the fourth grade students from seven faculties of education, department of classroom teaching from each region. In the study, in the first and the second aspects, there will be a questionnaire to be developed concerning the measurement of future teachers level of reading habits and their socio-demographic features. The questionnaire was applied to all the students in the sample.

Keywords: Reading, Reading Habits, Teachers

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94 A Case Study: Teachers Education Program in a Global Context

Authors: In Hoi Lee, Seong Baeg Kim, Je Eung Jeon, Gwang Yong Choi, Joo Sub Lee, Ik Sang Kim

Abstract:

Recently, the interest of globalization in the field of  teacher education has increased. In the U.S., the government is trying  to enhance the quality of education through a global approach in  education. To do so, the schools in the U.S. are recruiting teachers with  global capability from countries like Korea where competent teachers  are being trained. Meanwhile, in the case of Korea, although excellent  teachers have been cultivated every year, due to a low birth rate it is  not easy to become a domestic teacher. To solve the trouble that the  two countries are facing, the study first examines the demand and  necessity of globalization in the field of teacher education between  Korea and the U.S. Second, we propose a new project, called the  ‘Global Teachers University (GTU)’ program to satisfy the demands  of both countries. Finally, we provide its implications to build the  future educational cooperation for teacher training in a global context.

Keywords: Educational cooperation, globalization, teachers education program, teacher training institutions.

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93 Assessing Pre-Service Teachers' Computer PhobiaLevels in terms of Gender and Experience, Turkish Sample

Authors: Ö.F. Ursavas, H. Karal

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In this study it is aimed to determine the level of preservice teachers- computer phobia. Whether or not computer phobia meaningfully varies statistically according to gender and computer experience has been tested in the study. The study was performed on 430 pre-service teachers at the Education Faculty in Rize/Turkey. Data in the study were collected through the Computer Phobia Scale consisting of the “Personal Knowledge Questionnaire", “Computer Anxiety Rating Scale", and “Computer Thought Survey". In this study, data were analyzed with statistical processes such as t test, and correlation analysis. According to results of statistical analyses, computer phobia of male pre-service teachers does not statistically vary depending on their gender. Although male preservice teachers have higher computer anxiety scores, they have lower computer thought scores. It was also observed that there is a negative and intensive relation between computer experience and computer anxiety. Meanwhile it was found out that pre-service teachers using computer regularly indicated lower computer anxiety. Obtained results were tried to be discussed in terms of the number of computer classes in the Education Faculty curriculum, hours of computer class and the computer availability of student teachers.

Keywords: Computer phobia, computer anxiety, computer thought, pre-service teachers.

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92 On the Perceived Awareness of Physical Education Teachers on Adoptable ICTs for PE

Authors: Tholokuhle T. Ntshakala, Seraphin D. Eyono Obono

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Nations are still finding it quite difficult to win mega sport competitions despite the major contribution of sport to society in terms of social and economic development, personal health, and in education. Even though the world of sports has been transformed into a huge global economy, it is important to note that the first step of sport is usually its introduction to children at school through physical education or PE. In other words, nations who do not win mega sport competitions also suffer from a weak and neglected PE system. This problem of the neglect of PE systems is the main motivation of this research aimed at examining the factors affecting the perceived awareness of physical education teachers on the ICTs that are adoptable for the teaching and learning of physical education. Two types of research objectives will materialize this aim: relevant theories will be identified in relation to the analysis of the perceived ICT awareness of PE teachers and subsequent models will be compiled and designed from existing literature; the empirical testing of such theories and models will also be achieved through the survey of PE teachers from the Camperdown magisterial district of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The main hypothesis at the heart of this study is the relationship between the demographics of PE teachers, their behavior both as individuals and as social entities, and their perceived awareness of the ICTs that are adoptable for PE, as postulated by existing literature; except that this study categorizes human behavior under performance expectancy, computer attitude, and social influence. This hypothesis was partially confirmed by the survey conducted by this research in the sense that performance expectancy and teachers’ age, gender, computer usage, and class size were found to be the only factors affecting their awareness of ICTs for physical education.

Keywords: Human Behavior, ICT Awareness, Physical Education, Teachers.

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91 Factors Related to Teachers’ Analysis of Classroom Assessments

Authors: Hussain A. Alkharusi, Said S. Aldhafri, Hilal Z. Alnabhani, Muna Alkalbani

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Analyzing classroom assessments is one of the responsibilities of the teacher. It aims improving teacher’s instruction and assessment as well as student learning. The present study investigated factors that might explain variation in teachers’ practices regarding analysis of classroom assessments. The factors considered in the investigation included gender, in-service assessment training, teaching load, teaching experience, knowledge in assessment, attitude towards quantitative aspects of assessment, and self-perceived competence in analyzing assessments. Participants were 246 in-service teachers in Oman. Results of a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that self-perceived competence was the only significant factor explaining the variance in teachers’ analysis of assessments. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

 

Keywords: Analysis of assessment, Classroom assessment, In-service teachers, Self-competence.

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90 Determination of the Content of Teachers’ Presentism through a Web-Based Delphi Method

Authors: Tsai-Hsiu Lin

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Presentism is one of the orientations of teachers’ teaching culture. However, there are few researchers to explore it in Taiwan. The objective of this study is to establish an expert-based determination of the content of teachers’ presentism in Taiwan. The author reviewed the works of Jackson, Lortie, and Hargreaves and employed Hargreaves’ three forms of teachers’ presentism as a framework to design the questionnaire of this study. The questionnaire of teachers’ presentism comprised of 42 statements. A three-round web-based Delphi survey was proposed to 14 participants (two teacher educators, two educational administrators, three school principals, and seven schoolteachers), 13 participants (92.86%) completed the three-rounds of the study. The participants were invited to indicate the importance of each statement. The Delphi study used means and standard deviation to present information concerning the collective judgments of respondents. Finally, the author obtained consensual results for 67% (28/42). However, the outcome of this study could be the result of identifying a series of general statements rather than an in-depth exposition of the topic.

Keywords: Delphi Technique, teachers’ presentism, sociology of teaching, teaching culture.

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89 Analyzing Preservice Teachers’ Attitudes towards Technology

Authors: Ahmet Oguz Akturk, Kemal Izci, Gurbuz Caliskan, Ismail Sahin

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Rapid developments in technology in the present age have made it necessary for communities to follow technological developments and adapt themselves to these developments. One of the fields that are most rapidly affected by these developments is undoubtedly education. Determination of the attitudes of preservice teachers, who live in an age of technology and get ready to raise future individuals, is of paramount importance both educationally and professionally. The purpose of this study was to analyze attitudes of preservice teachers towards technology and some variables that predict these attitudes (gender, daily duration of internet use, and the number of technical devices owned). 329 preservice teachers attending the education faculty of a large university in central Turkey participated, on a volunteer basis, in this study, where relational survey model was used as the research method. Research findings reveal that preservice teachers’ attitudes towards technology are positive and at the same time, the attitudes of male preservice teachers towards technology are more positive than their female counterparts. As a result of the stepwise multiple regression analysis where factors predicting preservice teachers’ attitudes towards technology, it was found that duration of daily internet use was the strongest predictor of attitudes towards technology.

Keywords: Attitudes towards technology, preservice teachers, gender, stepwise multiple regression analysis.

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88 Understanding E-Learning Satisfaction in the Context of University Teachers

Authors: Anne M. Sørebø, Øystein Sørebø

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The present study was designed to test the influence of confirmed expectations, perceived usefulness and perceived competence on e-learning satisfaction among university teachers. A questionnaire was completed by 125 university teachers from 12 different universities in Norway. We found that 51% of the variance in university teachers- satisfaction with e-learning could be explained by the three proposed antecedents. Perceived usefulness seems to be the most important predictor of teachers- satisfaction with e-learning.

Keywords: E-learning, User satisfaction, Teachers, IS success.

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87 Experimental Model for Instruction of Pre-Service Teachers in ICT Tools and E-learning Environments

Authors: Rachel Baruch

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This article describes the implementation of an experimental model for teaching ICT tools and digital environments in teachers training college. In most educational systems in the Western world, new programs were developed in order to bridge the digital gap between teachers and students. In spite of their achievements, these programs are limited due to several factors: The teachers in the schools implement new methods incorporating technological tools into the curriculum, but meanwhile the technology changes and advances. The interface of tools changes frequently, some tools disappear and new ones are invented. These conditions require an experimental model of training the pre-service teachers. The appropriate method for instruction within the domain of ICT tools should be based on exposing the learners to innovations, helping them to gain experience, teaching them how to deal with challenges and difficulties on their own, and training them. This study suggests some principles for this approach and describes step by step the implementation of this model.

Keywords: ICT tools, e-learning, pre-service teachers.

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86 Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Views about Using Flash Animations in Mathematics Lessons

Authors: Esra Bukova-Güzel, Berna Cantürk-Günhan

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The purpose of the study is to determine secondary prospective mathematics teachers- views related to using flash animations in mathematics lessons and to reveal how the sample presentations towards different mathematical concepts altered their views. This is a case study involving three secondary prospective mathematics teachers from a state university in Turkey. The data gathered from two semi-structural interviews. Findings revealed that these animations help understand mathematics meaningfully, relate mathematics and real world, visualization, and comprehend the importance of mathematics. The analysis of the data indicated that the sample presentations enhanced participants- views about using flash animations in mathematics lessons.

Keywords: Instructional technology, animations, prospective mathematics teachers.

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85 A Study of the Views of Information Technologies Teachers Regarding In-Service Training

Authors: Halit Arslan, Ismail Sahin, Ahmet Oguz Akturk, Ismail Celik

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Today, the means of following the developments in the area of science and technology is to keep up with the pace of the advancements in this area. As is in every profession, apart from their personal efforts, the training of teachers in the period after they start their careers is only possible through in-service training. The aim of the present study is to determine the views of Information Technologies (IT) teachers regarding the in-service training courses organized by the Ministry of National Education. In this study, in which quantitative research methods and techniques were employed, the views of 196 IT teachers were collected by using the “Views on In-service Training” questionnaire developed by the authors of the paper. Independent groups t-test was used to determine whether the views of IT teachers regarding in-service training differed depending on gender, age and professional seniority. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate whether the views of IT teachers regarding in-service training differed depending on the number of in-service training courses they joined and the type of inservice training course they wanted to take. According to the findings obtained in the study, the views of IT teachers on in-service training did not show a significant difference depending on gender and age, whereas those views differed depending on professional seniority, the number of in-service training courses they joined and the type of inservice training course they wanted to take.

Keywords: In-service training, IT teachers, professional development, personal development.

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84 The Impact of Leadership Style and Sense of Competence on the Performance of Post-Primary School Teachers in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Babajide S. Adeokin, Oguntoyinbo O. Kazeem

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The not so pleasing state of the nation's quality of education has been a major area of research. Many researchers have looked into various aspects of the educational system and organizational structure in relation to the quality of service delivery of the staff members. However, there is paucity of research in areas relating to the sense of competence and commitment in relation to leadership styles. Against this backdrop, this study investigated the impact of leadership style and sense of competence on the performance of post-primary school teachers in Oyo state Nigeria. Data were generated across public secondary schools in the city using survey design method. Ibadan as a metropolis has eleven local government areas contained in it. A systematic random sampling technique of the eleven local government areas in Ibadan was done and five local government areas were selected. The selected local government areas are Akinyele, Ibadan North, Ibadan North-East, Ibadan South and Ibadan South-West. Data were obtained from a range of two – three public secondary schools selected in each of the local government areas mentioned above. Also, these secondary schools are a representation of the variations in the constructs under consideration across the Ibadan metropolis. Categorically, all secondary school teachers in Ibadan were clustered into selected schools in those found across the five local government areas. In all, a total of 272 questionnaires were administered to public secondary school teachers, while 241 were returned. Findings revealed that transformational leadership style makes room for job commitment when compared with transactional and laissez-faire leadership styles. Teachers with a high sense of competence are more likely to demonstrate more commitment to their job than others with low sense of competence. We recommend that, it is important an assessment is made of the leadership styles employed by principals and school administrators. This guides administrators and principals in to having a clear, comprehensive knowledge of the style they currently adopt in the management of the staff and the school as a whole; and know where to begin the adjustment process from. Also to make an impact on student achievement, being attentive to teachers’ levels of commitment may be an important aspect of leadership for school principals.

Keywords: Leadership style, sense of competence, teachers, public secondary schools, Ibadan.

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83 The Mentoring in Professional Development of University Teachers

Authors: Nagore Guerra Bilbao, Clemente Lobato Fraile

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Mentoring is provided by professionals with a higher level of experience and competence as part of the professional development of a university faculty. This paper explores the characteristics of the mentoring provided by those teachers participating in the development of an active methodology program run at the University of the Basque Country: to examine and to analyze mentors’ performance with the aim of providing empirical evidence regarding its value as a lifelong learning strategy for teaching staff. A total of 183 teachers were trained during the first three programs. The analysis method uses a coding technique and is based on flexible, systematic guidelines for gathering and analyzing qualitative data. The results have confirmed the conception of mentoring as a methodological innovation in higher education. In short, university teachers in general assessed the mentoring they received positively, considering it to be a valid, useful strategy in their professional development. They highlighted the methodological expertise of their mentor and underscored how they monitored the learning process of the active method and provided guidance and advice when necessary. Finally, they also drew attention to traits such as availability, personal commitment and flexibility in. However, a minority critique is pointed to some aspects of the performance of some mentors.

Keywords: Higher education, Mentoring, Professional development, University teachers.

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82 Awareness and Attitudes of Primary Grade Teachers (1-4thGrade) towards Inclusive Education

Authors: P. Maheshwari, M. Shapurkar

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The present research aimed at studying the awareness and attitudes of teachers towards inclusive education. The sample consisted of 60 teachers, teaching in the primary section (1st – 4th) of regular schools affiliated to the SSC board in Mumbai. Sample was selected by Multi-stage cluster sampling technique. A semi-structured self-constructed interview schedule and a self-constructed attitude scale was used to study the awareness of teachers about disability and Inclusive education, and their attitudes towards inclusive education respectively. Themes were extracted from the interview data and quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS package. Results revealed that teachers had some amount of awareness but an inadequate amount of information on disabilities and inclusive education. Disability to most (37) teachers meant “an inability to do something”. The difference between disability and handicap was stated by most as former being cognitive while handicap being physical in nature. With regard to Inclusive education, a large number (46) stated that they were unaware of the term and did not know what it meant. Majority (52) of them perceived maximum challenges for themselves in an inclusive set up, and emphasized on the role of teacher training courses in the area of providing knowledge (49) and training in teaching methodology (53). Although, 83.3% of teachers held a moderately positive attitude towards inclusive education, a large percentage (61.6%) of participants felt that being in inclusive set up would be very challenging for both children with special needs and without special needs. Though, most (49) of the teachers stated that children with special needs should be educated in regular classroom but they further clarified that only those should be in a regular classroom who have physical impairments of mild or moderate degree.

Keywords: Attitudes, awareness, inclusive education, teachers.

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81 Internal and External Factors Affecting Teachers’ Adoption of Formative Assessment to Support Learning

Authors: Kemal Izci

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Assessment forms an important part of instruction. Assessment that aims to support learning is known as formative assessment and it contributes student’s learning gain and motivation. However, teachers rarely use assessment formatively to aid their students’ learning. Thus, reviewing the factors that limit or support teachers’ practices of formative assessment will be crucial for guiding educators to support prospective teachers in using formative assessment and also eliminate limiting factors to let practicing teachers to engage in formative assessment practices during their instruction. The study, by using teacher’s change environment framework, reviews literature on formative assessment and presents a tentative model that illustrates the factors impacting teachers’ adoption of formative assessment in their teaching. The results showed that there are four main factors consisting personal, contextual, resource-related and external factors that influence teachers’ practices of formative assessment.

Keywords: Assessment practices, formative assessment, teachers, factors for use of formative assessment.

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80 Innovation in Traditional Game: A Case Study of Trainee Teachers' Learning Experiences

Authors: Malathi Balakrishnan, Cheng Lee Ooi, Chander Vengadasalam

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The purpose of this study is to explore a case study of trainee teachers’ learning experience on innovating traditional games during the traditional game carnival. It explores issues arising from multiple case studies of trainee teachers learning experiences in innovating traditional games. A qualitative methodology was adopted through observations, semi-structured interviews and reflective journals’ content analysis of trainee teachers’ learning experiences creating and implementing innovative traditional games. Twelve groups of 36 trainee teachers who registered for Sports and Physical Education Management Course were the participants for this research during the traditional game carnival. Semi structured interviews were administrated after the trainee teachers learning experiences in creating innovative traditional games. Reflective journals were collected after carnival day and the content analyzed. Inductive data analysis was used to evaluate various data sources. All the collected data were then evaluated through the Nvivo data analysis process. Inductive reasoning was interpreted based on the Self Determination Theory (SDT). The findings showed that the trainee teachers had positive game participation experiences, game knowledge about traditional games and positive motivation to innovate the game. The data also revealed the influence of themes like cultural significance and creativity. It can be concluded from the findings that the organized game carnival, as a requirement of course work by the Institute of Teacher Training Malaysia, was able to enhance teacher trainers’ innovative thinking skills. The SDT, as a multidimensional approach to motivation, was utilized. Therefore, teacher trainers may have more learning experiences using the SDT.

Keywords: Learning experiences, innovation, traditional games, trainee teachers.

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79 Unpacking Chilean Preservice Teachers’ Beliefs on Practicum Experiences through Digital Stories

Authors: Claudio Díaz, Mabel Ortiz

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An EFL teacher education programme in Chile takes five years to train a future teacher of English. Preservice teachers are prepared to learn an advanced level of English and teach the language from 5th to 12th grade in the Chilean educational system. In the context of their first EFL Methodology course in year four, preservice teachers have to create a five-minute digital story that starts from a critical incident they have experienced as teachers-to-be during their observations or interventions in the schools. A critical incident can be defined as a happening, a specific incident or event either observed by them or involving them. The happening sparks their thinking and may make them subsequently think differently about the particular event. When they create their digital stories, preservice teachers put technology, teaching practice and theory together to narrate a story that is complemented by still images, moving images, text, sound effects and music. The story should be told as a personal narrative, which explains the critical incident. This presentation will focus on the creation process of 50 Chilean preservice teachers’ digital stories highlighting the critical incidents they started their stories. It will also unpack preservice teachers’ beliefs and reflections when approaching their teaching practices in schools. These beliefs will be coded and categorized through content analysis to evidence preservice teachers’ most rooted conceptions about English teaching and learning in Chilean schools. The findings seem to indicate that preservice teachers’ beliefs are strongly mediated by contextual and affective factors.

Keywords: Beliefs, Digital stories, Preservice teachers, Practicum.

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78 Research on Self-Perceptions of Pre-Service Turkish Language Teachers in Turkey with Regard to Problem Solving Skills

Authors: Canan Aslan

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to determine how preservice Turkish teachers perceive themselves in terms of problem solving skills. Students attending Department of Turkish Language Teaching of Gazi University Education Faculty in 2005-2006 academic year constitute the study group (n= 270) of this research in which survey model was utilized. Data were obtained by Problem Solving Inventory developed by Heppner & Peterson and Personal Information Form. Within the settings of this research, Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient of the scale was found as .87. Besides, reliability coefficient obtained by split-half technique which splits odd and even numbered items of the scale was found as r=.81 (Split- Half Reliability). The findings of the research revealed that preservice Turkish teachers were sufficiently qualified on the subject of problem solving skills and statistical significance was found in favor of male candidates in terms of “gender" variable. According to the “grade" variable, statistical significance was found in favor of 4th graders.

Keywords: Problem Solving, problem solving skills, PreserviceTurkish Language Teachers.

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77 Predictors of Academic Achievement of Student ICT Teachers with Different Learning Styles

Authors: Deniz Deryakulu, Şener Büyüköztürk Hüseyin Özçınar

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of academic achievement of student Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) teachers with different learning styles. Participants were 148 student ICT teachers from Ankara University. Participants were asked to fill out a personal information sheet, the Turkish version of Kolb-s Learning Style Inventory, Weinstein-s Learning and Study Strategies Inventory, Schommer's Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire, and Eysenck-s Personality Questionnaire. Stepwise regression analyses showed that the statistically significant predictors of the academic achievement of the accommodators were attitudes and high school GPAs; of the divergers was anxiety; of the convergers were gender, epistemological beliefs, and motivation; and of the assimilators were gender, personality, and test strategies. Implications for ICT teaching-learning processes and teacher education are discussed.

Keywords: Academic achievement, student ICT teachers, Kolb learning styles, experiential learning.

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76 Predominance of Teaching Models Used by Math Teachers in Secondary Education

Authors: Verónica Diaz Quezada

Abstract:

This research examines the teaching models used by secondary math teachers when teaching logarithmic, quadratic and exponential functions. For this, descriptive case studies have been carried out on 5 secondary teachers. These teachers have been chosen from 3 scientific-humanistic and technical schools, in Chile. Data have been obtained through non-participant class observation and the application of a questionnaire and a rubric to teachers. According to the results, the didactic model that prevails is the one that starts with an interactive strategy, moves to a more content-based structure, and ends with a reinforcement stage. Nonetheless, there is always influence from teachers, their methods, and the group of students.

Keywords: Teaching models, math teachers, functions, secondary education.

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75 A Mixed Method Investigation of the Impact of Practicum Experience on Mathematics Female Pre-Service Teachers’ Sense of Preparedness

Authors: Fatimah Alsaleh, Glenda Anthony

Abstract:

The practicum experience is a critical component of any initial teacher education (ITE) course. As well as providing a near authentic setting for pre-service teachers (PSTs) to practice in, it also plays a key role in shaping their perceptions and sense of preparedness. Nevertheless, merely including a practicum period as a compulsory part of ITE may not in itself be enough to induce feelings of preparedness and efficacy; the quality of the classroom experience must also be considered. Drawing on findings of a larger study of secondary and intermediate level mathematics PSTs’ sense of preparedness to teach, this paper examines the influence of the practicum experience in particular. The study sample comprised female mathematics PSTs who had almost completed their teaching methods course in their fourth year of ITE across 16 teacher education programs in Saudi Arabia. The impact of the practicum experience on PSTs’ sense of preparedness was investigated via a mixed-methods approach combining a survey (N = 105) and in-depth interviews with survey volunteers (N = 16). Statistical analysis in SPSS was used to explore the quantitative data, and thematic analysis was applied to the qualitative interviews data. The results revealed that the PSTs perceived the practicum experience to have played a dominant role in shaping their feelings of preparedness and efficacy. However, despite the generally positive influence of practicum, the PSTs also reported numerous challenges that lessened their feelings of preparedness. These challenges were often related to the classroom environment and the school culture. For example, about half of the PSTs indicated that the practicum schools did not have the resources available or the support necessary to help them learn the work of teaching. In particular, the PSTs expressed concerns about translating the theoretical knowledge learned at the university into practice in authentic classrooms. These challenges engendered PSTs feeling less prepared and suggest that more support from both the university and the school is needed to help PSTs develop a stronger sense of preparedness. The area in which PSTs felt least prepared was that of classroom and behavior management, although the results also indicated that PSTs only felt a moderate level of general teaching efficacy and were less confident about how to support students as learners. Again, feelings of lower efficacy were related to the dissonance between the theory presented at university and real-world classroom practice. In order to close this gap between theory and practice, PSTs expressed the wish to have more time in the practicum, and more accountability for support from school-based mentors. In highlighting the challenges of the practicum in shaping PSTs’ sense of preparedness and efficacy, the study argues that better communication between the ITE providers and the practicum schools is necessary in order to maximize the benefit of the practicum experience.

Keywords: Mathematics, practicum experience, pre-service teachers, sense of preparedness.

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74 Prospective English Language Teachers’ Views on Translation Use in Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Ozlem Bozok, Yusuf Bozok

Abstract:

The importance of using mother tongue and translation in foreign language classrooms cannot be ignored and translation can be utilized as a method in English Language Teaching courses. There exist researches advocating or objecting to the use of translation in foreign language learning but they all have a point in common: Translation should be used as an aid to teaching, not an end in itself. In this research, prospective English language teachers’ opinions about translation use and use of mother tongue in foreign language teaching are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: Exposure to foreign language, translation, foreign language learning, prospective teachers’ opinions, use of L1.

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