Search results for: M. N. Khairul Arifin
28 Electrical Resistivity of Subsurface: Field and Laboratory Assessment
Authors: Zulfadhli Hasan Adli, Mohd Hafiz Musa, M. N. Khairul Arifin
Abstract:The objective of this paper is to study the electrical resistivity complexity between field and laboratory measurement, in order to improve the effectiveness of data interpretation for geophysical ground resistivity survey. The geological outcrop in Penang, Malaysia with an obvious layering contact was chosen as the study site. Two dimensional geoelectrical resistivity imaging were used in this study to maps the resistivity distribution of subsurface, whereas few subsurface sample were obtained for laboratory advance. In this study, resistivity of samples in original conditions is measured in laboratory by using time domain low-voltage technique, particularly for granite core sample and soil resistivity measuring set for soil sample. The experimentation results from both schemes are studied, analyzed, calibrated and verified, including basis and correlation, degree of tolerance and characteristics of substance. Consequently, the significant different between both schemes is explained comprehensively within this paper.
Keywords: Electrical Resistivity, Granite, Soil.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4828
27 Determination of Seismic Wave of Consolidated Granite Rock in Penang Island: UltrasonicTesting Method Vs Seismic Refraction Method
Authors: Mohd Hafiz Musa, Zulfadhli Hasan Adli, M . N . Khairul Arifin
Abstract:In seismic survey, the information regarding the velocity of compression wave (Vp) as well as shear wave (Vs) are very useful especially during the seismic interpretation. Previous studies showed that both Vp and Vs determined by above methods are totally different with respect to each other but offered good approximation. In this study, both Vp and Vs of consolidated granite rock were studied by using ultrasonic testing method and seismic refraction method. In ultrasonic testing, two different condition of rock are used which is dry and wet. The differences between Vp and Vs getting by using ultrasonic testing and seismic refraction were investigated and studied. The effect of water content in granite rock towards the value of Vp and Vs during ultrasonic testing are also measured. Within this work, the tolerance of the differences between the velocity of seismic wave getting from ultrasonic testing and the velocity of seismic wave getting from seismic refraction are also measured and investigated.
Keywords: Compressional wave, Granite, Shear Wave, VelocityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1760
26 Flow and Heat Transfer of a Nanofluid over a Shrinking Sheet
Authors: N. Bachok, N. L. Aleng, N. M. Arifin, A. Ishak, N. Senu
The problem of laminar fluid flow which results from the shrinking of a permeable surface in a nanofluid has been investigated numerically. The model used for the nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. A similarity solution is presented which depends on the mass suction parameter S, Prandtl number Pr, Lewis number Le, Brownian motion number Nb and thermophoresis number Nt. It was found that the reduced Nusselt number is decreasing function of each dimensionless number.
Keywords: Boundary layer, Nanofluid, Shrinking sheet, Brownian motion, Thermophoresis, Similarity solution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2631
25 Marangoni Convection in a Fluid Layer with Internal Heat Generation
Authors: Norfifah Bachok, Norihan Md. Arifin
Abstract:In this paper we use classical linear stability theory to investigate the effects of uniform internal heat generation on the onset of Marangoni convection in a horizontal layer of fluid heated from below. We use a analytical technique to obtain the close form analytical expression for the onset of Marangoni convection when the lower boundary is conducting with free-slip condition. We show that the effect of increasing the internal heat generation is always to destabilize the layer.
Keywords: Marangoni convection, heat generation, free-slipProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1681
24 Calcination Temperature of Nano MgO Effect on Base Transesterification of Palm Oil
Authors: Abdul Rahim Yacob, Mohd Khairul Asyraf Amat Mustajab, Nur Syazeila Samadi
Abstract:Nano MgO has been synthesized by hydration and dehydration method by modifies the commercial MgO. The prepared MgO had been investigated as a heterogeneous base catalyst for transesterification process for biodiesel production using palm oil. TGA, FT-IR and XRD results obtained from this study lie each other and proved in the formation of nano MgO from decomposition of Mg(OH)2. This study proved that the prepared nano MgO was a better base transesterification catalyst compared to commercial MgO. The nano MgO calcined at 600ºC had gives the highest conversion of 51.3% of palm oil to biodiesel.
Keywords: Hydration-dehydration method, nano MgO, transesterification, biodiesel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2042
23 Unsteady Stagnation-Point Flow towards a Shrinking Sheet with Radiation Effect
Authors: F. M. Ali, R. Nazar, N. M. Arifin, I. Pop
In this paper, the problem of unsteady stagnation-point flow and heat transfer induced by a shrinking sheet in the presence of radiation effect is studied. The transformed boundary layer equations are solved numerically by the shooting method. The influence of radiation, unsteadiness and shrinking parameters, and the Prandtl number on the reduced skin friction coefficient and the heat transfer coefficient, as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed in detail. It is found that dual solutions exist and the temperature distribution becomes less significant with radiation parameter.
Keywords: Heat transfer, Radiation effect, Shrinking sheet Unsteady flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1818
22 Industrial Waste Monitoring
Authors: Khairuddin Bin Osman, Ngo Boon Kiat, A. Hamid Bin hamidon, Khairul Azha Bin A. Aziz, Hazli Rafis Bin Abdul Rahman, Mazran Bin Esro
Abstract:Conventional industrial monitoring systems are tedious, inefficient and the at times integrity of the data is unreliable. The objective of this system is to monitor industrial processes specifically the fluid level which will measure the instantaneous fluid level parameter and respond by text messaging the exact value of the parameter to the user when being enquired by a privileged access user. The development of the embedded program code and the circuit for fluid level measuring are discussed as well. Suggestions for future implementations and efficient remote monitoring works are included.
Keywords: Industrial monitoring system, text messaging, embedded programming.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1374
21 Development Partitioning Intervalwise Block Method for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations
Authors: K.H.Khairul Anuar, K.I.Othman, F.Ishak, Z.B.Ibrahim, Z.Majid
Abstract:Solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) by using Partitioning Block Intervalwise (PBI) technique is our aim in this paper. The PBI technique is based on Block Adams Method and Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF). Block Adams Method only use the simple iteration for solving while BDF requires Newtonlike iteration involving Jacobian matrix of ODEs which consumes a considerable amount of computational effort. Therefore, PBI is developed in order to reduce the cost of iteration within acceptable maximum error
Keywords: Adam Block Method, BDF, Ordinary Differential Equations, Partitioning Block IntervalwiseProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1534
20 Boundary Effect on the Onset of Marangoni Convection with Internal Heat Generation
Authors: Norihan Md Arifin, Norfifah Bachok
Abstract:The onset of Marangoni convection in a horizontal fluid layer with internal heat generation overlying a solid layer heated from below is studied. The upper free surface of a fluid is nondeformable and the bottom boundary are rigid and no-slip. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved exactly. The critical values of the Marangoni numbers for the onset of Marangoni convection are calculated and the latter is found to be critically dependent on the internal heating, depth ratio and conductivity ratio. The effects of the thermal conductivity and the thickness of the solid plate on the onset of convective instability with internal heating are studied in detail.
Keywords: Linear stability, Marangoni convection, Internal Heatgeneration.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1356
19 Molecular Characteristics of Phosphoric Acid Treated Soils
Authors: Amin Eisazadeh, Khairul Anuar Kassim, Hadi Nur
Abstract:The expansive nature of soils containing high amounts of clay minerals can be altered through chemical stabilization, resulting in a material suitable for construction purposes. The primary objective of this investigation was to study the changes induced in the molecular structure of phosphoric acid stabilized bentonite and lateritic soil using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Based on the obtained data, it was found that a surface alteration mechanism was the main reason responsible for the improvement of treated soils. Furthermore, the results indicated that the Al present in the octahedral layer of clay minerals were more amenable to chemical attacks and also partly responsible for the formation of new products.
Keywords: Bentonite, Laterite clay, Molecularcharacterization, Phosphoric acid, StabilizationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2096
18 Marangoni Convection in a Fluid Saturated Porous Layer with a Deformable Free Surface
Authors: Nor Fadzillah Mohd Mokhtar, Norihan Md Arifin, Roslinda Nazar, Fudziah Ismail, MohamedSuleiman
The stability analysis of Marangoni convection in porous media with a deformable upper free surface is investigated. The linear stability theory and the normal mode analysis are applied and the resulting eigenvalue problem is solved exactly. The Darcy law and the Brinkman model are used to describe the flow in the porous medium heated from below. The effect of the Crispation number, Bond number and the Biot number are analyzed for the stability of the system. It is found that a decrease in the Crispation number and an increase in the Bond number delay the onset of convection in porous media. In addition, the system becomes more stable when the Biot number is increases and the Daeff number is decreases.
Keywords: Deformable, Marangoni, Porous, Stability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1875
17 Uniform Solution on the Effect of Internal Heat Generation on Rayleigh-Benard Convection in Micropolar Fluid
Authors: Izzati K. Khalid, Nor Fadzillah M. Mokhtar, Norihan Md. Arifin
The effect of internal heat generation is applied to the Rayleigh-Benard convection in a horizontal micropolar fluid layer. The bounding surfaces of the liquids are considered to be rigid-free, rigid-rigid and free-free with the combination of isothermal on the spin-vanishing boundaries. A linear stability analysis is used and the Galerkin method is employed to find the critical stability parameters numerically. It is shown that the critical Rayleigh number decreases as the value of internal heat generation increase and hence destabilize the system.
Keywords: Internal heat generation, micropolar fluid, rayleighbenard convection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2301
16 The Effect of Carbon on Molybdenum in the Preparation of Microwave Induced Molybdenum Carbide
Authors: Abd. Rahim Yacob, Mohd Khairul Asyraf Amat Mustajab, Nurshaira Haifa Suhaimi
Abstract:This study shows the effect of carbon towards molybdenum carbide alloy when exposed to Microwave. This technique is also known as Microwave Induced Alloying (MIA) for the preparation of molybdenum carbide. In this study ammonium heptamolybdate solution and carbon black powder were heterogeneously mixed and exposed to microwave irradiation for 2 minutes. The effect on amount of carbon towards the produced alloy on morphological and oxidation states changes during microwave is presented. In this experiment, it is expected carbon act as a reducing agent with the ratio 2:7 molybdenum to carbon as the optimum for the production of molybdenum carbide alloy. All the morphological transformations and changes in this experiment were followed and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction and FESEM.
Keywords: Carbon, molybdenum carbide, microwave induced alloying.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2224
15 Effect of Magnetic Field on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Shrinking Vertical Sheet with Suction
Authors: S. S. P. M. Isa, N. M. Arifin, R. Nazar, N. Bachok, F. M. Ali, I. Pop
A theoretical study has been presented to describe the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on an exponentially shrinking sheet with a variable wall temperature and suction, in the presence of magnetic field. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, which are then solved numerically using the shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented through graphs and tables for several sets of values of the parameters. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined.
Keywords: Exponentially shrinking sheet, magnetic field, mixed convection, suction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2379
14 Poverty Measurement by Islamic Institutions
Authors: Mohamed Saladin Abdul Rasool, Arifin Md Salleh, Mohd Fauzi Mohd Harun
Abstract:Islamic institutions in Malaysia play a variety of socioeconomic roles such as poverty alleviation. To perform this role, these institutions face a major task in identifying the poverty group. Most of these institutions measure and operationalize poverty from the monetary perspective using variables such as income, expenditure or consumption. In practice, most Islamic institutions in Malaysia use the monetary approach in measuring poverty through the conventional Poverty Line Income (PLI) method and recently, the had al kifayah (HAK) method using total necessities of a household from an Islamic perspective. The objective of this paper is to present the PLI and also the HAK method. This micro-data study would highlight the similarities and differences of both the methods.A survey aided by a structured questionnaire was carried out on 260 selected head of households in the state of Selangor. The paper highlights several demographic factors that are associated with the three monetary indicators in the study, namely income, PLI and HAK. In addition, the study found that these monetary variables are significantly related with each other.
Keywords: Poverty line, multidimensional, necessities, monetaryProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2326
13 Hybrid Approach for Memory Analysis in Windows System
Authors: Khairul Akram Zainol Ariffin, Ahmad Kamil Mahmood, Jafreezal Jaafar, Solahuddin Shamsuddin
Abstract:Random Access Memory (RAM) is an important device in computer system. It can represent the snapshot on how the computer has been used by the user. With the growth of its importance, the computer memory has been an issue that has been discussed in digital forensics. A number of tools have been developed to retrieve the information from the memory. However, most of the tools have their limitation in the ability of retrieving the important information from the computer memory. Hence, this paper is aimed to discuss the limitation and the setback for two main techniques such as process signature search and process enumeration. Then, a new hybrid approach will be presented to minimize the setback in both individual techniques. This new approach combines both techniques with the purpose to retrieve the information from the process block and other objects in the computer memory. Nevertheless, the basic theory in address translation for x86 platforms will be demonstrated in this paper.
Keywords: Algorithms, Digital Forensics, Memory Analysis, Signature Search.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1845
12 Personalised Mobile Picture Puzzle
Authors: Saipunidzam Mahamad, Eliza Mazmee Mazlan, Rozana Kasbon, Khairul Shafee Kalid, NurSyazwani Rusdi
Mobile Picture Puzzle is a mobile game application where the player use existing images stored in the mobile phone to create a puzzle to be played. This traditional picture puzzle is not so challenging once the player is familiar with the game. The objective of the developed mobile game application is to have a similar mobile game application that can provide the player with more challenging gaming experience. The developed mobile game application is also a mobile picture puzzle game application to create a puzzle to be played but instead of just using existing images that are stored, the personalised capability allows the player to use the built-in camera phone to capture an image and use the newly captured image to create the puzzle. The development of the mobile game application uses Symbian Operating System (OS), Mobile Media API (Application Programming Interface), Record Management System (RMS) storage and TiledLayer class from Game API.
Keywords: Picture Puzzle, Pervasive gaming, J2ME.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2513
11 Numerical Solutions of Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Generalized Slip Velocity
Authors: Ezad Hafidz Hafidzuddin, Roslinda Nazar, Norihan M. Arifin, Ioan Pop
In this paper, the problem of steady laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet with generalized slip velocity is considered. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically using the bvp4c function in MATLAB. Dual solutions are found for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. The effects of the suction parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, velocity slip parameter, critical shear rate and Prandtl number on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Boundary Layer, Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet, Generalized Slip, Heat Transfer, Numerical Solutions.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2273
10 An Evaluation on Fixed Wing and Multi-Rotor UAV Images Using Photogrammetric Image Processing
Authors: Khairul Nizam Tahar, Anuar Ahmad
This paper has introduced a slope photogrammetric mapping using unmanned aerial vehicle. There are two units of UAV has been used in this study; namely; fixed wing and multi-rotor. Both UAVs were used to capture images at the study area. A consumer digital camera was mounted vertically at the bottom of UAV and captured the images at an altitude. The objectives of this study are to obtain three dimensional coordinates of slope area and to determine the accuracy of photogrammetric product produced from both UAVs. Several control points and checkpoints were established Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) in the study area. All acquired images from both UAVs went through all photogrammetric processes such as interior orientation, exterior orientation, aerial triangulation and bundle adjustment using photogrammetric software. Two primary results were produced in this study; namely; digital elevation model and digital orthophoto. Based on results, UAV system can be used to mapping slope area especially for limited budget and time constraints project.
Keywords: Slope mapping, 3D, DEM, UAV, Photogrammetry, image processing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5898
9 Fingers Exergames to Improve Fine Motor Skill in Autistic Children
Authors: Zulhisyam Salleh, Fizatul Aini Patakor, Rosilah Wahab, Awangku Khairul Ridzwan Awangku Jaya
Autism is a lifelong developmental disability that affects how people perceive the world and interact with others. Most of these children have difficulty with fine motor skills which typically struggle with handwriting and fine activities in their routine life such as getting dressed and controlled use of the everyday tool. Because fine motor activities encompass so many routine functions, a fine motor delay can have a measurable negative impact on a person's ability to handle daily practical tasks. This project proposed a simple fine motor exercise aid plus the game (exergame) for autistic children who discover from fine motor difficulties. The proposed exergame will be blinking randomly and user needs to bend their finger accordingly. It will notify the user, whether they bend the right finger or not. The system is realized using Arduino, which is programmed to control all the operated circuit. The feasibility studies with six autistic children were conducted and found the child interested in using exergame and could quickly get used to it. This study provides important guidance for future investigations of the exergame potential for accessing and improving fine motor skill among autistic children.
Keywords: Autism children, Arduino project, fine motor skill, finger exergame.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 610
8 Air-Filled Circular Cross Sectional Cavity for Microwave Non-Destructive Testing
Authors: Mohd Tarmizi Ali, Mohd Khairul Mohd Salleh, Md. Mahfudz Md. Zan
Abstract:Dielectric sheet perturbation to the dominant TE111 mode resonant frequency of a circular cavity is studied and presented in this paper. The dielectric sheet, placed at the middle of the airfilled cavity, introduces discontinuities and disturbs the configuration of electromagnetic fields in the cavity. For fixed dimensions of cavity and fixed thickness of the loading dielectric, the dominant resonant frequency varies quite linearly with the permittivity of the dielectric. This quasi-linear relationship is plotted using Maple software and verified using 3D electromagnetic simulations. Two probes are used in the simulation for wave excitation into and from the cavity. The best length of probe is found to be 3 mm, giving the closest resonant frequency to the one calculated using Maple. A total of fourteen different dielectrics of permittivity ranging from 1 to 12.9 are tested one by one in the simulation. The works show very close agreement between the results from Maple and the simulation. A constant difference of 0.04 GHz is found between the resonant frequencies collected during simulation and the ones from Maple. The success of this project may lead to the possibility of using the middle loaded cavity at TE111 mode as a microwave non-destructive testing of solid materials.
Keywords: Middle-loaded cavity, dielectric sheet perturbation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2216
7 Error Correction of Radial Displacement in Grinding Machine Tool Spindle by Optimizing Shape and Bearing Tuning
Authors: Khairul Jauhari, Achmad Widodo, Ismoyo Haryanto
Abstract:In this article, the radial displacement error correction capability of a high precision spindle grinding caused by unbalance force was investigated. The spindle shaft is considered as a flexible rotor mounted on two sets of angular contact ball bearing. Finite element methods (FEM) have been adopted for obtaining the equation of motion of the spindle. In this paper, firstly, natural frequencies, critical frequencies, and amplitude of the unbalance response caused by residual unbalance are determined in order to investigate the spindle behaviors. Furthermore, an optimization design algorithm is employed to minimize radial displacement of the spindle which considers dimension of the spindle shaft, the dynamic characteristics of the bearings, critical frequencies and amplitude of the unbalance response, and computes optimum spindle diameters and stiffness and damping of the bearings. Numerical simulation results show that by optimizing the spindle diameters, and stiffness and damping in the bearings, radial displacement of the spindle can be reduced. A spindle about 4 μm radial displacement error can be compensated with 2 μm accuracy. This certainly can improve the accuracy of the product of machining.
Keywords: Error correction, High precision grinding, Optimization, Radial displacement, Spindle.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1668
6 Economic Analysis, Growth and Yield of Grafting Tomato Varieties for Solanum torvum as a Rootstock
Authors: Evy Latifah, Eko Widaryanto, M. Dawam Maghfoer, Arifin
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is potential vegetables to develop, because it has high economic value and has the potential to be exported. There is a decrease in tomato productivity due to unfavorable growth conditions such as bacterial wilt, fusarium wilt, high humidity, high temperature and inappropriate production technology. Grafting technology is one alternative technology. In addition to being able to control the disease in the soil, grafting is also able to increase the growth and yield of production. Besides, it is also necessary to know the economic benefits if using grafting technology. A promising eggplant rootstock for tomato grafting is Solanum torvum. S. torvum is selected as a rootstock with high compatibility. The purpose of this research is to know the effect of grafting several varieties of tomatoes with Solanum torvum as a rootstock. The experiment was conducted in Agricultural Extension Center Pare. Experimental Garden of Pare Kediri sub-district from July to early December 2016. The materials used were tomato Cervo varieties, Karina, Timoty, and Solanum torvum. Economic analysis, growth, and yield including plant height, number of leaves, percentage of disease and tomato production were used as performance measures. The study showed that grafting tomato Timoty scion with Solanum torvum as rootstock had higher production. Financially, grafting tomato Timoty and Cervo scion had higher profit about. 28,6% and 16,3% compared to Timoty and Cervo variety treatment without grafting.
Keywords: Grafting technology, economic analysis, growth, yield of tomato, Solanum torvum.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1080
5 Retrieving Extended High Dynamic Range from Digital Negative Image - An Experiment on Architectural Photo Imaging
Authors: See Zi Siang, Khairul Hazrin Hashim, Harold Thwaites, Lee Xia Sheng, Ooi Wooi Har
The paper explores the development of an optimization of method and apparatus for retrieving extended high dynamic range from digital negative image. Architectural photo imaging can benefit from high dynamic range imaging (HDRI) technique for preserving and presenting sufficient luminance in the shadow and highlight clipping image areas. The HDRI technique that requires multiple exposure images as the source of HDRI rendering may not be effective in terms of time efficiency during the acquisition process and post-processing stage, considering it has numerous potential imaging variables and technical limitations during the multiple exposure process. This paper explores an experimental method and apparatus that aims to expand the dynamic range from digital negative image in HDRI environment. The method and apparatus explored is based on a single source of RAW image acquisition for the use of HDRI post-processing. It will cater the optimization in order to avoid and minimize the conventional HDRI photographic errors caused by different physical conditions during the photographing process and the misalignment of multiple exposed image sequences. The study observes the characteristics and capabilities of RAW image format as digital negative used for the retrieval of extended high dynamic range process in HDRI environment.
Keywords: High Dynamic Range Image, Photography Workflow Optimization, Digital Negative Image, Architectural ImageProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1504
4 Evaluation of Dynamic Behavior a Machine Tool Spindle System through Modal and Unbalance Response Analysis
Authors: Khairul Jauhari, Achmad Widodo, Ismoyo Haryanto
Abstract:The spindle system is one of the most important components of machine tool. The dynamic properties of the spindle affect the machining productivity and quality of the work pieces. Thus, it is important and necessary to determine its dynamic characteristics of spindles in the design and development in order to avoid forced resonance. The finite element method (FEM) has been adopted in order to obtain the dynamic behavior of spindle system. For this reason, obtaining the Campbell diagrams and determining the critical speeds are very useful to evaluate the spindle system dynamics. The unbalance response of the system to the center of mass unbalance at the cutting tool is also calculated to investigate the dynamic behavior. In this paper, we used an ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) program which based on finite element method has been implemented to make the full dynamic analysis and evaluation of the results. Results show that the calculated critical speeds are far from the operating speed range of the spindle, thus, the spindle would not experience resonance, and the maximum unbalance response at operating speed is still with acceptable limit. ANSYS Parametric Design Language (APDL) can be used by spindle designer as tools in order to increase the product quality, reducing cost, and time consuming in the design and development stages.
Keywords: ANSYS parametric design language (APDL), Campbell diagram, Critical speeds, Unbalance response, The Spindle system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2691
3 The Effects of Sodium Chloride in the Formation of Size and Shape of Gold (Au)Nanoparticles by Microwave-Polyol Method for Mercury Adsorption
Authors: Mawarni F. Mohamad, Khairul S.N. Kamarudin, Nik N.F.N.M. Fathilah, Mohamad M. Salleh
Abstract:Mercury is a natural occurring element and present in various concentrations in the environment. Due to its toxic effects, it is desirable to research mercury sensitive materials to adsorb mercury. This paper describes the preparation of Au nanoparticles for mercury adsorption by using a microwave (MW)-polyol method in the presence of three different Sodium Chloride (NaCl) concentrations (10, 20 and 30 mM). Mixtures of spherical, triangular, octahedral, decahedral particles and 1-D product were obtained using this rapid method. Sizes and shapes was found strongly depend on the concentrations of NaCl. Without NaCl concentration, spherical, triangular plates, octahedral, decahedral nanoparticles and 1D product were produced. At the lower NaCl concentration (10 mM), spherical, octahedral and decahedral nanoparticles were present, while spherical and decahedral nanoparticles were preferentially form by using 20 mM of NaCl concentration. Spherical, triangular plates, octahedral and decahedral nanoparticles were obtained at the highest NaCl concentration (30 mM). The amount of mercury adsorbed using 20 ppm mercury solution is the highest (67.5 %) for NaCl concentration of 30 mM. The high yield of polygonal particles will increase the mercury adsorption. In addition, the adsorption of mercury is also due to the sizes of the particles. The sizes of particles become smaller with increasing NaCl concentrations (size ranges, 5- 16 nm) than those synthesized without addition of NaCl (size ranges 11-32 nm). It is concluded that NaCl concentrations affects the formation of sizes and shapes of Au nanoparticles thus affects the mercury adsorption.
Keywords: Adsorption, Au Nanoparticles, Mercury, SodiumChloride.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3503
2 Color Characteristics of Dried Cocoa Using Shallow Box Fermentation Technique
Authors: Khairul Bariah Sulaiman, Tajul Aris Yang
Abstract:Fermentation is well known as an essential process to develop chocolate flavor in dried cocoa beans. Besides developing the precursor of cocoa flavor, it also induces the color changes in the beans. The fermentation process is influenced by various factors such as planting material, preconditioning of cocoa pod and fermentation technique. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate color of Malaysian cocoa beans and how the duration of pods storage and fermentation technique using shallow box will effect on its color characteristics. There are two factors being studied i.e. duration of cocoa pod storage (0, 2, 4 and 6 days) and duration of cocoa fermentation (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 days). The experiment is arranged in 4 x 6 factorial designs with 24 treatments and arrangement is in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD). The produced beans are inspected for color changes under artificial light during cut test and divided into four groups of color namely fully brown, purple brown, fully purple and slaty. Cut tests indicated that cocoa beans which are directly dried without undergone fermentation has the highest slaty percentage. However, application of pods storage before fermentation process is found to decrease the slaty percentage. In contrast, the percentages of fully brown beans start to dominate after two days of fermentation, especially from four and six days of pods storage batch. Whereas, almost all batches of cocoa beans have a percentage of fully purple less than 20%. Interestingly, the percentage of purple brown beans are scattered in the entire beans batch regardless any specific trend. Meanwhile, statistical analysis using General Linear Model showed that the pods storage has a significant effect on the color characteristic of the Malaysian dried beans compared to fermentation duration.
Keywords: Cocoa beans, color, fermentation, shallow box.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2796
1 Adaptive WiFi Fingerprinting for Location Approximation
Authors: Mohd Fikri Azli bin Abdullah, Khairul Anwar bin Kamarul Hatta, Esther Jeganathan
WiFi has become an essential technology that is widely used nowadays. It is famous due to its convenience to be used with mobile devices. This is especially true for Internet users worldwide that use WiFi connections. There are many location based services that are available nowadays which uses Wireless Fidelity (WiFi) signal fingerprinting. A common example that is gaining popularity in this era would be Foursquare. In this work, the WiFi signal would be used to estimate the user or client’s location. Similar to GPS, fingerprinting method needs a floor plan to increase the accuracy of location estimation. Still, the factor of inconsistent WiFi signal makes the estimation defer at different time intervals. Given so, an adaptive method is needed to obtain the most accurate signal at all times. WiFi signals are heavily distorted by external factors such as physical objects, radio frequency interference, electrical interference, and environmental factors to name a few. Due to these factors, this work uses a method of reducing the signal noise and estimation using the Nearest Neighbour based on past activities of the signal to increase the signal accuracy up to more than 80%. The repository yet increases the accuracy by using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) pattern matching. The repository acts as the server cum support of the client side application decision. Numerous previous works has adapted the methods of collecting signal strengths in the repository over the years, but mostly were just static. In this work, proposed solutions on how the adaptive method is done to match the signal received to the data in the repository are highlighted. With the said approach, location estimation can be done more accurately. Adaptive update allows the latest location fingerprint to be stored in the repository. Furthermore, any redundant location fingerprints are removed and only the updated version of the fingerprint is stored in the repository. How the location estimation of the user can be predicted would be highlighted more in the proposed solution section. After some studies on previous works, it is found that the Artificial Neural Network is the most feasible method to deploy in updating the repository and making it adaptive. The Artificial Neural Network functions are to do the pattern matching of the WiFi signal to the existing data available in the repository.
Keywords: Adaptive Repository, Artificial Neural Network, Location Estimation, Nearest Neighbour Euclidean Distance, WiFi RSSI Fingerprinting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3310