Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 979

Search results for: Optical properties

979 The Influence of Doping of Fullerene Derivative (PCBM) on the Optical Properties of Vanadyl Phthalocyanine (VOPc)

Authors: Fakhra Aziz, K. Sulaiman, Kh. S. Karimov, M. Hassan Sayyad

Abstract:

This paper presents a spectroscopic study on doping of Vanadyl pathalocyanine (VOPc) by [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). The films are characterized by UV/Vis/NIR spectroscopy. A drastic increase in the absorption coefficient has been observed with increasing dopant concentration. Optical properties of VOPc:PCBM films deposited by spin coating technique were studied in detail. Optical band gap decreased with the PCBM incorporation in the VOPc film. Optical band gap calculated from the absorption spectra decreased from 3.32 eV to 3.26 eV with a variation of 0–75 % of PCBM concentration in the VOPC films.

Keywords: Optical properties, spin-coating, optical properties, optical energy gap

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978 Full Potential Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of NdF3

Authors: Sapan Mohan Saini

Abstract:

We report the electronic structure and optical properties of NdF3 compound. Our calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method with the inclusion of spin orbit coupling. We employed the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and Coulomb-corrected local spin density approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. We find that the standard LSDA approach is incapable of correctly describing the electronic properties of such materials since it positions the f-bands incorrectly resulting in an incorrect metallic ground state. On the other hand, LSDA + U approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. Interestingly, however, we do not find any significant differences in the optical properties calculated using LSDA, and LSDA + U suggesting that the 4f electrons do not play a decisive role in the optical properties of these compounds. The reflectivity for NdF3 compound stays low till 7 eV which is consistent with their large energy gaps. The calculated energy gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculated reflectivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band to band transitions.

Keywords: FPLAPW Method, optical properties, rare earthtrifluorides LSDA+U

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977 Effects of Annealing Treatment on Optical Properties of Anatase TiO2 Thin Films

Authors: M. M. Hasan, A. S. M. A. Haseeb, R. Saidur, H. H. Masjuki

Abstract:

In this investigation, anatase TiO2 thin films were grown by radio frequency magnetron sputtering on glass substrates at a high sputtering pressure and room temperature. The anatase films were then annealed at 300-600 °C in air for a period of 1 hour. To examine the structure and morphology of the films, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods were used respectively. From X-ray diffraction patterns of the TiO2 films, it was found that the as-deposited film showed some differences compared with the annealed films and the intensities of the peaks of the crystalline phase increased with the increase of annealing temperature. From AFM images, the distinct variations in the morphology of the thin films were also observed. The optical constants were characterized using the transmission spectra of the films obtained by UV-VIS-IR spectrophotometer. Besides, optical thickness of the film deposited at room temperature was calculated and cross-checked by taking a cross-sectional image through SEM. The optical band gaps were evaluated through Tauc model. It was observed that TiO2 films produced at room temperatures exhibited high visible transmittance and transmittance decreased slightly with the increase of annealing temperatures. The films were found to be crystalline having anatase phase. The refractive index of the films was found from 2.31-2.35 in the visible range. The extinction coefficient was nearly zero in the visible range and was found to increase with annealing temperature. The allowed indirect optical band gap of the films was estimated to be in the range from 3.39 to 3.42 eV which showed a small variation. The allowed direct band gap was found to increase from 3.67 to 3.72 eV. The porosity was also found to decrease at a higher annealing temperature making the film compact and dense.

Keywords: Titanium dioxide, RF reactive sputtering, Structuralproperties, Surface morphology, Optical properties.

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976 Effect of Cr and Fe Doping on the Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Nanostructures

Authors: Prakash Chand, Anurag Gaur, Ashavani Kumar

Abstract:

In the present study, we have synthesized Cr and Fe doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures (Zn1-δCraFebO; where δ = a + b = 20%, a = 5, 6, 8 & 10% and b = 15, 14, 12 & 10%) via sol-gel method at different doping concentrations. The synthesized samples were characterized for structural properties by X-ray diffractrometer and field emission scanning electron microscope and the optical properties were carried out through photoluminescence and UVvisible spectroscopy. The particle size calculated through field emission scanning electron microscope varies from 41 to 96 nm for the samples synthesized at different doping concentrations. The optical band gaps calculated through UV-visible spectroscopy are found to be decreasing from 3.27 to 3.02 eV as the doping concentration of Cr increases and Fe decreases.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Optical Properties, Sol-gel method.

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975 A Review of the Characteristics and Optimization of Optical Properties of Zirconia Ceramics for Aesthetic Dental Restorations

Authors: R. A. Shahmiri, O. C. Standard, J. N. Hart, C. C. Sorrell

Abstract:

The ceramic yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) has been used as a dental biomaterial for several decades. The strength and toughness of this material can be accounted for by its toughening mechanisms, which include transformation toughening, crack deflection, zone shielding, contact shielding, and crack bridging. Prevention of crack propagation is of critical importance in high-fatigue situations, such as those encountered in mastication and para-function. However, the poor translucence of Y-TZP in polycrystalline form is such that it may not meet the aesthetic requirements due to its white/grey appearance. To improve the optical properties of Y-TZP, more detailed study of the optical properties is required; in particular, precise evaluation of the refractive index, absorption coefficient, and scattering coefficient are necessary. The measurement of the optical parameters has been based on the assumption that light scattered from biological media is isotropically distributed over all angles. In fact, the optical behavior of real biological materials depends on the angular scattering of light due to the anisotropic nature of the materials. The purpose of the present work is to evaluate the optical properties (including color, opacity/translucence, scattering, and fluorescence) of zirconia dental ceramics and their control through modification of the chemical composition, phase composition, and surface microstructure.

Keywords: Optical properties, opacity/translucence, scattering, fluorescence, chemical composition, phase composition, surface microstructure.

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974 Structural and Optical Properties of Pr3+ Doped ZnO and PVA:Zn98Pr2O Nanocomposite Free Standing Film

Authors: Pandiyarajan Thangaraj, Mangalaraja Ramalinga Viswanathan, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Héctor D. Mansilla, José Ruiz, David Contreras

Abstract:

In this work, we report, a systematic study on the structural and optical properties of Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures and PVA:Zn98Pr2O polymer matrix nanocomposites free standing films. These particles are synthesized through simple wet chemical route and solution casting technique at room temperature, respectively. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction method confirm that the prepared pure ZnO and Pr doped ZnO nanostructures are in hexagonal wurtzite structure and the microstrain is increased upon doping. TEM analysis reveals that the prepared materials are in sheet like nature. Absorption spectra show free excitonic absorption band at 370 nm and red shift for the Pr doped ZnO nanostructures. The PVA:Zn98Pr2O composite film exhibits both free excitonic and PVA absorption bands at 282 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectral studies confirm the presence of A1 (TO) and E1 (TO) modes of Zn-O bond vibration and the formation of polymer composite materials.

Keywords: Pr doped ZnO, polymer nanocomposites, optical properties.

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973 The Effects of Applied Negative Bias Voltage on Structure and Optical Properties of α-C:H Films

Authors: X. L. Zhou, S. Tunmee, I. Toda, K. Komatsu, S. Ohshio, H. Saitoh

Abstract:

Hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C:H) films have been synthesized by a radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique with different bias voltage from 0.0 to -0.5 kV. The Raman spectra displayed the polymer-like hydrogenated amorphous carbon (PLCH) film with 0.0 to -0.1 and a-C:H films with -0.2 to -0.5 kV of bias voltages. The surface chemical information of all films were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique, presented to C-C (sp2 and sp3) and C-O bonds, and relative carbon (C) and oxygen (O) atomics contents. The O contamination had affected on structure and optical properties. The true density of PLCH and a-C:H films were characterized by X-ray refractivity (XRR) method, showed the result as in the range of 1.16-1.73 g/cm3 that depending on an increasing of bias voltage. The hardness was proportional to the true density of films. In addition, the optical properties i.e. refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of these films were determined by a spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) method that give formation to in 1.62-2.10 (n) and 0.04-0.15 (k) respectively. These results indicated that the optical properties confirmed the Raman results as presenting the structure changed with applied bias voltage increased.

Keywords: Negative bias voltage, a-C:H film, Oxygen contamination, Optical properties.

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972 Gamma Irradiation Effect on Structural and Optical Properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite Glasses

Authors: A. Azuraida, M. K. Halimah, C. A. C. Azurahanim, M. Ishak

Abstract:

The changes of the optical and structural properties of Bismuth-Boro-Tellurite glasses pre and post gamma irradiation were studied. Six glass samples, with different composition [(TeO2)0.7 (B2O3)0.3]1-x (Bi2O3)x prepared by melt quenching method were irradiated with 25kGy gamma radiation at room temperature. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to explore the structural bonding in the prepared glass samples due to exposure, while UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was used to evaluate the changes in the optical properties before and after irradiation. Gamma irradiation causes profound changes in the peak intensity as shown by FTIR spectra which is due to the breaking of the network bonding. Before gamma irradiation, the optical band gap, Eg value decreased from 2.44 eV to 2.15 eV with the addition of Bismuth content. The value kept decreasing (from 2.18 eV to 2.00 eV) following exposure to gamma radiation due to the increase of non-bridging oxygen (NBO) and the increase of defect in the glass. In conclusion, the glass with high content of Bi2O3 (0.30Bi) give smallest Eg and show less changes in FTIR spectra after gamma irradiation which indicate that this glass is more resistant to gamma radiation compared to other glasses.

Keywords: Boro-Tellurite, bismuth, gamma radiation, optical properties.

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971 Optical and Dielectric Properties of Self-Assembled 0D Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Insulator

Authors: S. Kassou, R. El Mrabet, A. Belaaraj, P. Guionneau, N. Hadi, T. Lamcharfi

Abstract:

The organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite-like [C6H5C2H4NH3]2ZnCl4 (PEA-ZnCl4) was synthesized by saturated solutions method. X-ray powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible transmittance, and capacitance meter measurements have been used to characterize the structure, the functional groups, the optical parameters, and the dielectric constants of the material. The material has a layered structure. The optical transmittance (T %) was recorded and applied to deduce the absorption coefficient (α) and optical band gap (Eg). The hybrid shows an insulator character with a direct band gap about 4.46 eV, and presents high dielectric constants up to a frequency of about 105 Hz, which suggests a ferroelectric behavior. The reported optical and dielectric properties can help to understand the fundamental properties of perovskite materials and also to be used for optimizing or designing new devices.

Keywords: Dielectric constants, optical band gap (Eg), optical parameters, Raman spectroscopy, self-assembly organic inorganic hybrid.

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970 Magneto-Optical Properties in Transparent Region of Implanted Garnet Films

Authors: Lali Kalanadzde

Abstract:

We investigated magneto-optical Kerr effect in transparent region of implanted ferrite-garnet films for the (YBiCa)3(FeGe)5O12. The implantation process was carried out at room temperature by Ne+ ions with energy of 100 KeV and with various doses (0.5-2.5) 1014 ion/cm2. We discovered that slight deviation of the plane of external alternating magnetic field from plane of sample leads to appearance intensive magneto-optical maximum in transparent region of garnet films ħω=0.5-2.0 eV. In the proceeding, we have also found that the deviation of polarization plane from P- component of incident light leads to the appearance of the similar magneto-optical effects in this region. The research of magnetization processes in transparent region of garnet films showed that the formation of magneto-optical effects in region ħω=0.5-2.3 eV has a rather complex character.

Keywords: Ferrite-garnet films, ion implantation, magneto-optical, thin films.

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969 Investigation about Structural and Optical Properties of Bulk and Thin Film of 1H-CaAlSi by Density Functional Method

Authors: M. Babaeipour, M. Vejdanihemmat

Abstract:

Optical properties of bulk and thin film of 1H-CaAlSi for two directions (1,0,0) and (0,0,1) were studied. The calculations are carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using full potential. GGA approximation was used to calculate exchange-correlation energy. The calculations are performed by WIEN2k package. The results showed that the absorption edge is shifted backward 0.82eV in the thin film than the bulk for both directions. The static values of the real part of dielectric function for four cases were obtained. The static values of the refractive index for four cases are calculated too. The reflectivity graphs have shown an intensive difference between the reflectivity of the thin film and the bulk in the ultraviolet region.

Keywords: 1H-CaAlSi, absorption, bulk, optical, thin film.

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968 Computation of the Filtering Properties of Photonic Crystal Waveguide Discontinuities Using the Mode Matching Method

Authors: Athanasios Theoharidis, Thomas Kamalakis, Ioannis Neokosmidis, Thomas Sphicopoulos

Abstract:

In this paper, the application of the Mode Matching (MM) method in the case of photonic crystal waveguide discontinuities is presented. The structure under consideration is divided into a number of cells, which supports a number of guided and evanescent modes. These modes can be calculated numerically by an alternative formulation of the plane wave expansion method for each frequency. A matrix equation is then formed relating the modal amplitudes at the beginning and at the end of the structure. The theory is highly efficient and accurate and can be applied to study the transmission sensitivity of photonic crystal devices due to fabrication tolerances. The accuracy of the MM method is compared to the Finite Difference Frequency Domain (FDFD) and the Adjoint Variable Method (AVM) and good agreement is observed.

Keywords: Optical Communications, Integrated Optics, Photonic Crystals, Optical Waveguide Discontinuities.

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967 Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Size Prepared by Photoreduction Method on Optical Absorption Spectra of TiO2/Ag/N719 Dye Composite Films

Authors: C. Photiphitak, P. Rakkwamsuk, P. Muthitamongkol, C. Sae-Kung, C. Thanachayanont

Abstract:

TiO2/Ag composite films were prepared by incorporating Ag in the pores of mesoporous TiO2 films using a photoreduction method. The Ag nanoparticle sizes were in a range of 3.66-38.56 nm. The TiO2/Ag composite films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscropy (TEM). The TiO2 films and TiO2/Ag composite films were immersed in a 0.3 mM N719 dye solution and characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The TiO2/Ag/N719 composite film showed that an optimal size of Ag nanoparticles was 19.12 nm and, hence, gave the maximum optical absorption spectra. The improved absorption was due to surface plasmon resonance induced by the Ag nanoparticles to enhance the absorption coefficient of the dye.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticle, TiO2/Ag composite films, Optical properties, surface plasmon resonance

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966 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based On Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: Optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory.

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965 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based On Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga

Abstract:

In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: Optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory.

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964 Influence of Thermal Annealing on The Structural Properties of Vanadyl Phthalocyanine Thin Films: A Comparative Study

Authors: Fakhra Aziz, K. Sulaiman, M. R. Muhammad, M. Hassan Sayyad, Kh. Karimov

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative study on Vanadyl Phthalocyanine (VOPc) thin films deposited by thermal evaporation and spin coating techniques. The samples were prepared on cleaned glass substrates and annealed at various temperatures ranging form 95oC to 155oC. To obtain the morphological and structural properties of VOPc thin films, X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have been implied. The AFM topographic images show a very slight difference in the thermally grown films, before and after annealing, however best results are achieved for the spin-cast film annealed at 125oC. The XRD spectra show no existence of the sharp peaks, suggesting the material to be amorphous. The humps in the XRD patterns indicate the presence of some crystallites.

Keywords: Annealing, optical properties, thin films, Vanadylphthalocyanine.

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963 Monitoring and Prediction of Intra-Crosstalk in All-Optical Network

Authors: Ahmed Jedidi, Mesfer Mohammed Alshamrani, Alwi Mohammad A. Bamhdi

Abstract:

Optical performance monitoring and optical network management are essential in building a reliable, high-capacity, and service-differentiation enabled all-optical network. One of the serious problems in this network is the fact that optical crosstalk is additive, and thus the aggregate effect of crosstalk over a whole AON may be more nefarious than a single point of crosstalk. As results, we note a huge degradation of the Quality of Service (QoS) in our network. For that, it is necessary to identify and monitor the impairments in whole network. In this way, this paper presents new system to identify and monitor crosstalk in AONs in real-time fashion. particular, it proposes a new technique to manage intra-crosstalk in objective to relax QoS of the network.

Keywords: All-optical networks, optical crosstalk, optical cross-connect, crosstalk, monitoring crosstalk.

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962 Optical Properties of WO3-NiO Complementary Electrochromic Devices

Authors: Chih-Ming Wang, Chih-Yu Wen, Ying-Chung Chen, Chun-Chieh Wang, Chien-Chung Hsu, Jui-Yang Chang, Jyun-Min Lin

Abstract:

In this study, we developed a complementary electrochromic device consisting of WO3 and NiO films fabricated by rf-magnetron sputtered. The electrochromic properties of WO3 and NiO films were investigated using cyclic voltammograms (CV), performed on WO3 and NiO films immersed in an electrolyte of 1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC). Optical and electrochemical of the films, as a function of coloration–bleaching cycle, were characterized using an UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and cyclic voltammetry (CV). After investigating the properties of WO3 film, NiO film, and complementary electrochromic devices, we concluded that this device provides good reversibility, low power consumption of -2.5 V in color state, high variation of transmittance of 58.96%, changes in optical density of 0.81 and good memory effect under open-circuit conditions. In addition, electrochromic component penetration rate can be retained below 20% within 24h, showing preferred memory features; however, component coloring and bleaching response time are about 33s.

Keywords: Complementary electrochromic device, Rf-magnetron sputtered, Transmittance, Memory effect, Optical density change

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961 Modal Propagation Properties of Elliptical Core Optical Fibers Considering Stress-Optic Effects

Authors: M. Shah Alam, Sarkar Rahat M. Anwar

Abstract:

The effect of thermally induced stress on the modal properties of highly elliptical core optical fibers is studied in this work using a finite element method. The stress analysis is carried out and anisotropic refractive index change is calculated using both the conventional plane strain approximation and the generalized plane strain approach. After considering the stress optical effect, the modal analysis of the fiber is performed to obtain the solutions of fundamental and higher order modes. The modal effective index, modal birefringence, group effective index, group birefringence, and dispersion of different modes of the fiber are presented. For propagation properties, it can be seen that the results depend much on the approach of stress analysis.

Keywords: Birefringence, dispersion, elliptical core fiber, optical mode analysis, stress-optic effect, stress analysis.

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960 XPM Response of Multiple Quantum Well chirped DFB-SOA All Optical Flip-Flop Switching

Authors: Masoud Jabbari, Mohammad Kazem Moravvej-Farshi, Rahim Ghayour, Abbas Zarifkar

Abstract:

In this paper, based on the coupled-mode and carrier rate equations, derivation of a dynamic model and numerically analysis of a MQW chirped DFB-SOA all-optical flip-flop is done precisely. We have analyzed the effects of strains of QW and MQW and cross phase modulation (XPM) on the dynamic response, and rise and fall times of the DFB-SOA all optical flip flop. We have shown that strained MQW active region in under an optimized condition into a DFB-SOA with chirped grating can improve the switching ON speed limitation in such a of the device, significantly while the fall time is increased. The values of the rise times for such an all optical flip-flop, are obtained in an optimized condition, areas tr=255ps.

Keywords: All-Optical Flip-Flop (AO-FF), Distributed feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFB-SOA), Optical Bistability, Multi quantum well (MQW)

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959 Characterization Non-Deterministic of Optical Channels

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

The use of optical technologies in the telecommunications has been increasing due to its ability to transmit large amounts of data over long distances. However, as in all systems of data transmission, optical communication channels suffer from undesirable and non-deterministic effects, being essential to know the same. Thus, this research allows the assessment of these effects, as well as their characterization and beneficial uses of these effects.

Keywords: Optical communication, optical fiber, non-deterministic effects.

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958 All-Optical Function Based on Self-Similar Spectral Broadening for 2R Regeneration in High-Bit-Rate Optical Transmission Systems

Authors: Leila Graini

Abstract:

In this paper, we demonstrate basic all-optical functions for 2R regeneration (Re-amplification and Re-shaping) based on self-similar spectral broadening in low normal dispersion and highly nonlinear fiber (ND-HNLF) to regenerate the signal through optical filtering including the transfer function characteristics, and output extinction ratio. Our approach of all-optical 2R regeneration is based on those of Mamyshev. The numerical study reveals the self-similar spectral broadening very effective for 2R all-optical regeneration; the proposed design presents high stability compared to a conventional regenerator using SPM broadening with reduction of the intensity fluctuations and improvement of the extinction ratio.

Keywords: All-optical function, 2R optical regeneration, self-similar broadening, Mamyshev regenerator.

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957 Study and Analysis of Optical Intersatellite Links

Authors: Boudene Maamar, Xu Mai

Abstract:

Optical Intersatellite Links (OISLs) are wireless communications using optical signals to interconnect satellites. It is expected to be the next generation wireless communication technology according to its inherent characteristics like: an increased bandwidth, a high data rate, a data transmission security, an immunity to interference, and an unregulated spectrum etc. Optical space links are the best choice for the classical communication schemes due to its distinctive properties; high frequency, small antenna diameter and lowest transmitted power, which are critical factors to define a space communication. This paper discusses the development of free space technology and analyses the parameters and factors to establish a reliable intersatellite links using an optical signal to exchange data between satellites.

Keywords: Optical intersatellite links, optical wireless communications, free space optical communications, next generation wireless communication.

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956 Optical Properties of Some A2BCl4 Type Chlorides

Authors: D. H. Gahane, B. M. Bahirwar, S. V. Moharil

Abstract:

Efficient luminescence is reported for the first time in Eu2+ activated double Chlorides A2BCl4 (A=Alkali metal, B=Alkaline earth element). A simple wet-chemical preparation is described. Emission intensities are comparable to that of the commercial phosphor. Excitation covers near UV region. These phosphors may be useful for applications like solid state lighting, scintillation detectors and X-ray storage using photo-stimulable phosphors.

Keywords: Alkaline Earth, Chloride, Luminescence.

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955 Multicasting Characteristics of All-Optical Triode Based On Negative Feedback Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers

Authors: S. Aisyah Azizan, M. Syafiq Azmi, Yuki Harada, Yoshinobu Maeda, Takaomi Matsutani

Abstract:

We introduced an all-optical multicasting characteristics with wavelength conversion based on a novel all-optical triode using negative feedback semiconductor optical amplifier. This study was demonstrated with a transfer speed of 10 Gb/s to a non-return zero 231-1 pseudorandom bit sequence system. This multi-wavelength converter device can simultaneously provide three channels of output signal with the support of non-inverted and inverted conversion. We studied that an all-optical multicasting and wavelength conversion accomplishing cross gain modulation is effective in a semiconductor optical amplifier which is effective to provide an inverted conversion thus negative feedback. The relationship of received power of back to back signal and output signals with wavelength 1535 nm, 1540 nm, 1545 nm, 1550 nm, and 1555 nm with bit error rate was investigated. It was reported that the output signal wavelengths were successfully converted and modulated with a power penalty of less than 8.7 dB, which the highest is 8.6 dB while the lowest is 4.4 dB. It was proved that all-optical multicasting and wavelength conversion using an optical triode with a negative feedback by three channels at the same time at a speed of 10 Gb/s is a promising device for the new wavelength conversion technology.

Keywords: Cross gain modulation, multicasting, negative feedback optical amplifier, semiconductor optical amplifier.

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954 Study of Electro-Optical Properties of ZnS Nanoparticles Prepared by Colloidal Particles Method

Authors: A. Rahdar, V. Arbabi, H. Ghanbari

Abstract:

ZnS nanoparticles of different size have been synthesized using a colloidal particles method. Zns nanoparticles prepared with capping agent (mercaptoethanol) then were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The particle size of the nanoparticles calculated from the XRD patterns has been found in the range 1.85-2.44nm. Absorption spectra have been obtained using UV-Vis spectrophotometer to find the optical band gap and the obtained values have been founded to being range 3.83-4.59eV. It was also found that energy band gap increase with the increase in molar capping agent solution.

Keywords: ZnS, Nanoparticle, X-ray.

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953 An Experimental Study of Structural, Optical and Magnetic Properties of Lithium Ferrite

Authors: S. Malathi, P. Seenuvasakumaran

Abstract:

Nanomaterials ferrites have applications in making permanent magnets, high density information devices, color imaging etc. In the present examination, lithium ferrite is synthesized by sol-gel process. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) result shows that the structure of lithium ferrite is monoclinic structure. The average particle size 22 nm is calculated by Scherer formula. The lattice parameters and dislocation density (δ) are calculated from XRD data. Strain (ε) values are evaluated from Williamson – hall plot. The FT-IR study reveals the formation of ferrites showing the significant absorption bands. The VU-VIS spectroscopic data is used to calculate direct and indirect optical band gap (Eg) of 1.57eV and 1.01eV respectively for lithium ferrite by using Tauc plot at the edge of the absorption band. The energy dispersive x-ray analysis spectra showed that the expected elements exist in the material. The magnetic behaviour of the materials studied using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM).

Keywords: Sol-gel, dislocation density, energy band gap, VSM.

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952 Structural, Optical and Ferroelectric Properties of BaTiO3 Sintered at Different Temperatures

Authors: Anurag Gaur, Neha Sharma

Abstract:

In this work, we have synthesized BaTiO3 via sol gel method by sintering at different temperatures (600, 700, 800, 900, 10000C) and studied their structural, optical and ferroelectric properties through X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectrophotometer and PE Loop Tracer. X-ray diffraction patterns of barium titanate samples show that the peaks of the diffractogram are successfully indexed with the tetragonal and cubic structure of BaTiO3. The Optical band gap calculated through UV Visible spectrophotometer varies from 4.37 to 3.80 eV for the samples sintered at 600 to 10000C, respectively. The particle size calculated through transmission electron microscopy varies from 20 to 40 nm for the samples sintered at 600 to 10000C, respectively. Moreover, it has been observed that the ferroelectricity increases as we increase the sintering temperature.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Ferroelectricity, Sol-gel method.

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951 Effect of Fire Retardant Painting Product on Smoke Optical Density of Burning Natural Wood Samples

Authors: Abdullah N. Olimat, Ahmad S. Awad, Faisal M. AL-Ghathian

Abstract:

Natural wood is used in many applications in Jordan such as furniture, partitions constructions, and cupboards. Experimental work for smoke produced by the combustion of certain wood samples was studied. Smoke generated from burning of natural wood, is considered as a major cause of death in furniture fires. The critical parameter for life safety in fires is the available time for escape, so the visual obscuration due to smoke release during fire is taken into consideration. The effect of smoke, produced by burning of wood, depends on the amount of smoke released in case of fire. The amount of smoke production, apparently, affects the time available for the occupants to escape. To achieve the protection of life of building occupants during fire growth, fire retardant painting products are tested. The tested samples of natural wood include Beech, Ash, Beech Pine, and white Beech Pine. A smoke density chamber manufactured by fire testing technology has been used to perform measurement of smoke properties. The procedure of test was carried out according to the ISO-5659. A nonflammable vertical radiant heat flux of 25 kW/m2 is exposed to the wood samples in a horizontal orientation. The main objective of the current study is to carry out the experimental tests for samples of natural woods to evaluate the capability to escape in case of fire and the fire safety requirements. Specific optical density, transmittance, thermal conductivity, and mass loss are main measured parameters. Also, comparisons between samples with paint and with no paint are carried out between the selected samples of woods.

Keywords: Optical density, specific optical density, transmittance, visibility.

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950 Routing Capability and Blocking Analysis of Dynamic ROADM Optical Networks (Category - II) for Dynamic Traffic

Authors: Indumathi T. S., T. Srinivas, B. Siva Kumar

Abstract:

Reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers (ROADMs) can be classified into three categories based on their underlying switching technologies. Category I consists of a single large optical switch; category II is composed of a number of small optical switches aligned in parallel; and category III has a single optical switch and only one wavelength being added/dropped. In this paper, to evaluate the wavelength-routing capability of ROADMs of category-II in dynamic optical networks,the dynamic traffic models are designed based on Bernoulli, Poisson distributions for smooth and regular types of traffic. Through Analytical and Simulation results, the routing power of cat-II of ROADM networks for two traffic models are determined.

Keywords: Fully-Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers (FROADMs), Limited Tunability in Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop multiplexers (LROADM), Multiplexer/De- Multiplexer (MUX/DEMUX), Reconfigurable Optical Add-Drop Multiplexers (ROADMs), Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM).

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