Search results for: Electrical Resistivity
809 Electrical Resistivity of Subsurface: Field and Laboratory Assessment
Authors: Zulfadhli Hasan Adli, Mohd Hafiz Musa, M. N. Khairul Arifin
Abstract:The objective of this paper is to study the electrical resistivity complexity between field and laboratory measurement, in order to improve the effectiveness of data interpretation for geophysical ground resistivity survey. The geological outcrop in Penang, Malaysia with an obvious layering contact was chosen as the study site. Two dimensional geoelectrical resistivity imaging were used in this study to maps the resistivity distribution of subsurface, whereas few subsurface sample were obtained for laboratory advance. In this study, resistivity of samples in original conditions is measured in laboratory by using time domain low-voltage technique, particularly for granite core sample and soil resistivity measuring set for soil sample. The experimentation results from both schemes are studied, analyzed, calibrated and verified, including basis and correlation, degree of tolerance and characteristics of substance. Consequently, the significant different between both schemes is explained comprehensively within this paper.
Keywords: Electrical Resistivity, Granite, Soil.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4828
808 Preliminary Geophysical Assessment of Soil Contaminants around Wacot Rice Factory Argungu, North-Western Nigeria
Authors: A. I. Augie, Y. Alhassan, U. Z. Magawata
Abstract:Geophysical investigation was carried out at wacot rice factory Argungu north-western Nigeria, using the 2D electrical resistivity method. The area falls between latitude 12˚44′23ʺN to 12˚44′50ʺN and longitude 4032′18′′E to 4032′39′′E covering a total area of about 1.85 km. Two profiles were carried out with Wenner configuration using resistivity meter (Ohmega). The data obtained from the study area were modeled using RES2DIVN software which gave an automatic interpretation of the apparent resistivity data. The inverse resistivity models of the profiles show the high resistivity values ranging from 208 Ωm to 651 Ωm. These high resistivity values in the overburden were due to dryness and compactness of the strata that lead to consolidation, which is an indication that the area is free from leachate contaminations. However, from the inverse model, there are regions of low resistivity values (1 Ωm to 18 Ωm), these zones were observed and identified as clayey and the most contaminated zones. The regions of low resistivity thereby indicated the leachate plume or the highly leachate concentrated zones due to similar resistivity values in both clayey and leachate. The regions of leachate are mainly from the factory into the surrounding area and its groundwater. The maximum leachate infiltration was found at depths 1 m to 15.9 m (P1) and 6 m to 15.9 m (P2) vertically, as well as distance along the profiles from 67 m to 75 m (P1), 155 m to 180 m (P1), and 115 m to 192 m (P2) laterally.
Keywords: Contaminant, leachate, soil, groundwater, 2D, electrical, resistivity, Argungu.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 399
807 Geoelectical Resistivity Method in Aquifer Characterization at Opic Estate, Isheri-Osun River Basin, South Western Nigeria
Authors: B. R. Faleye, M. I. Titocan, M. P. Ibitola
Investigation was carried out at Opic Estate in Isheri-Osun River Basin environment using Electrical Resistivity method to study saltwater intrusion into a fresh water aquifer system from the proximal estuarine water body. The investigation is aimed at aquifer characterisation using electrical resistivity method in order to provide the depth to which fresh water fit for both domestic and industrial consumption. The 2D Electrical Resistivity and Vertical Electrical Resistivity techniques alongside Laboratory analysis of water samples obtained from the boreholes were adopted. Three traverses were investigated using Wenner and Pole-Dipole array with multi-electrode system consisting of 84 electrodes and a spread of 581 m, 664 m and 830 m were attained on the traverses. The main lithologies represented in the study area are Sand, Clay and Clayey Sand of which Sand constitutes the aquifer in the study area. Vertical Electrical Sounding data obtained at different lateral distance on the traverses have indicated that the water in the aquifer in the subsurface is brackish. Brackish water is represented by lowelectrical resistivity value signature while fresh water is characterized by relatively high electrical resistivity and in some regionfresh water is existent at depth greater than 200 m. Results of laboratory analysis of samples showed that the pH, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solid and Conductivity indicated existence of water with poor quality, indicating that salinity, TDS and Conductivity is higher in the Northern part of the study area. The 2D electrical resistivity and Vertical Electrical Sounding methods indicate that fresh water region is at ≥200m depth. Aquifers not fit for domestic use in the study area occur downwards to about 200 m in depth. In conclusion, it is recommended that wells should be sunkbeyond 220 m for the possible procurement of portable fresh water.
Keywords: 2D electrical resistivity, aquifer, brackish water, lithologies, freshwater, opic estate.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 797
806 Inversion of Electrical Resistivity Data: A Review
Authors: Shrey Sharma, Gunjan Kumar Verma
Abstract:High density electrical prospecting has been widely used in groundwater investigation, civil engineering and environmental survey. For efficient inversion, the forward modeling routine, sensitivity calculation, and inversion algorithm must be efficient. This paper attempts to provide a brief summary of the past and ongoing developments of the method. It includes reviews of the procedures used for data acquisition, processing and inversion of electrical resistivity data based on compilation of academic literature. In recent times there had been a significant evolution in field survey designs and data inversion techniques for the resistivity method. In general 2-D inversion for resistivity data is carried out using the linearized least-square method with the local optimization technique .Multi-electrode and multi-channel systems have made it possible to conduct large 2-D, 3-D and even 4-D surveys efficiently to resolve complex geological structures that were not possible with traditional 1-D surveys. 3-D surveys play an increasingly important role in very complex areas where 2-D models suffer from artifacts due to off-line structures. Continued developments in computation technology, as well as fast data inversion techniques and software, have made it possible to use optimization techniques to obtain model parameters to a higher accuracy. A brief discussion on the limitations of the electrical resistivity method has also been presented.
Keywords: Resistivity, inversion, optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 5744
805 Microstructure, Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Properties of the Al-Si-Ni Ternary Alloy
Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya
Abstract:In recent years, the use of the aluminum based alloys in the industry and technology are increasing. Alloying elements in aluminum have further been improving the strength and stiffness properties that provide superior compared to other metals. In this study, investigation of physical properties (microstructure, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal properties) in the Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Ni ternary alloy were investigated. Al-Si-Ni alloy was prepared in vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate V (8.3−165.45 μm/s) at constant temperature gradient G (7.73 K/mm). The flake spacings (λ), microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength (σ), electrical resistivity (ρ) and thermal properties (H, Cp, Tm) of the samples were measured. Influence of the growth rate and spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and relationships between them were obtained. According to results, λ values decrease with increasing V, but HV, σ and ρ values increase with increasing V. Variations of electrical resistivity (ρ) of solidified samples were also measured. The enthalpy of fusion (H) and specific heat (Cp) for the alloy was also determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from liquid to solid. The results in this work were compared with the previous similar experimental results.
Keywords: Electrical resistivity, enthalpy, microhardness, solidification, tensile stress.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1893
804 An Examination and Validation of the Theoretical Resistivity-Temperature Relationship for Conductors
Authors: Fred Lacy
Electrical resistivity is a fundamental parameter of metals or electrical conductors. Since resistivity is a function of temperature, in order to completely understand the behavior of metals, a temperature dependent theoretical model is needed. A model based on physics principles has recently been developed to obtain an equation that relates electrical resistivity to temperature. This equation is dependent upon a parameter associated with the electron travel time before being scattered, and a parameter that relates the energy of the atoms and their separation distance. Analysis of the energy parameter reveals that the equation is optimized if the proportionality term in the equation is not constant but varies over the temperature range. Additional analysis reveals that the theoretical equation can be used to determine the mean free path of conduction electrons, the number of defects in the atomic lattice, and the ‘equivalent’ charge associated with the metallic bonding of the atoms. All of this analysis provides validation for the theoretical model and provides insight into the behavior of metals where performance is affected by temperatures (e.g., integrated circuits and temperature sensors).
Keywords: Callendar–van Dusen, conductivity, mean free path, resistance temperature detector, temperature sensor.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2061
803 Optimization of Artificial Ageing Time and Temperature on Evaluation of Hardness and Resistivity of Al-Si-Mg (Cu or/& Ni) Alloys
Authors: A. Hossain, A. S. W. Kurny
The factors necessary to obtain an optimal heat treatment that influence the hardness and resistivity of Al-6Si-0.5Mg casting alloys with Cu or/and Ni additions were investigated. The alloys were homogenised (24hr at 500oC), solutionized (2hr at 540oC) and artificially ageing at various times and temperatures. The alloys were aged isochronally for 60 minutes at temperatures up to 400oC and isothermally at 150, 175, 200, 225, 250 & 300oC for different periods in the range 15 to 360 minutes. The hardness and electrical resistivity of the alloys were measured for various artificial ageing times and temperatures. From the isochronal ageing treatment, hardness found maximum ageing at 225oC. And from the isothermal ageing treatment, hardness found maximum for 60 minutes at 225oC. So the optimal heat treatment consists of 60 minutes ageing at 225oC.
Keywords: Ageing, Al-Si-Mg alloy, hardness, resistivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2881
802 Algorithm for Determining the Parameters of a Two-Layer Soil Model
Authors: Adekitan I. Aderibigbe, Fakolujo A. Olaosebikan
The parameters of a two-layer soil can be determined by processing resistivity data obtained from resistivity measurements carried out on the soil of interest. The processing usually entails applying the resistivity data as inputs to an optimisation function. This paper proposes an algorithm which utilises the square error as an optimisation function. Resistivity data from previous works were applied to test the accuracy of the new algorithm developed and the result obtained conforms significantly to results from previous works.
Keywords: Algorithm, earthing, resistivity, two-layer soil-model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3234
801 An Investigation of the Effect of the Different Mix Constituents on Concrete Electric Resistivity
Authors: H. M. Ghasemzadeh, Y. Mohammadi, Gh. Nouri, S. E. Nabavi
Abstract:Steel corrosion in concrete is considered as a main engineering problems for many countries and lots of expenses has been paid for their repair and maintenance annually. This problem may occur in all engineering structures whether in coastal and offshore or other areas. Hence, concrete structures should be able to withstand corrosion factors existing in water or soil. Reinforcing steel corrosion enhancement can be measured by use of concrete electrical resistance; and maintaining high electric resistivity in concrete is necessary for steel corrosion prevention. Lots of studies devoted to different aspects of the subjects worldwide. In this paper, an evaluation of the effects of W/C ratio, cementitious materials, and percent increase in silica fume were investigated on electric resistivity of high strength concrete. To do that, sixteen mix design with one aggregate grading was planned. Five of them had varying amount of W/C ratio and other eleven mixes was prepared with constant W/C ratio but different amount of cementitious materials. Silica fume and super plasticizer were used with different proportions in all specimens. Specimens were tested after moist curing for 28 days. A total of 80 cube specimens (50 mm) were tested for concrete electrical resistance. Results show that concrete electric resistivity can be increased with increasing amount of cementitious materials and silica fume.
Keywords: Corrosion, Electric resistivity, Mix design, Silica fumeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1433
800 Application of Four-electrode Method to Analysis Resistance Characteristics of Conductive Concrete
Authors: Chun-Yao Lee, Siang-Ren Wang
Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to discuss the influence of resistance characteristic on the high conductive concrete considering the various voltage and environment. The four-electrode method is applied to the tailor-made high conductive concrete with appropriate proportion. The curve of resistivity with the changes of voltage and environment is plotted and the changes of resistivity are explored. The result based on the methods reveals that resistivity is less affected by the temperature factor, and the four-electrode method would be an applicable measurement method on a site inspection.
Keywords: Conductive concrete, Resistivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1490
799 Geophysical Investigation for Pre-Engineering Construction Works in Part of Ilorin, Northcentral Nigeria
Authors: O. Ologe, A. I. Augie
A geophysical investigation involving geoelectric depths sounding has been conducted as pre-foundation study in part of Ilorin, Nigeria. The area is underlain by the Precambrian basement complex rocks. 15 sounding stations were established along five traverses. The Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) (three-five) conducted along each of the traverses was subjected to computer iteration using IP2Win software. Three -five subsurface geologic layers were delineated in the study area. These include the topsoil with resistivity and thickness values ranging from 103 Ωm-210 Ωm and 0 m-1 m; lateritic (117 Ωm-590 Ωm and 1 m-4.7 m); sandy clay (137 – 859 Ωm and 2.9 m – 4.3 m); weathered (60.5 Ωm to 2539 Ωm and 3,2 m-10 m) and fresh basement (2253-∞ and 7.1 m-∞) respectively. The resistivity pseudosection shows continuous high resistivity zone on the surface. Resistivity of this layer from depth 0-5 m varies from 300-800 Ωm along traverse 1 and 2. Hence, this layer is rated competent as it has the ability to support engineering structure. However, along traverse 1, very low resistive layer occurs between VES 5 and 15 with resistivity values ranging from 30 Ωm-70 Ωm. This layer was rated incompetent based on the competence rating. This study revealed the importance of geophysical survey as a pre-construction engineering survey at any civil engineering site since it can reliably evaluate the competence of the subsurface geomaterials.
Keywords: Competence rating, geoelectric, pseudosection, soil, vertical electrical sounding.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 374
798 Delineation of Oil – Polluted Sites in Ibeno LGA, Nigeria, Using Geophysical Techniques
Authors: Ime R. Udotong, Justina I. R. Udotong, Ofonime U. M. John
Abstract:Ibeno, Nigeria hosts the operational base of Mobil Producing Nigeria Unlimited (MPNU), a subsidiary of ExxonMobil and the current highest oil & condensate producer in Nigeria. Besides MPNU, other oil companies operate onshore, on the continental shelf and deep offshore of the Atlantic Ocean in Ibeno, Nigeria. This study was designed to delineate oil polluted sites in Ibeno, Nigeria using geophysical methods of electrical resistivity (ER) and ground penetrating radar (GPR). Results obtained revealed that there have been hydrocarbon contaminations of this environment by past crude oil spills as observed from high resistivity values and GPR profiles which clearly show the distribution, thickness and lateral extent of hydrocarbon contamination as represented on the radargram reflector tones. Contaminations were of varying degrees, ranging from slight to high, indicating levels of substantial attenuation of crude oil contamination over time. Moreover, the display of relatively lower resistivities of locations outside the impacted areas compared to resistivity values within the impacted areas and the 3-D Cartesian images of oil contaminant plume depicted by red, light brown and magenta for high, low and very low oil impacted areas, respectively confirmed significant recent pollution of the study area with crude oil.
Keywords: Electrical resistivity, geophysical investigations, ground penetrating radar, oil-polluted sites.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2304
797 Analysis of Resistance Characteristics of Conductive Concrete Using Press-Electrode Method
Authors: Chun-Yao Lee, Siang-Ren Wang
Abstract:This paper aims to discuss the influence of resistance characteristic on the high conductive concrete considering the changes of voltage and environment. The high conductive concrete with appropriate proportion is produced to the press-electrode method. The curve of resistivity with the changes of voltage and environment is plotted and the changes of resistivity are explored.
Keywords: conductive concrete, resistivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1471
796 Effect of Thickness on Structural and Electrical Properties of CuAlS2 Thin Films Grown by Two Stage Vacuum Thermal Evaporation Technique
Authors: A. U. Moreh, M. Momoh, H. N. Yahya, B. Hamza, I. G. Saidu, S. Abdullahi
Abstract:This work studies the effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of CuAlS2 thin films grown by two stage vacuum thermal evaporation technique. CuAlS2 thin films of thicknesses 50nm, 100nm and 200nm were deposited on suitably cleaned corning 7059 glass substrate at room temperature (RT). In the first stage Cu-Al precursors were grown at room temperature by thermal evaporation and in the second stage Cu-Al precursors were converted to CuAlS2 thin films by sulfurisation under sulfur atmosphere at the temperature of 673K. The structural properties of the films were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique while electrical properties of the specimens were studied using four point probe method. The XRD studies revealed that the films are of crystalline in nature having tetragonal structure. The variations of the micro-structural parameters, such as crystallite size (D), dislocation density ( ), and micro-strain ( ), with film thickness were investigated. The results showed that the crystallite sizes increase as the thickness of the film increases. The dislocation density and micro-strain decreases as the thickness increases. The resistivity ( ) of CuAlS2 film is found to decrease with increase in film thickness, which is related to the increase of carrier concentration with film thickness. Thus thicker films exhibit the lowest resistivity and high carrier concentration, implying these are the most conductive films. Low electrical resistivity and high carrier concentration are widely used as the essential components in various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diode and photovoltaic cells.
Keywords: Crystalline, CuAlS2, evaporation, resistivity, sulfurisation, thickness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1518
795 Soil Resistivity Data Computations; Single and Two - Layer Soil Resistivity Structure and Its Implication on Earthing Design
Authors: M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk, G. Nasserddine
Abstract:Performing High Voltage (HV) tasks with a multi craft work force create a special set of safety circumstances. This paper aims to present vital information relating to when it is acceptable to use a single or a two-layer soil structure. Also it discusses the implication of the high voltage infrastructure on the earth grid and the safety of this implication under a single or a two-layer soil structure. A multiple case study is investigated to show the importance of using the right soil resistivity structure during the earthing system design.
Keywords: Earth Grid, EPR, High Voltage, Soil Resistivity Structure, Step Voltage, Touch Voltage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 8650
794 Assessment of the Response of Seismic Refraction Tomography and Resistivity Imaging to the Same Geologic Environment: A Case Study of Zaria Basement Complex in North Central Nigeria
Authors: Collins C. Chiemeke, I. B. Osazuwa, Ibe S. O., Egwuonwu G. N., Ani C. D., Chii E. C.
The study area is Zaria, located in the basement complex of northern Nigeria. The rock type forming the major part of the Zaria batholith is granite. This research work was carried out to compare the responses of seismic refraction tomography and resistivity tomography in the same geologic environment and under the same conditions. Hence, the choice of the site that has a visible granitic outcrop that extends across a narrow stream channel and is flanked by unconsolidated overburden, a neutral profile that was covered by plain overburden and a site with thick lateritic cover became necessary. The results of the seismic and resistivity tomography models reveals that seismic velocity and resistivity does not always simultaneously increase with depth, but their responses in any geologic environment are determined by changes in the mechanical and chemical content of the rock types rather than depth.
Keywords: Environment, Resistivity, Response, Seismic, Velocity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1915
793 Soil Resistivity Cut off Value and Concrete Pole Deployments in HV Transmission Mains
Authors: M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk, A. Hellany, M. Nagrial
The prologue of new High Voltage (HV) transmission mains into the community necessitates earthing design to ensure safety compliance of the system. Concrete poles are widely used within HV transmission mains; many retired transmission mains with timber poles are being replaced with concrete ones, green transmission mains are deploying concrete poles. The earthing arrangement of the concrete poles could have an impact on the earth grid impedance also on the input impedance of the system from the fault point of view. This paper endeavors to provide information on the soil resistivity of the area and the deployments of concrete poles. It introduce the cut off soil resistivity value ρSC, this value aid in determine the impact of deploying the concrete poles on the earthing system. Multiple cases were discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Soil Resistivity, HV Transmission Mains, Earthing, Safety.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2409
792 Soil Resistivity Structure and Its Implication on the Pole Grid Resistance for Transmission Lines
Authors: M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk, G. Nasserddine
Abstract:High Voltage (HV) transmission lines are widely spread around residential places. They take all forms of shapes: concrete, steel, and timber poles. Earth grid always form part of the HV transmission structure, whereat soil resistivity value is one of the main inputs when it comes to determining the earth grid requirements. In this paper, the soil structure and its implication on the electrode resistance of HV transmission poles will be explored. In Addition, this paper will present simulation for various soil structures using IEEE and Australian standards to verify the computation with CDEGS software. Furthermore, the split factor behavior under different soil resistivity structure will be presented using CDEGS simulations.
Keywords: Earth Grid, EPR, High Voltage, Soil Resistivity Structure, Split Factor, Step Voltage, Touch Voltage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3161
791 Electrical Analysis of Corn Oil as an Alternative to Mineral Oil in Power Transformers
Authors: E. Taslak, C. Kocatepe, O. Arıkan, C. F. Kumru
Abstract:In insulation and cooling of power transformers various liquids are used. Mineral oils have wide availability and low cost. However, they have a poor biodegradability potential and lower fire point in comparison with other insulating liquids. Use of a liquid having high biodegradability is important due to environmental consideration. This paper investigates edible corn oil as an alternative to mineral oil. Various properties of mineral and corn oil like breakdown voltage, dissipation factor, relative dielectric constant, power loss and resistivity were measured according to different standards.
Keywords: Breakdown voltage, corn oil, dissipation factor, mineral oil, power loss, relative dielectric constant, resistivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3061
790 Synthesis and Thermoelectric Behavior in Nanoparticles of Doped Co Ferrites
Authors: M. Anis-ur- Rehman, A. Abdullah, Mariam Ansari , Zeb-un-Nisa, M. S. Awan
Samples of CoFe2-xCrxO4 where x varies from 0.0 to 0.5 were prepared by co-precipitation route. These samples were sintered at 750°C for 2 hours. These particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature. The FCC spinel structure was confirmed by XRD patterns of the samples. The crystallite sizes of these particles were calculated from the most intense peak by Scherrer formula. The crystallite sizes lie in the range of 37-60 nm. The lattice parameter was found decreasing upon substitution of Cr. DC electrical resistivity was measured as a function of temperature. The room temperature thermoelectric power was measured for the prepared samples. The magnitude of Seebeck coefficient depends on the composition and resistivity of the samples.
Keywords: Ferrites, crystallite size, drift mobility, seebeck coefficient, thermopower.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1981
789 Novel Intrinsic Conducting Polymer Current Limiting Device (CLD) for Surge Protection
Authors: Noor H Jabarullah
In the past many uneconomic solutions for limitation and interruption of short-circuit currents in low power applications have been introduced, especially polymer switch based on the positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PCTR) concept. However there are many limitations in the active material, which consists of conductive fillers. This paper presents a significantly improved and simplified approach that replaces the existing current limiters with faster switching elements. Its elegance lies in the remarkable simplicity and low-cost processes of producing the device using polyaniline (PANI) doped with methane-sulfonic acid (MSA). Samples characterized as lying in the metallic and critical regimes of metal insulator transition have been studied by means of electrical performance in the voltage range from 1V to 5 V under different environmental conditions. Moisture presence is shown to increase the resistivity and also improved its current limiting performance. Additionally, the device has also been studied for electrical resistivity in the temperature range 77 K-300 K. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity gives evidence for a transport mechanism based on variable range hopping in three dimensions.
Keywords: Conducting polymer, current limiter, intrinsic, moisture dependence, polyaniline, resettable, surge protection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2057
788 Effect of Co3O4 Nanoparticles Addition on (Bi,Pb)-2223 Superconductor
Authors: A. N. Jannah, R. Abd-Shukor, H. Abdullah
Abstract:The effect of nano Co3O4 addition on the superconducting properties of (Bi, Pb)-2223 system was studied. The samples were prepared by the acetate coprecipitation method. The Co3O4 with different sizes (10-30 nm and 30-50 nm) from x=0.00 to 0.05 was added to Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy(Co3O4)x. Phase analysis by XRD method, microstructural examination by SEM and dc electrical resistivity by four point probe method were done to characterize the samples. The X-ray diffraction patterns of all the samples indicated the majority Bi-2223 phase along with minor Bi-2212 and Bi-2201 phases. The volume fraction was estimated from the intensities of Bi- 2223, Bi-2212 and Bi-2201 phase. The sample with x=0.01 wt% of the added Co3O4 (10-30 nm size) showed the highest volume fraction of Bi-2223 phase (72%) and the highest superconducting transition temperature, Tc (~102 K). The non-added sample showed the highest Tc(~103 K) compared to added samples with nano Co3O4 (30-50 nm size) added samples. Both the onset critical temperature Tc(onset) and zero electrical resistivity temperature Tc(R=0) were in the range of 103-115 ±1K and 91-103 ±1K respectively for samples with added Co3O4 (10-30 nm and 30-50 nm).
Keywords: Bi(Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor, coprecipitation, nano Co3O4, transition temperature TC.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1922
787 The Fabrication and Characterization of a Honeycomb Ceramic Electric Heater with a Conductive Coating
Authors: Siming Wang, Qing Ni, Yu Wu, Ruihai Xu, Hong Ye
Porous electric heaters, compared to conventional electric heaters, exhibit excellent heating performance due to their large specific surface area. Porous electric heaters employ porous metallic materials or conductive porous ceramics as the heating element. The former attains a low heating power with a fixed current due to the low electrical resistivity of metal. Although the latter can bypass the inherent challenges of porous metallic materials, the fabrication process of the conductive porous ceramics is complicated and high cost. This work proposed a porous ceramic electric heater with dielectric honeycomb ceramic as a substrate and surface conductive coating as a heating element. The conductive coating was prepared by the sol-gel method using silica sol and methyl trimethoxysilane as raw materials and graphite powder as conductive fillers. The conductive mechanism and degradation reason of the conductive coating was studied by electrical resistivity and thermal stability analysis. The heating performance of the proposed heater was experimentally investigated by heating air and deionized water. The results indicate that the electron transfer is achieved by forming the conductive network through the contact of the graphite flakes. With 30 wt% of graphite, the electrical resistivity of the conductive coating can be as low as 0.88 Ω∙cm. The conductive coating exhibits good electrical stability up to 500 °C but degrades beyond 600 °C due to the formation of many cracks in the coating caused by the weight loss and thermal expansion. The results also show that the working medium has a great influence on the volume power density of the heater. With air under natural convection as the working medium, the volume power density attains 640.85 kW/m3, which can be increased by 5 times when using deionized water as the working medium. The proposed honeycomb ceramic electric heater has the advantages of the simple fabrication method, low cost, and high-volume power density, demonstrating great potential in the fluid heating field.
Keywords: Conductive coating, honeycomb ceramic electric heater, high specific surface area, high volume power density.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 100
786 Effect of Surface-Modification of Indium Tin Oxide Particles on Their Electrical Conductivity
Authors: Y. Kobayashi, T. Kurosaka, K. Yamamura, T. Yonezawa, K. Yamasaki
Abstract:The present work reports an effect of surface- modification of indium tin oxide (ITO) particles with chemicals on their electronic conductivity properties. Examined chemicals were polyvinyl alcohol (nonionic polymer), poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (cationic polymer), poly(sodium 4-styrene-sulfonate) (anionic polymer), (2-aminopropyl) trimethoxy silane (APMS) (silane coupling agent with amino group), and (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane (MPS) (silane coupling agent with thiol group). For all the examined chemicals, volume resistivities of surface-modified ITO particles did not increase much when they were aged in air at 80 oC, compared to a volume resistivity of un-surface-modified ITO particles. Increases in volume resistivities of ITO particles surface-modified with the silane coupling agents were smaller than those with the polymers, since hydrolysis of the silane coupling agents and condensation of generated silanol and OH groups on ITO particles took place to provide efficient immobilization of them on particles. The APMS gave an increase in volume resistivity smaller than the MPS, since a larger solubility in water of APMS providing a larger amount of APMS immobilized on particles.
Keywords: Indium tin oxide, particles, surface-modification, volume resistivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1034
785 Transmission Mains Earthing Design and Concrete Pole Deployments
Authors: M. Nassereddine, J. Rizk, A. Hellany, M. Nagrial
The High Voltage (HV) transmission mains into the community necessitate earthing design to ensure safety compliance of the system. Concrete poles are widely used within HV transmission mains; which could have an impact on the earth grid impedance and input impedance of the system from the fault point of view. This paper provides information on concrete pole earthing to enhance the split factor of the system; further, it discusses the deployment of concrete structures in high soil resistivity area to reduce the earth grid system of the plant. This paper introduces the cut off soil resistivity SC ρ when replacing timber poles with concrete ones.
Keywords: Concrete Poles, Earth Grid, EPR, High Voltage, Soil Resistivity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3463
784 Effectiveness of Earthing System in Vertical Configurations
Authors: S. Yunus, A. Suratman, N. Mohamad Nor, M. Othman
This paper presents the measurement and simulation results by Finite Element Method (FEM) for earth resistance (RDC) for interconnected vertical ground rod configurations. The soil resistivity was measured using the Wenner four-pin Method, and RDC was measured using the Fall of Potential (FOP) method, as outlined in the standard. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is employed to interpret the soil resistivity to that of a 2-layer soil model. The same soil resistivity data that were obtained by Wenner four-pin method were used in FEM for simulation. This paper compares the results of RDC obtained by FEM simulation with the real measurement at field site. A good agreement was seen for RDC obtained by measurements and FEM. This shows that FEM is a reliable software to be used for design of earthing systems. It is also found that the parallel rod system has a better performance compared to a similar setup using a grid layout.
Keywords: Earthing systems, earth electrodes, Finite Element Method, FEM, Genetic Algorithm, GA, earth resistances.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 444
783 Durability Study Partially Saturated Fly Ash Blended Cement Concrete
Authors: N. Shafiq, M. F. Nuruddin, S. C. Chin
Abstract:This paper presents the experimental results of the investigation of various properties related to the durability and longterm performance of mortars made of Fly Ash blended cement, FA and Ordinary Portland cement, OPC. The properties that were investigated in an experimental program include; equilibration of specimen in different relative humidity, determination of total porosity, compressive strength, chloride permeability index, and electrical resistivity. Fly Ash blended cement mortar specimens exhibited 10% to 15% lower porosity when measured at equilibrium conditions in different relative humidities as compared to the specimens made of OPC mortar, which resulted in 6% to 8% higher compressive strength of FA blended cement mortar specimens. The effects of ambient relative humidity during sample equilibration on porosity and strength development were also studied. For specimens equilibrated in higher relative humidity conditions, such as 75%, the total porosity of different mortar specimens was between 35% to 50% less than the porosity of samples equilibrated in 12% relative humidity, consequently leading to higher compressive strengths of these specimens.A valid statistical correlation between values of compressive strength, porosity and the degree of saturation was obtained. Measured values of chloride permeability index of fly ash blended cement mortar were obtained as one fourth to one sixth of those measured for OPC mortar specimens, which indicates high resistance against chloride ion penetration in FA blended cement specimens, hence resulting in a highly durable mortar.
Keywords: chloride permeability index, equilibrium condition, electrical resistivity, fly ashProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1826
782 Corrosion Behaviour of Hypereutectic Al-Si Automotive Alloy in Different pH Environment
Authors: M. Al Nur, M. S. Kaiser
Corrosion behaviour of hypereutectic Al-19Si automotive alloy in different pH=1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 environments was carried out using conventional gravimetric measurements and was complemented by resistivity, optical micrograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray analyzer (EDX) investigations. Gravimetric analysis confirmed that the highest corrosion rate is shown at pH 13 followed by pH 1. Minimum corrosion occurs in the pH range of 3.0 to 11 due to establishment of passive layer on the surface. The highest corrosion rate at pH 13 is due to the presence of sodium hydroxide in the solution which dissolves the surface oxide film at a steady rate. At pH 1, it can be attributed that the presence of aggressive chloride ions serves to pick up the damage of the passive films at localized regions. With varying exposure periods by both, the environment complies with the normal corrosion rate profile that is an initial steep rise followed by a nearly constant value of corrosion rate. Resistivity increases in case of pH 1 solution for the higher pit formation and decreases at pH 13 due to formation of thin film. The SEM image of corroded samples immersed in pH 1 solution clearly shows pores on the surface and in pH 13 solution, and the corrosion layer seems more compact and homogenous and not porous.
Keywords: Al-Si alloy, corrosion, pH, resistivity, SEM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 894
781 Groundwater Potential Zone Identification in Unconsolidated Aquifer Using Geophysical Techniques around Tarbela Ghazi, District Haripur, Pakistan
Authors: Syed Muzyan Shahzad, Liu Jianxin, Asim Shahzad, Muhammad Sharjeel Raza, Sun Ya, Fanidi Meryem
Electrical resistivity investigation was conducted in vicinity of Tarbela Ghazi, in order to study the subsurface layer with a view of determining the depth to the aquifer and thickness of groundwater potential zones. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at 16 VES stations. Well logging data at four tube wells have been used to mark the super saturated zones with great discharge rate. The present paper shows a geoelectrical identification of the lithology and an estimate of the relationship between the resistivity and Dar Zarrouk parameters (transverse unit resistance and longitudinal unit conductance). The VES results revealed both homogeneous and heterogeneous nature of the subsurface strata. Aquifer is unconfined to confine in nature, and at few locations though perched aquifer has been identified, groundwater potential zones are developed in unconsolidated deposits layers and more than seven geo-electric layers are observed at some VES locations. Saturated zones thickness ranges from 5 m to 150 m, whereas at few area aquifer is beyond 150 m thick. The average anisotropy, transvers resistance and longitudinal conductance values are 0.86 %, 35750.9821 Ω.m2, 0.729 Siemens, respectively. The transverse unit resistance values fluctuate all over the aquifer system, whereas below at particular depth high values are observed, that significantly associated with the high transmissivity zones. The groundwater quality in all analyzed samples is below permissible limit according to World Health Standard (WHO).
Keywords: Geoelectric layers, Dar Zarrouk parameters, Aquifer, Electro-stratigraphic.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 681
780 The Effect of Aging of ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films on the Microstructure and Photoelectric Property
Authors: Zue Chin Chang
Abstract:RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films. The AZO film had the best electrical properties; it had the lowest resistivity of 6.6 × 10-4 cm, the best sheet resistance of 2.2 × 10-1 Ω/square, and the highest carrier concentration of 4.3 × 1020 cm-3, as compared to the ZnO and GZO films.
Keywords: Aging, films, Microstructure, Photoelectric Property.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1623