Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 469

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Geological and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

49 Sedimentation and its Challenges for Operation and Maintenance of Hydraulic Structures using SHARC Software- A Case Study of Eastern Intake in Dez Diversion Dam in Iran

Authors: M.R. Mansoujian, N. Hedayat, M. Mashal, H, Kiamanesh

Abstract:

Analytical investigation of the sedimentation processes in the river engineering and hydraulic structures is of vital importance as this can affect water supply for the cultivating lands in the command area. The reason being that gradual sediment formation behind the reservoir can reduce the nominal capacity of these dams. The aim of the present paper is to analytically investigate sedimentation process along the river course and behind the storage reservoirs in general and the Eastern Intake of the Dez Diversion weir in particular using the SHARC software. Results of the model indicated the water level at 115.97m whereas the real time measurement from the river cross section was 115.98 m which suggests a significantly close relation between them. The average transported sediment load in the river was measured at 0.25mm , from which it can be concluded that nearly 100% of the suspended loads in river are moving which suggests no sediment settling but indicates that almost all sediment loads enters into the intake. It was further showed the average sediment diameter entering the intake to be 0.293 mm which in turn suggests that about 85% of suspended sediments in the river entre the intake. Comparison of the results from the SHARC model with those obtained form the SSIIM software suggests quite similar outputs but distinguishing the SHARC model as more appropriate for the analysis of simpler problems than other model.

Keywords: SHARC, Eastern Intake, Dez Diversion Weir

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48 Investigation of Some Methodologies in Providing Erosion Maps of Surface, Rill and Gully and Erosion Features

Authors: A. Mohammadi Torkashvand, N. Haghighat

Abstract:

Some methodologies were compared in providing erosion maps of surface, rill and gully and erosion features, in research which took place in the Varamin sub-basin, north-east Tehran, Iran. A photomorphic unit map was produced from processed satellite images, and four other maps were prepared by the integration of different data layers, including slope, plant cover, geology, land use, rocks erodibility and land units. Comparison of ground truth maps of erosion types and working unit maps indicated that the integration of land use, land units and rocks erodibility layers with satellite image photomorphic units maps provide the best methods in producing erosion types maps.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System, Erosion Features

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47 Climate Change and Environmental Education: The Application of Concept Map for Representing the Knowledge Complexity of Climate Change

Authors: Hsueh-Chih, Chen, Yau-Ting, Sung, Tsai-Wen, Lin, Hung-Teng, Chou

Abstract:

It has formed an essential issue that Climate Change, composed of highly knowledge complexity, reveals its significant impact on human existence. Therefore, specific national policies, some of which present the educational aspects, have been published for overcoming the imperative problem. Accordingly, the study aims to analyze as well as integrate the relationship between Climate Change and environmental education and apply the perspective of concept map to represent the knowledge contents and structures of Climate Change; by doing so, knowledge contents of Climate Change could be represented in an even more comprehensive way and manipulated as the tool for environmental education. The method adapted for this study is knowledge conversion model compounded of the platform for experts and teachers, who were the participants for this study, to cooperate and combine each participant-s standpoints into a complete knowledge framework that is the foundation for structuring the concept map. The result of this research contains the important concepts, the precise propositions and the entire concept map for representing the robust concepts of Climate Change.

Keywords: Climate Change, concept map, knowledge complexity

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46 Spatial Mapping of Dengue Incidence: A Case Study in Hulu Langat District, Selangor, Malaysia

Authors: Er, A. C., Rosli, M. H., Asmahani A., Mohamad Naim M. R., Harsuzilawati M.

Abstract:

Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection that has peaked to an alarming rate in recent decades. It can be found in tropical and sub-tropical climate. In Malaysia, dengue has been declared as one of the national health threat to the public. This study aimed to map the spatial distributions of dengue cases in the district of Hulu Langat, Selangor via a combination of Geographic Information System (GIS) and spatial statistic tools. Data related to dengue was gathered from the various government health agencies. The location of dengue cases was geocoded using a handheld GPS Juno SB Trimble. A total of 197 dengue cases occurring in 2003 were used in this study. Those data then was aggregated into sub-district level and then converted into GIS format. The study also used population or demographic data as well as the boundary of Hulu Langat. To assess the spatial distribution of dengue cases three spatial statistics method (Moran-s I, average nearest neighborhood (ANN) and kernel density estimation) were applied together with spatial analysis in the GIS environment. Those three indices were used to analyze the spatial distribution and average distance of dengue incidence and to locate the hot spot of dengue cases. The results indicated that the dengue cases was clustered (p < 0.01) when analyze using Moran-s I with z scores 5.03. The results from ANN analysis showed that the average nearest neighbor ratio is less than 1 which is 0.518755 (p < 0.0001). From this result, we can expect the dengue cases pattern in Hulu Langat district is exhibiting a cluster pattern. The z-score for dengue incidence within the district is -13.0525 (p < 0.0001). It was also found that the significant spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidences occurs at an average distance of 380.81 meters (p < 0.0001). Several locations especially residential area also had been identified as the hot spots of dengue cases in the district.

Keywords: Spatial statistics, Dengue, Spatial analysis, geographic information system (GIS)

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45 Quick Spatial Assessment of Drought Information Derived from MODIS Imagery Using Amplitude Analysis

Authors: Meng-Lung Lin, Qiubing Wang, Fujun Sun, Tzu-How Chu, Yi-Shiang Shiu

Abstract:

The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalized difference moisture index (NDMI) derived from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) have been widely used to identify spatial information of drought condition. The relationship between NDVI and NDMI has been analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis and showed strong positive relationship. The drought indices have detected drought conditions and identified spatial extents of drought. A comparison between normal year and drought year demonstrates that the amplitude analysis considered both vegetation and moisture condition is an effective method to identify drought condition. We proposed the amplitude analysis is useful for quick spatial assessment of drought information at a regional scale.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Drought, NDVI, NDMI, spatialassessment

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44 Mapping Paddy Rice Agriculture using Multi-temporal FORMOSAT-2 Images

Authors: Yi-Shiang Shiu, Meng-Lung Lin, Kang-Tsung Chang, Tzu-How Chu

Abstract:

Most paddy rice fields in East Asia are small parcels, and the weather conditions during the growing season are usually cloudy. FORMOSAT-2 multi-spectral images have an 8-meter resolution and one-day recurrence, ideal for mapping paddy rice fields in East Asia. To map rice fields, this study first determined the transplanting and the most active tillering stages of paddy rice and then used multi-temporal images to distinguish different growing characteristics between paddy rice and other ground covers. The unsupervised ISODATA (iterative self-organizing data analysis techniques) and supervised maximum likelihood were both used to discriminate paddy rice fields, with training areas automatically derived from ten-year cultivation parcels in Taiwan. Besides original bands in multi-spectral images, we also generated normalized difference vegetation index and experimented with object-based pre-classification and post-classification. This paper discusses results of different image classification methods in an attempt to find a precise and automatic solution to mapping paddy rice in Taiwan.

Keywords: normalized difference vegetation index, paddy rice fields; multi-temporal; FORMOSAT-2images, object-basedclassification

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43 Geochemistry of Cenozoic Basaltic Rocksaround Liuhe National Geopark, Jiangsu Province, Eastern China: Petrogenesis and Mantle Source

Authors: Yung-Tan Lee, Ren-Yi Huang, Ju-Chin Chen, Jyh-Yi Shih, Meng-Lung Lin, Hsiao-Ling Yu, Yen-Tsui Hu, Chih-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Cenozoic basalts found in Jiangsu province of eastern China include tholeiites and alkali basalts. The present paper analyzed the major, trace elements, rare earth elements of these Cenozoic basalts and combined with Sr-Nd isotopic compositions proposed by Chen et al. (1990)[1] in the literatures to discuss the petrogenesis of these basalts and the geochemical characteristics of the source mantle. Based on major, trace elements and fractional crystallization model established by Brooks and Nielsen (1982)[2] we suggest that the basaltic magma has experienced olivine + clinopyroxene fractionation during its evolution. The chemical compositions of basaltic rocks from Jiangsu province indicate that these basalts may belong to the same magmatic system. Spidergrams reveal that Cenozoic basalts from Jiangsu province have geochemical characteristics similar to those of ocean island basalts(OIB). The slight positive Nb and Ti anomalies found in basaltic rocks of this study suggest the presence of Ti-bearing minerals in the mantle source and these Ti-bearing minerals had contributed to basaltic magma during partial melting, indicating a metasomatic event might have occurred before the partial melting. Based on the Sr vs. Nd isotopic ratio plots, we suggest that Jiangsu basalts may be derived from partial melting of mantle source which may represent two-end members mixing of DMM and EM-I. Some Jiangsu basaltic magma may be derived from partial melting of EM-I heated by the upwelling asthenospheric mantle or asthenospheric diapirism.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Fractional Crystallization, cenozoic basalts, Jiangsu Province

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42 Automatic Detection and Spatio-temporal Analysis of Commercial Accumulations Using Digital Yellow Page Data

Authors: Yuki. Akiyama, Hiroaki. Sengoku, Ryosuke. Shibasaki

Abstract:

In this study, the locations and areas of commercial accumulations were detected by using digital yellow page data. An original buffering method that can accurately create polygons of commercial accumulations is proposed in this paper.; by using this method, distribution of commercial accumulations can be easily created and monitored over a wide area. The locations, areas, and time-series changes of commercial accumulations in the South Kanto region can be monitored by integrating polygons of commercial accumulations with the time-series data of digital yellow page data. The circumstances of commercial accumulations were shown to vary according to areas, that is, highly- urbanized regions such as the city center of Tokyo and prefectural capitals, suburban areas near large cities, and suburban and rural areas.

Keywords: Urban Monitoring, spatio-temporal analysis, Commercial accumulations, Yellow page data

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41 Physical-Chemical Surface Characterization of Lake Nasser Sediments

Authors: Yousra M. Zakaria Helmy, Edward H. Smith

Abstract:

Lake Nasser is one of the largest reservoirs in the world. Over 120 million metric tons of sediments are deposited in its dead storage zone every year. The main objective of the present work was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of Lake Nasser sediments. The sample had a relatively low surface area of 2.9 m2/g which increased more than 3-fold upon chemical activation. The main chemical elements of the raw sediments were C, O and Si with some traces of Al, Fe and Ca. The organic functional groups for the tested sample included O-H, C=C, C-H and C-O, with indications of Si-O and other metal-C and/or metal-O bonds normally associated with clayey materials. Potentiometric titration of the sample in different ionic strength backgrounds revealed an alkaline material with very strong positive surface charge at pH values just a little less than the pH of zero charge which is ~9. Surface interactions of the sediments with the background electrolyte were significant. An advanced surface complexation model was able to capture these effects, employing a single-site approach to represent protolysis reactions in aqueous solution, and to determine the significant surface species in the pH range of environmental interest.

Keywords: Sediments, surface characterization, Lake Nasser

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40 Environmental Management in Arid Regions:The Question of Water

Authors: Yousef Bakhbakhi, Mourad Boumaza

Abstract:

Only recently have water ethics received focused interest in the international water community. Because water is metabolically basic to life, an ethical dimension persists in every decision related to water. Water ethics at once express human society-s approach to water and act as guidelines for behaviour. Ideas around water are often implicit and embedded as assumptions. They can be entrenched in behaviour and difficult to contest because they are difficult to “see". By explicitly revealing the ethical ideas underlying water-related decisions, human society-s relationship with water, and with natural systems of which water is part, can be contested and shifted or be accepted with conscious intention by human society. In recent decades, improved understanding of water-s importance for ecosystem functioning and ecological services for human survival is moving us beyond this growth-driven, supplyfocused management paradigm. Environmental ethics challenge this paradigm by extending the ethical sphere to the environment and thus water or water Resources management per se. An ethical approach is a legitimate, important, and often ignored approach to effect change in environmental decision making. This qualitative research explores principles of water ethics and examines the underlying ethical precepts of selected water policy examples. The constructed water ethic principles act as a set of criteria against which a policy comparison can be established. This study shows that water Resources management is a progressive issue by embracing full public participation and a new planning model, and knowledgegeneration initiatives.

Keywords: Environmental Management, Water Resources, publicparticipation

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39 The Survey and the Comparison of Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance and Minimum Distance Methods in Preparing Landuse Map in the Western Part of Isfahan Province

Authors: Ali Gholami, M.Esfadiari, M.H.Masihabadi

Abstract:

In this research three methods of Maximum Likelihood, Mahalanobis Distance and Minimum Distance were analyzed in the Western part of Isfahan province in the Iran country. For this purpose, the IRS satellite images and various land preparation uses in region including rangelands, irrigation farming, dry farming, gardens and urban areas were separated and identified. In these methods, matrix error and Kappa index were calculated and accuracy of each method, based on percentages: 53.13, 56.64 and 48.44, were obtained respectively. Considering the low accuracy of these methods to separate land uses due to spread of the land uses, it-s suggested the visual interpretation of the map, to preparing the land use map in this region. The map prepared by visual interpretation is in high accuracy if it will be accompany with the visit of the region.

Keywords: Aghche Region, land use map, MaximumLikelihood, Mahalanobis Distance and Minimum Distance

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38 Geochemistry of Tektites from Hainan Island and Northeast Thailand

Authors: Yung-Tan Lee, Ren-Yi Huang, Ju-Chin Chen, Jyh-Yi Shih, Wen-Feng Chang, Yen-Tsui Hu, Chih-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Twenty seven tektites from the Wenchang area, Hainan province (south China) and five tektites from the Khon Kaen area (northeast Thailand) were analyzed for major and trace element contents and Rb-Sr isotopic compositions. All the samples studied are splash-form tektites. Tektites of this study are characterized by high SiO2 contents ranging from 71.95 to 74.07 wt% which is consistent with previously published analyses of Australasian tektites. The trace element ratios Ba/Rb (avg. 3.89), Th/Sm (avg. 2.40), Sm/Sc (avg. 0.45), Th/Sc (avg. 0.99) and the rare earth elements (REE) contents of tektites of this study are similar to the average upper continental crust. Based on the chemical composition, it is suggested that tektites in this study are derived from similar parental material and are similar to the post-Archean upper crustal rocks. The major and trace element abundances of tektites analyzed indicate that the parental material of tektites may be a terrestrial sedimentary deposit. The tektites from the Wenchang area, Hainan Island have high positive εSr(0) values-ranging from 184.5~196.5 which indicate that the parental material for these tektites have similar Sr isotopic compositions to old terrestrial sedimentary rocks and they were not dominantly derived from recent young sediments (such as soil or loess). Based on Rb-Sr isotopic data, it has been suggested by Blum (1992) [1]that the depositional age of sedimentary target materials is close to 170Ma (Jurassic). According to the model suggested by Ho and Chen (1996)[2], mixing calculations for various amounts and combinations of target rocks have been carried out. We consider that the best fit for tektites from the Wenchang area is a mixture of 47% shale, 23% sandstone, 25% greywacke and 5% quartzite, and the other tektites from Khon Kaen area is a mixture of 46% shale, 2% sandstone, 20% greywacke and 32% quartzite.

Keywords: Geochemistry, Tektites, Hainan Island, Northeast Thailand

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37 Integrating Decision Tree and Spatial Cluster Analysis for Landslide Susceptibility Zonation

Authors: Chien-Min Chu, Bor-Wen Tsai, Kang-Tsung Chang

Abstract:

Landslide susceptibility map delineates the potential zones for landslide occurrence. Previous works have applied multivariate methods and neural networks for mapping landslide susceptibility. This study proposed a new approach to integrate decision tree model and spatial cluster statistic for assessing landslide susceptibility spatially. A total of 2057 landslide cells were digitized for developing the landslide decision tree model. The relationships of landslides and instability factors were explicitly represented by using tree graphs in the model. The local Getis-Ord statistics were used to cluster cells with high landslide probability. The analytic result from the local Getis-Ord statistics was classed to create a map of landslide susceptibility zones. The map was validated using new landslide data with 482 cells. Results of validation show an accuracy rate of 86.1% in predicting new landslide occurrence. This indicates that the proposed approach is useful for improving landslide susceptibility mapping.

Keywords: Landslide susceptibility Zonation, Decision treemodel, Spatial cluster, Local Getis-Ord statistics

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36 Carbonate Microfacies Analysis of Sinjar Formation from Qara Dagh Mountains, South–West of Sulaimani City, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Authors: Heyam Daod

Abstract:

The paper describes the carbonate microfacies identified in the Sinjar Formation (Late Paleocene–Early Eocene) cropping out in Qara Dagh Mountain, near Sulekan Village approximately 20km south–west of Sulaimani (Iraq). One section (62m thick) has been measured in the field and closely sampled to undertake detailed microfaciesal and micropalaeontological studies to determine the formation-s age and environment of deposition. A samples were collected illustrating all the lithological changes along the section. The limestone in the studied area is hard and extremely rich in large foraminifers (soritids, rotaliids, nummulites, miliolids) and green algae (dasycladales). The investigation of the thin sections allowed us to identify the carbonate microfacies (18 types and subtypes) and the micropaleontological association (foraminifers and green algae), to determine the age of formation and to reconstruct the paleoenvironment of deposition (fore-reef, reef, back-reef). Based on the field observations and the studied thin sections, we determined three Units of a carbonate platform (I, II and III) from the base to the top of the section: Unit I with coralgal associations, Unit II is dominated by larger foraminifers and haracterized by the absence of coralgal associations, while Unit III is dominated by small foraminifers (mostly miliolids), peloids and green algae. It is partially dolomitized.

Keywords: Facies analysis, Late Paleocene–Early Eocene, Sinjar Formation, SW Sulaimani (Iraq)

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35 Evaluation of Tension Capacity of Pile (Case Study in Sandy Soil)

Authors: Shooshpasha I., Kiakojoori M., Mirzagoltabar R. A.

Abstract:

High building constructions are increasing in south beaches of the Caspian Sea because of tourist attractions and limitation of residential areas. According to saturated alluvial fields transfer of load from high structures to the soil by piles is inevitable. In spite of most of these piles are under compression forces, tension piles are used in special conditions. Few studies have been conducted because of the limited use of these piles. Tension capacity of openended pipe piles in full scale was tested in this study. The length of the bored piles was 420 up to 480 cm and all were in 120 cm diameter. The results of testing 7 piles were compared with the results of relations given by researches.

Keywords: Sand, Piles, shaft friction, tension capacity

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34 In-situ Chemical Oxidation of Residual TCE by Permanganate in Epikarst

Authors: Nihat Hakan Akyol, Irfan Yolcubal

Abstract:

In-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) has been widely used for source zone remediation of Dense Nonaqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) in subsurface environments. DNAPL source zones for karst aquifers are generally located in epikarst where the DNAPL mass is trapped either in karst soil or at the regolith contact with carbonate bedrock. This study aims to investigate the performance of oxidation of residual trichloroethylene found in such environments by potassium permanganate. Batch and flow cell experiments were conducted to determine the kinetics and the mass removal rate of TCE. pH change, Cl production, TCE and MnO4 destruction were monitored routinely during experiments. Nonreactive tracer tests were also conducted prior and after the oxidation process to determine the influence of oxidation on flow conditions. The results show that oxidant consumption rate of the calcareous epikarst soil was significant and the oxidant demand was determined to be 20 g KMnO4/kg soil. Oxidation rate of residual TCE (1.26x10-3 s-1) was faster than the oxidant consumption rate of the soil (2.54 - 2.92x10-4 s-1) at only high oxidant concentrations (> 40 mM KMnO4). Half life of TCE oxidation ranged from 7.9 to 10.7 min. Although highly significant fraction of residual TCE mass in the system was destroyed by permanganate oxidation, TCE concentration in the effluent remained above its MCL. Flow interruption tests indicate that efficiency of ISCO was limited by the rate of TCE dissolution and the rate-limited desorption of TCE. The residence time and the initial concentration of the oxidant in the source zone also controlled the efficiency of ISCO in epikarst.

Keywords: in-situ chemical oxidation, Epikarst, permanganate

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33 Simulating Climate Change (Temperature and Soil Moisture) in a Mixed-Deciduous Forest, Ontario, Canada

Authors: David Goldblum, Lesley S. Rigg

Abstract:

To simulate expected climate change, we implemented a two-factor (temperature and soil moisture) field design in a forest in Ontario, Canada. To manipulate moisture input, we erected rain-exclusion structures. Under each structure, plots were watered with one of three treatments and thermally controlled with three heat treatments to simulate changes in air temperature and rainfall based on the climate model (GCM) predictions for the study area. Environmental conditions (including untreated controls) were monitored tracking air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture, and photosynthetically active radiation. We measured rainfall and relative humidity at the site outside the rain-exclusion structures. Analyses of environmental conditions demonstrates that the temperature manipulation was most effective at maintaining target temperature during the early part of the growing season, but it was more difficult to keep the warmest treatment at 5º C above ambient by late summer. Target moisture regimes were generally achieved however incoming solar radiation was slightly attenuated by the structures.

Keywords: Climate Change, Forest, Acer saccharum, environmental manipulation

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32 A Tool for Modeling Slope Instability Triggered by Piping

Authors: Paola Gattinoni, Vincenzo Francani

Abstract:

The paper deals with the analysis of triggering conditions and evolution processes of piping phenomena, in relation to both mechanical and hydraulic aspects. In particular, the aim of the study is to predict slope instabilities triggered by piping, analysing the conditions necessary for a flow failure to occur. Really, the mechanical effect involved in the loads redistribution around the pipe is coupled to the drainage process arising from higher permeability of the pipe. If after the pipe formation, the drainage goes prevented for pipe clogging, the porewater pressure increase can lead to the failure or even the liquefaction, with a subsequent flow slide. To simulate the piping evolution and to verify relevant stability conditions, a iterative coupled modelling approach has been pointed out. As example, the proposed tool has been applied to the Stava Valley disaster (July, 1985), demonstrating that piping might be one of triggering phenomena of the tailings dams collapse.

Keywords: Modeling, Liquefaction, piping, Flow failure, porewater pressure

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31 Simulation of Organic Matter Variability on a Sugarbeet Field Using the Computer Based Geostatistical Methods

Authors: M. Rüstü Karaman, Tekin Susam, Fatih Er, Servet Yaprak, Osman Karkacıer

Abstract:

Computer based geostatistical methods can offer effective data analysis possibilities for agricultural areas by using vectorial data and their objective informations. These methods will help to detect the spatial changes on different locations of the large agricultural lands, which will lead to effective fertilization for optimal yield with reduced environmental pollution. In this study, topsoil (0-20 cm) and subsoil (20-40 cm) samples were taken from a sugar beet field by 20 x 20 m grids. Plant samples were also collected from the same plots. Some physical and chemical analyses for these samples were made by routine methods. According to derived variation coefficients, topsoil organic matter (OM) distribution was more than subsoil OM distribution. The highest C.V. value of 17.79% was found for topsoil OM. The data were analyzed comparatively according to kriging methods which are also used widely in geostatistic. Several interpolation methods (Ordinary,Simple and Universal) and semivariogram models (Spherical, Exponential and Gaussian) were tested in order to choose the suitable methods. Average standard deviations of values estimated by simple kriging interpolation method were less than average standard deviations (topsoil OM ± 0.48, N ± 0.37, subsoil OM ± 0.18) of measured values. The most suitable interpolation method was simple kriging method and exponantial semivariogram model for topsoil, whereas the best optimal interpolation method was simple kriging method and spherical semivariogram model for subsoil. The results also showed that these computer based geostatistical methods should be tested and calibrated for different experimental conditions and semivariogram models.

Keywords: Organic Matter, kriging, Geostatistic, sugarbeet

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30 Methodology of Restoration Research in Czech Republic

Authors: M. Rehor, V. Ondracek

Abstract:

Restoration research has become important on principle recently in Czech Republic. The reason is simple. More than 70 % of mined brown coal comes from the North Bohemian Basin these days. Open cast brown coal mining has lead to large damage on the landscape. Reclamation of phytotoxic areas is one of the serious problems in the North Bohemian Basin. It mainly concerns the areas with the occurrence of overburden rocks from the coal bed enriched with coal. The presented paper includes the characteristics of the important phytotoxic areas and the methodology of their reclamation. The results are documented with the long term monitoring of physical, mineralogical, chemical and pedological parameters of rocks in the testing areas.

Keywords: Methodology, Restoration, Brown coal, dump

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29 Run-off Storage in Sand Reservoirs as an Alternative Source of Water Supply for Rura land Semi-arid areas of South Africa

Authors: Olufisayo A. Olufayo, Fred A. O. Otieno, George M. Ochieng

Abstract:

Abstraction of water from the dry river sand-beds is well-known as an alternative source of water during dry seasons. Internally, because of the form of sand particles, voids are created which can store water in the riverbeds. Large rivers are rare in South Africa. Many rivers are sand river types and without water during the prolonged dry periods. South Africa has not taken full advantage of water storage in sand as a solution to the growing water scarcity both in urban and rural areas. The paper reviews the benefits of run-off storage in sand reservoirs gained from other arid areas and need for adoption in rural areas of South Africa as an alternative water supply where it is probable.

Keywords: Groundwater, Perennial river, Run-off storage, Sandreservoir

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28 Investigation of the Possibility to Prepare Supervised Classification Map of Gully Erosion by RS and GIS

Authors: Ali Mohammadi Torkashvand, Hamid Reza Alipour

Abstract:

This study investigates the possibility providing gully erosion map by the supervised classification of satellite images (ETM+) in two mountainous and plain land types. These land types were the part of Varamin plain, Tehran province, and Roodbar subbasin, Guilan province, as plain and mountain land types, respectively. The position of 652 and 124 ground control points were recorded by GPS respectively in mountain and plain land types. Soil gully erosion, land uses or plant covers were investigated in these points. Regarding ground control points and auxiliary points, training points of gully erosion and other surface features were introduced to software (Ilwis 3.3 Academic). The supervised classified map of gully erosion was prepared by maximum likelihood method and then, overall accuracy of this map was computed. Results showed that the possibility supervised classification of gully erosion isn-t possible, although it need more studies for results generalization to other mountainous regions. Also, with increasing land uses and other surface features in plain physiography, it decreases the classification of accuracy.

Keywords: MAP, supervised classification, gully erosion

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27 Simulation of Snow Covers Area by a Physical based Model

Authors: Hossein Zeinivand, Florimond De Smedt

Abstract:

Snow cover is an important phenomenon in hydrology, hence modeling the snow accumulation and melting is an important issue in places where snowmelt significantly contributes to runoff and has significant effect on water balance. The physics-based models are invariably distributed, with the basin disaggregated into zones or grid cells. Satellites images provide valuable data to verify the accuracy of spatially distributed model outputs. In this study a spatially distributed physically based model (WetSpa) was applied to predict snow cover and melting in the Latyan dam watershed in Iran. Snowmelt is simulated based on an energy balance approach. The model is applied and calibrated with one year of observed daily precipitation, air temperature, windspeed, and daily potential evaporation. The predicted snow-covered area is compared with remotely sensed images (MODIS). The results show that simulated snow cover area SCA has a good agreement with satellite image snow cover area SCA from MODIS images. The model performance is also tested by statistical and graphical comparison of simulated and measured discharges entering the Latyan dam reservoir.

Keywords: satellite image, Physical based model, Snow covers

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26 Modeling Spatial Distributions of Point and Nonpoint Source Pollution Loadings in the Great Lakes Watersheds

Authors: Chansheng He, Carlo DeMarchi

Abstract:

A physically based, spatially-distributed water quality model is being developed to simulate spatial and temporal distributions of material transport in the Great Lakes Watersheds of the U.S. Multiple databases of meteorology, land use, topography, hydrography, soils, agricultural statistics, and water quality were used to estimate nonpoint source loading potential in the study watersheds. Animal manure production was computed from tabulations of animals by zip code area for the census years of 1987, 1992, 1997, and 2002. Relative chemical loadings for agricultural land use were calculated from fertilizer and pesticide estimates by crop for the same periods. Comparison of these estimates to the monitored total phosphorous load indicates that both point and nonpoint sources are major contributors to the total nutrient loads in the study watersheds, with nonpoint sources being the largest contributor, particularly in the rural watersheds. These estimates are used as the input to the distributed water quality model for simulating pollutant transport through surface and subsurface processes to Great Lakes waters. Visualization and GIS interfaces are developed to visualize the spatial and temporal distribution of the pollutant transport in support of water management programs.

Keywords: Nonpoint Source Pollution, Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model, Great LakesWatersheds, and point sources

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25 Determining the Best Method of Stability Landslide by Using of DSS (Case Study: Landslide in Hasan Salaran, Kurdistan Province in Iran)

Authors: S. Kamyabi, M. Salari, H. Shahabi

Abstract:

One of the processes of slope that occurs every year in Iran and some parts of world and cause a lot of criminal and financial harms is called landslide. They are plenty of method to stability landslide in soil and rock slides. The use of the best method with the least cost and in the shortest time is important for researchers. In this research, determining the best method of stability is investigated by using of Decision Support systems. DSS is made for this purpose and was used (for Hasan Salaran area in Kurdistan). Field study data from topography, slope, geology, geometry of landslide and the related features was used. The related data entered decision making managements programs (DSS) (ALES).Analysis of mass stability indicated the instability potential at present. Research results show that surface and sub surface drainage the best method of stabilizing. Analysis of stability shows that acceptable increase in security coefficient is a consequence of drainage.

Keywords: Decision Support Systems, Stability, Landslide, Iran, Hasan Salaran landslide, Kurdistan province

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24 Classification of Soil Aptness to Establish of Panicum virgatum in Mississippi using Sensitivity Analysis and GIS

Authors: Eduardo F. Arias, William Cooke III, Zhaofei Fan, William Kingery

Abstract:

During the last decade Panicum virgatum, known as Switchgrass, has been broadly studied because of its remarkable attributes as a substitute pasture and as a functional biofuel source. The objective of this investigation was to establish soil suitability for Switchgrass in the State of Mississippi. A linear weighted additive model was developed to forecast soil suitability. Multicriteria analysis and Sensitivity analysis were utilized to adjust and optimize the model. The model was fit using seven years of field data associated with soils characteristics collected from Natural Resources Conservation System - United States Department of Agriculture (NRCS-USDA). The best model was selected by correlating calculated biomass yield with each model's soils-based output for Switchgrass suitability. Coefficient of determination (r2) was the decisive factor used to establish the 'best' soil suitability model. Coefficients associated with the 'best' model were implemented within a Geographic Information System (GIS) to create a map of relative soil suitability for Switchgrass in Mississippi. A Geodatabase associated with soil parameters was built and is available for future Geographic Information System use.

Keywords: Soil, GIS, Sensitivity Analysis, switchgrass, Aptness

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23 Detailed Mapping of Pyroclastic Flow Deposits by SAR Data Processing for an Active Volcano in the Torrid Zone

Authors: Asep Saepuloh, Katsuaki Koike

Abstract:

Field mapping activity for an active volcano mainly in the Torrid Zone is usually hampered by several problems such as steep terrain and bad atmosphere conditions. In this paper we present a simple solution for such problem by a combination Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and geostatistical methods. By this combination, we could reduce the speckle effect from the SAR data and then estimate roughness distribution of the pyroclastic flow deposits. The main purpose of this study is to detect spatial distribution of new pyroclastic flow deposits termed as P-zone accurately using the β°data from two RADARSAT-1 SAR level-0 data. Single scene of Hyperion data and field observation were used for cross-validation of the SAR results. Mt. Merapi in central Java, Indonesia, was chosen as a study site and the eruptions in May-June 2006 were examined. The P-zones were found in the western and southern flanks. The area size and the longest flow distance were calculated as 2.3 km2 and 6.8 km, respectively. The grain size variation of the P-zone was mapped in detail from fine to coarse deposits regarding the C-band wavelength of 5.6 cm.

Keywords: pyroclastic, Geostatistical Method, Mt. Merapi, RADARSAT-1

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22 Promising Immobilization of Cadmium and Lead inside Ca-rich Glass-ceramics

Authors: A. Karnis, L. Gautron

Abstract:

Considering toxicity of heavy metals and their accumulation in domestic wastes, immobilization of lead and cadmium is envisaged inside glass-ceramics. We particularly focused this work on calcium-rich phases embedded in a glassy matrix. Glass-ceramics were synthesized from glasses doped with 12 wt% and 16 wt% of PbO or CdO. They were observed and analyzed by Electron MicroProbe Analysis (EMPA) and Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM). Structural characterization of the samples was performed by powder XRay Diffraction. Diopside crystals of CaMgSi2O6 composition are shown to incorporate significant amounts of cadmium (up to 9 wt% of CdO). Two new crystalline phases are observed with very high Cd or Pb contents: about 40 wt% CdO for the cadmiumrich phase and near 60 wt% PbO for the lead-rich phase. We present complete chemical and structural characterization of these phases. They represent a promising way for the immobilization of toxic elements like Cd or Pb since glass ceramics are known to propose a “double barrier" protection (metal-rich crystals embedded in a glass matrix) against metal release in the environment.

Keywords: Glass-ceramics, cadmium, lead, diopside, fly ashes, Calcium-rich phases, Domesticwastes, Municipal Solid WasteIncineration

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21 Paleoclimate Reconstruction during Pabdeh, Gurpi, Kazhdumi and Gadvan Formations (Cretaceous-Tertiary) Based on Clay Mineral Distribution

Authors: B. Soleimani

Abstract:

Paleoclimate was reconstructed by the clay mineral assemblages of shale units of Pabdeh (Paleocene- Oligocene), Gurpi (Upper Cretaceous), Kazhdumi (Albian-Cenomanian) and Gadvan (Aptian-Neocomian) formations in the Bangestan anticline. To compare with clay minerals assemblages in these formations, selected samples also taken from available formations in drilled wells in Ahvaz, Marun, Karanj, and Parsi oil fields. Collected samples prepared using standard clay mineral methodology. They were treated as normal, glycolated and heated oriented glass slides. Their identification was made on X-Ray diffractographs. Illite % varies from 8 to 36. Illite quantity increased from Pabdeh to Gurpi Formation. This may be due to dominant dry climate. Kaolinite is in range of 12-49%. Its variation style in different formations could be a marker of climate changes from wet to dry which is supported by the lithological changes. Chlorite (4-28%) can also be detected in those samples without any kaolinite. Mixed layer minerals as the mixture of illite-chlorite and illite-vermiculite-montmorillonite are varied from 6 to 36%, decreased during Kazhdumi deposition from the base to the top. This result may be according to decreasing of illite leaching process. Vermiculite was also determined in very less quantity and found in those units without kaolinite. Montmorillonite varies from 8 to 43%, and its presence is due to terrestrial depositional condition. Stratigraphical documents is also supported this idea that clay mineral distribution is a function of the climate changes. It seems, thus, the present results can be indicated a possible procedure for ancient climate changes evaluation.

Keywords: Clay Minerals, Paleoclimate, XRD, oriented slide

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20 GIS-based Non-point Sources of Pollution Simulation in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia

Authors: M. Eisakhani, A. Pauzi, O. Karim, A. Malakahmad, S.R. Mohamed Kutty, M. H. Isa

Abstract:

Cameron Highlands is a mountainous area subjected to torrential tropical showers. It extracts 5.8 million liters of water per day for drinking supply from its rivers at several intake points. The water quality of rivers in Cameron Highlands, however, has deteriorated significantly due to land clearing for agriculture, excessive usage of pesticides and fertilizers as well as construction activities in rapidly developing urban areas. On the other hand, these pollution sources known as non-point pollution sources are diverse and hard to identify and therefore they are difficult to estimate. Hence, Geographical Information Systems (GIS) was used to provide an extensive approach to evaluate landuse and other mapping characteristics to explain the spatial distribution of non-point sources of contamination in Cameron Highlands. The method to assess pollution sources has been developed by using Cameron Highlands Master Plan (2006-2010) for integrating GIS, databases, as well as pollution loads in the area of study. The results show highest annual runoff is created by forest, 3.56 × 108 m3/yr followed by urban development, 1.46 × 108 m3/yr. Furthermore, urban development causes highest BOD load (1.31 × 106 kgBOD/yr) while agricultural activities and forest contribute the highest annual loads for phosphorus (6.91 × 104 kgP/yr) and nitrogen (2.50 × 105 kgN/yr), respectively. Therefore, best management practices (BMPs) are suggested to be applied to reduce pollution level in the area.

Keywords: Land Use, Cameron Highlands, Non-point Sources of Pollution

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