Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31172
Optical Properties of WO3-NiO Complementary Electrochromic Devices

Authors: Chih-Ming Wang, Chih-Yu Wen, Ying-Chung Chen, Chun-Chieh Wang, Chien-Chung Hsu, Jui-Yang Chang, Jyun-Min Lin


In this study, we developed a complementary electrochromic device consisting of WO3 and NiO films fabricated by rf-magnetron sputtered. The electrochromic properties of WO3 and NiO films were investigated using cyclic voltammograms (CV), performed on WO3 and NiO films immersed in an electrolyte of 1 M LiClO4 in propylene carbonate (PC). Optical and electrochemical of the films, as a function of coloration–bleaching cycle, were characterized using an UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and cyclic voltammetry (CV). After investigating the properties of WO3 film, NiO film, and complementary electrochromic devices, we concluded that this device provides good reversibility, low power consumption of -2.5 V in color state, high variation of transmittance of 58.96%, changes in optical density of 0.81 and good memory effect under open-circuit conditions. In addition, electrochromic component penetration rate can be retained below 20% within 24h, showing preferred memory features; however, component coloring and bleaching response time are about 33s.

Keywords: transmittance, memory effect, Complementary electrochromic device, Rf-magnetron sputtered, Optical density change

Digital Object Identifier (DOI):

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2772


[1] C.G. Granqvist, "Handbook of Inorganic Electrochromic Materials,” in Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1995.
[2] H. Ohno and H. Yamazaki, "Electrochromics and smart windows,” Solid State Ions, vol. 59, pp. 213-214, 1993.
[3] A. Yasuda and J. Seto, "Electrochromic studies of molecular electrochromism,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 25, pp. 257-268, 1992.
[4] D. Dini, F. Decker and E. Maasetti, "A comparison of the electrochromic properties of WO3 films intercalated with H+, Li+ and Na+,” J. Appl. Electrochem., vol. 26, pp. 647-653, 1996.
[5] K. Nagase, Y. Shimizu, N. Minya and N. Yamazoe, "Electrochromism of gold-vanadium pentoxide composite thin-films prepared by alternating thermal deposition ,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 64, pp. 1059-1061, 1994.
[6] C.G. Granqvist, "Electrochromic devices,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., vol 25, pp. 2907-2912, 2005.
[7] S.A. Sapp, G.A. Sotzing and J.R. Reynolds, "High contrast ratio and fast-switching dual polymer electrochromic devices,” Chem. Mater., vol. 10, pp. 2101-2108, 1998.
[8] S.Y. Lin, C.M. Wang, K.S. Kao, Y.C. Chen and C.C. Liu, "Electrochromic properties of MoO3 thin films derived by a sol-gel process,” J. Sol-Gel Sci. Technol., vol. 53, pp. 51-58, 2010.
[9] C.S. Hsu, C.C. Chen, H.T. Huang, C.H. Peng and W.C. Hsu, "Electrochromic properties of nanocrystalline MoO3 thin films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, pp. 4839-4844, 2008.
[10] D.S. Dalavi, M.J. Suryavanshi, D.S. Patil, S.S. Mali, A.V. Moholkar, S.S. Kalagi, S.A. Vanalkar, S.R. Kang, J.H. Kim and P.S. Patil, "Nanoporous nickel oxide thin films and its improved electrochromic performance: Effect of thickness,” Appl. Surf. Sci., vol. 257, pp. 2647-2656, 2011.
[11] Y.S. Lin, P.W. Chen, D.J. Lin, P.Y. Chuang, T.H. Tsai,Y.C. Shiah and Y.C. Yu, "Electrochromic performance of reactive plasma-sputtered NiOx thin films on flexible PET/ITO substrates for flexible electrochromic devices,” Surf. Coat. Technol., vol. 205, pp. S216-S221, 2010.
[12] H. Inaba, M. Iwaku, T. Tatsuma and N. Oyama, "Electrochemical intercalation of cations into an amorphous WO3 film and accompanying changes in mass and surface properties,” J. Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 387, pp. 71-77, 1995.
[13] A. Kraft, M. Rottmann and K.H. Heckner, "Large-area electrochromic glazing with ion-conducting PVB interlayer and two complementary electrodeposited electrochromic layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells, vol. 90, pp. 469-476, 2006.
[14] S.Y. Lin, Y.C. Chen, C.M. Wang and T.Y. Shih, "Study of MoO3-NiO complementary electrochromic devices using a gel polymer electrolyte,” Solid State Ions, vol. 212, pp. 81-87, 2012.