Publications | Cognitive and Language Sciences
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 217

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Cognitive and Language Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

217 A Text Classification Approach Based on Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Rim Messaoudi, Nogaye-Gueye Gning, François Azelart


Automatic text classification applies mostly natural language processing (NLP) and other artificial intelligence (AI)-guided techniques to automatically classify text in a faster and more accurate manner. This paper discusses the subject of using predictive maintenance to manage incident tickets inside the sociality. It focuses on proposing a tool that treats and analyses comments and notes written by administrators after resolving an incident ticket. The goal here is to increase the quality of these comments. Additionally, this tool is based on NLP and machine learning techniques to realize the textual analytics of the extracted data. This approach was tested using real data taken from the French National Railways (SNCF) company and was given a high-quality result.

Keywords: Machine learning, text classification, NLP techniques, semantic representation.

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216 Latency-Based Motion Detection in Spiking Neural Networks

Authors: Mohammad Saleh Vahdatpour, Yanqing Zhang


Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying motion detection in the human visual system has long been a fascinating challenge in neuroscience and artificial intelligence. This paper presents a spiking neural network model inspired by the processing of motion information in the primate visual system, particularly focusing on the Middle Temporal (MT) area. In our study, we propose a multi-layer spiking neural network model to perform motion detection tasks, leveraging the idea that synaptic delays in neuronal communication are pivotal in motion perception. Synaptic delay, determined by factors like axon length and myelin insulation, affects the temporal order of input spikes, thereby encoding motion direction and speed. Overall, our spiking neural network model demonstrates the feasibility of capturing motion detection principles observed in the primate visual system. The combination of synaptic delays, learning mechanisms, and shared weights and delays in SMD provides a promising framework for motion perception in artificial systems, with potential applications in computer vision and robotics.

Keywords: Neural networks, motion detection, signature detection, convolutional neural network.

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215 Self-Supervised Pretraining on Paired Sequences of fMRI Data for Transfer Learning to Brain Decoding Tasks

Authors: Sean Paulsen, Michael Casey


In this work, we present a self-supervised pretraining framework for transformers on functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data. First, we pretrain our architecture on two self-supervised tasks simultaneously to teach the model a general understanding of the temporal and spatial dynamics of human auditory cortex during music listening. Our pretraining results are the first to suggest a synergistic effect of multitask training on fMRI data. Second, we finetune the pretrained models and train additional fresh models on a supervised fMRI classification task. We observe significantly improved accuracy on held-out runs with the finetuned models, which demonstrates the ability of our pretraining tasks to facilitate transfer learning. This work contributes to the growing body of literature on transformer architectures for pretraining and transfer learning with fMRI data, and serves as a proof of concept for our pretraining tasks and multitask pretraining on fMRI data.

Keywords: Transfer learning, fMRI, self-supervised, brain decoding, transformer, multitask training.

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214 A Robust Visual SLAM for Indoor Dynamic Environment

Authors: Xiang Zhang, Daohong Yang, Ziyuan Wu, Lei Li, Wanting Zhou


Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (VSLAM) uses cameras to gather information in unknown environments to achieve simultaneous localization and mapping of the environment. This technology has a wide range of applications in autonomous driving, virtual reality, and other related fields. Currently, the research advancements related to VSLAM can maintain high accuracy in static environments. But in dynamic environments, the presence of moving objects in the scene can reduce the stability of the VSLAM system, leading to inaccurate localization and mapping, or even system failure. In this paper, a robust VSLAM method was proposed to effectively address the challenges in dynamic environments. We proposed a dynamic region removal scheme based on a semantic segmentation neural network and geometric constraints. Firstly, a semantic segmentation neural network is used to extract the prior active motion region, prior static region, and prior passive motion region in the environment. Then, the lightweight frame tracking module initializes the transform pose between the previous frame and the current frame on the prior static region. A motion consistency detection module based on multi-view geometry and scene flow is used to divide the environment into static regions and dynamic regions. Thus, the dynamic object region was successfully eliminated. Finally, only the static region is used for tracking thread. Our research is based on the ORBSLAM3 system, which is one of the most effective VSLAM systems available. We evaluated our method on the TUM RGB-D benchmark and the results demonstrate that the proposed VSLAM method improves the accuracy of the original ORBSLAM3 by 70%˜98.5% under a high dynamic environment.

Keywords: Dynamic scene, dynamic visual SLAM, semantic segmentation, scene flow, VSLAM.

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213 Contextual SenSe Model: Word Sense Disambiguation Using Sense and Sense Value of Context Surrounding the Target

Authors: Vishal Raj, Noorhan Abbas


Ambiguity in NLP (Natural Language Processing) refers to the ability of a word, phrase, sentence, or text to have multiple meanings. This results in various kinds of ambiguities such as lexical, syntactic, semantic, anaphoric and referential. This study is focused mainly on solving the issue of Lexical ambiguity. Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) is an NLP technique that aims to resolve lexical ambiguity by determining the correct meaning of a word within a given context. Most WSD solutions rely on words for training and testing, but we have used lemma and Part of Speech (POS) tokens of words for training and testing. Lemma adds generality and POS adds properties of word into token. We have designed a method to create an affinity matrix to calculate the affinity between any pair of lemma_POS (a token where lemma and POS of word are joined by underscore) of given training set. Additionally, we have devised an algorithm to create the sense clusters of tokens using affinity matrix under hierarchy of POS of lemma. Furthermore, three different mechanisms to predict the sense of target word using the affinity/similarity value are devised. Each contextual token contributes to the sense of target word with some value and whichever sense gets higher value becomes the sense of target word. So, contextual tokens play a key role in creating sense clusters and predicting the sense of target word, hence, the model is named Contextual SenSe Model (CSM). CSM exhibits a noteworthy simplicity and explication lucidity in contrast to contemporary deep learning models characterized by intricacy, time-intensive processes, and challenging explication. CSM is trained on SemCor training data and evaluated on SemEval test dataset. The results indicate that despite the naivety of the method, it achieves promising results when compared to the Most Frequent Sense (MFS) model.

Keywords: Word Sense Disambiguation, WSD, Contextual SenSe Model, Most Frequent Sense, part of speech, POS, Natural Language Processing, NLP, OOV, out of vocabulary, ELMo, Embeddings from Language Model, BERT, Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers, Word2Vec, lemma_POS, Algorithm.

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212 Acceleration-Based Motion Model for Visual SLAM

Authors: Daohong Yang, Xiang Zhang, Wanting Zhou, Lei Li


Visual Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (VSLAM) is a technology that gathers information about the surrounding environment to ascertain its own position and create a map. It is widely used in computer vision, robotics, and various other fields. Many visual SLAM systems, such as OBSLAM3, utilize a constant velocity motion model. The utilization of this model facilitates the determination of the initial pose of the current frame, thereby enhancing the efficiency and precision of feature matching. However, it is often difficult to satisfy the constant velocity motion model in actual situations. This can result in a significant deviation between the obtained initial pose and the true value, leading to errors in nonlinear optimization results. Therefore, this paper proposes a motion model based on acceleration that can be applied to most SLAM systems. To provide a more accurate description of the camera pose acceleration, we separate the pose transformation matrix into its rotation matrix and translation vector components. The rotation matrix is now represented by a rotation vector. We assume that, over a short period, the changes in rotating angular velocity and translation vector remain constant. Based on this assumption, the initial pose of the current frame is estimated. In addition, the error of the constant velocity model is analyzed theoretically. Finally, we apply our proposed approach to the ORBSLAM3 system and evaluate two sets of sequences from the TUM datasets. The results show that our proposed method has a more accurate initial pose estimation, resulting in an improvement of 6.61% and 6.46% in the accuracy of the ORBSLAM3 system on the two test sequences, respectively.

Keywords: Error estimation, constant acceleration motion model, pose estimation, visual SLAM.

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211 A Design of Elliptic Curve Cryptography Processor Based on SM2 over GF(p)

Authors: Shiji Hu, Lei Li, Wanting Zhou, Daohong Yang


The data encryption is the foundation of today’s communication. On this basis, to improve the speed of data encryption and decryption is always an important goal for high-speed applications. This paper proposed an elliptic curve crypto processor architecture based on SM2 prime field. Regarding hardware implementation, we optimized the algorithms in different stages of the structure. For modulo operation on finite field, we proposed an optimized improvement of the Karatsuba-Ofman multiplication algorithm and shortened the critical path through the pipeline structure in the algorithm implementation. Based on SM2 recommended prime field, a fast modular reduction algorithm is used to reduce 512-bit data obtained from the multiplication unit. The radix-4 extended Euclidean algorithm was used to realize the conversion between the affine coordinate system and the Jacobi projective coordinate system. In the parallel scheduling point operations on elliptic curves, we proposed a three-level parallel structure of point addition and point double based on the Jacobian projective coordinate system. Combined with the scalar multiplication algorithm, we added mutual pre-operation to the point addition and double point operation to improve the efficiency of the scalar point multiplication. The proposed ECC hardware architecture was verified and implemented on Xilinx Virtex-7 and ZYNQ-7 platforms, and each 256-bit scalar multiplication operation took 0.275ms. The performance for handling scalar multiplication is 32 times that of CPU (dual-core ARM Cortex-A9).

Keywords: Elliptic curve cryptosystems, SM2, modular multiplication, point multiplication.

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210 The Implementation of Word Study Wall in an Online English Word Memorization Class

Authors: Yidan Shao


With the advancement of the economy, technology promotes online teaching, and learning has become one of the common features in the educational field. Meanwhile, the dramatic expansion of the online environment provides opportunities for more learners, including second language learners. A greater command of vocabulary improves students’ learning capacity, and word acquisition and development play a critical role in learning. Furthermore, the Word Wall is an effective tool to improve students’ knowledge of words, which works for a wide range of age groups. Therefore, this study is going to use the Word Wall as an intervention to examine whether it can bring some memorization changes in an online English language class for a second language learner based on the word morphology method. The participant will take ten courses in the experiment as it plans. The findings show that the Word Wall activity plays a slight role in improving word memorizing, but it does affect instant memorization. If longer periods and more comprehensive designs of research can be applied, it is expected to have more value.

Keywords: Second language acquisition, word morphology, word memorization, the Word Wall.

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209 Corpus-Assisted Study of Gender Related Tiger Metaphors in the Chinese Context

Authors: Na Xiao


Animal metaphors have many different connotations, ranging from loving emotions to derogatory epithets, but gender expressions using animal metaphors are often imbalanced. Generally, animal metaphors related to females tend to be negative. Little known about the reasons for the negative expressions of animal female metaphors in Chinese contexts still have not been quantified. The study was based on the conceptual metaphor theory, and it used the Modern Chinese Corpus at the Center for Chinese Linguistics at Peking University (CCL Corpus) as a database, which identified the influencing variables of gender differences in the description of animal metaphors mapping humans in the Chinese context by observing the percentage of "tiger" metaphor. This study has proved that the tiger metaphors associated with humans in the Chinese context tend to be negative. Importantly, this study has also shown that the proportion of tiger metaphorical idioms that are related to women is very high. This finding can be used as crucial information for future studies on other gender-related animal metaphorical idioms and can offer additional insights for understanding trends in other animal metaphors.

Keywords: Chinese, CCL Corpus, gender differences, metaphorical idioms, tigers.

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208 COVID_ICU_BERT: A Fine-tuned Language Model for COVID-19 Intensive Care Unit Clinical Notes

Authors: Shahad Nagoor, Lucy Hederman, Kevin Koidl, Annalina Caputo


Doctors’ notes reflect their impressions, attitudes, clinical sense, and opinions about patients’ conditions and progress, and other information that is essential for doctors’ daily clinical decisions. Despite their value, clinical notes are insufficiently researched within the language processing community. Automatically extracting information from unstructured text data is known to be a difficult task as opposed to dealing with structured information such as physiological vital signs, images and laboratory results. The aim of this research is to investigate how Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques and machine learning techniques applied to clinician notes can assist in doctors’ decision making in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. The hypothesis is that clinical outcomes like survival or mortality can be useful to influence the judgement of clinical sentiment in ICU clinical notes. This paper presents two contributions: first, we introduce COVID_ICU_BERT, a fine-tuned version of a clinical transformer model that can reliably predict clinical sentiment for notes of COVID patients in ICU. We train the model on clinical notes for COVID-19 patients, ones not previously seen by Bio_ClinicalBERT or Bio_Discharge_Summary_BERT. The model which was based on Bio_ClinicalBERT achieves higher predictive accuracy than the one based on Bio_Discharge_Summary_BERT (Acc 93.33%, AUC 0.98, and Precision 0.96). Second, we perform data augmentation using clinical contextual word embedding that is based on a pre-trained clinical model to balance the samples in each class in the data (survived vs. deceased patients). Data augmentation improves the accuracy of prediction slightly (Acc 96.67%, AUC 0.98, and Precision 0.92).

Keywords: BERT fine-tuning, clinical sentiment, COVID-19, data augmentation.

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207 Meditation Based Brain Painting Promoting Foreign Language Memory through Establishing a Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Zhepeng Rui, Zhenyu Gu, Caitilin de Bérigny


In the current study, we designed an interactive meditation and brain painting application to cultivate users’ creativity, promote meditation, reduce stress, and improve cognition while attempting to learn a foreign language. User tests and data analyses were conducted on 42 male and 42 female participants to better understand sex-associated psychological and aesthetic differences. Our method utilized brain-computer interfaces to import meditation and attention data to create artwork in meditation-based applications. Female participants showed statistically significantly different language learning outcomes following three meditation paradigms. The art style of brain painting helped females with language memory. Our results suggest that the most ideal methods for promoting memory attention were meditation methods and brain painting exercises contributing to language learning, memory concentration promotion, and foreign word memorization. We conclude that a short period of meditation practice can help in learning a foreign language. These findings provide insights into meditation, creative language education, brain-computer interface, and human-computer interactions.

Keywords: Brain-computer interface, creative thinking, meditation, mental health.

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206 Foreign Languages and Employability in the EU

Authors: Paulina Pietrzyk-Kowalec


This paper presents the phenomenon of multilingualism becoming the norm rather than the exception in the European Union. It also seeks to describe the correlation between the command of foreign languages and employability. It is evident that the challenges of today's societies when it comes to employability are more and more complex. Thus, it is one of the crucial tasks of higher education to prepare its students to face this kind of complexity, understand its nuances, and have the capacity to adapt effectively to situations that are common in corporations based in the countries belonging to the EU. From this point of view, the assessment of the impact that the command of foreign languages of European university students could have on the numerous business sectors becomes vital. It also involves raising awareness of future professionals to make them understand the importance of mastering communicative skills in foreign languages that will meet the requirements of students' prospective employers. The direct connection between higher education institutions and the world of business also allows companies to realize that they should rethink their recruitment and human resources procedures in order to take into account the importance of foreign languages. This article focuses on the objective of the multilingualism policy developed by the European Commission, which is to enable young people to master at least two foreign languages, which is crucial in their future careers. The article puts emphasis on the existence of a crucial connection between the research conducted in higher education institutions and the business sector in order to reduce current qualification gaps.

Keywords: Cross-cultural communication, employability, human resources, language attitudes, multilingualism.

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205 Drive-Related Behaviors as Elements of Thinking

Authors: Peter Pfeifer, Julian Pfeifer, Niko Pfeifer


Information processing is at the focus of brain and cognition research. This work has a different perspective, it starts with behaviors. The detailed analysis of behaviors leads to the discovery that a significant proportion of them are based on only five basic drives. These basic drives are combinable, and the combinations result in the diversity of human behavior and thinking. The key elements are drive memories. They collect memories of drive-related situations and feelings. They contain variations of basic drives in numerous areas of life and build combinations with different meanings depending on the area. Human thinking could be explained with variations on these nested combinations of basic drives.

Keywords: Cognitive modeling, psycholinguistics, psychology, psychophysiology of cognition.

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204 Sentiment Analysis of Fake Health News Using Naive Bayes Classification Models

Authors: Danielle Shackley, Yetunde Folajimi


As more people turn to the internet seeking health related information, there is more risk of finding false, inaccurate, or dangerous information. Sentiment analysis is a natural language processing technique that assigns polarity scores of text, ranging from positive, neutral and negative. In this research, we evaluate the weight of a sentiment analysis feature added to fake health news classification models. The dataset consists of existing reliably labeled health article headlines that were supplemented with health information collected about COVID-19 from social media sources. We started with data preprocessing, tested out various vectorization methods such as Count and TFIDF vectorization. We implemented 3 Naive Bayes classifier models, including Bernoulli, Multinomial and Complement. To test the weight of the sentiment analysis feature on the dataset, we created benchmark Naive Bayes classification models without sentiment analysis, and those same models were reproduced and the feature was added. We evaluated using the precision and accuracy scores. The Bernoulli initial model performed with 90% precision and 75.2% accuracy, while the model supplemented with sentiment labels performed with 90.4% precision and stayed constant at 75.2% accuracy. Our results show that the addition of sentiment analysis did not improve model precision by a wide margin; while there was no evidence of improvement in accuracy, we had a 1.9% improvement margin of the precision score with the Complement model. Future expansion of this work could include replicating the experiment process, and substituting the Naive Bayes for a deep learning neural network model.

Keywords: Sentiment analysis, Naive Bayes model, natural language processing, topic analysis, fake health news classification model.

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203 A Family of Distributions on Learnable Problems without Uniform Convergence

Authors: César Garza


In supervised binary classification and regression problems, it is well-known that learnability is equivalent to uniform convergence of the hypothesis class, and if a problem is learnable, it is learnable by empirical risk minimization. For the general learning setting of unsupervised learning tasks, there are non-trivial learning problems where uniform convergence does not hold. We present here the task of learning centers of mass with an extra feature that “activates” some of the coordinates over the unit ball in a Hilbert space. We show that the learning problem is learnable under a stable RLM rule. We introduce a family of distributions over the domain space with some mild restrictions for which the sample complexity of uniform convergence for these problems must grow logarithmically with the dimension of the Hilbert space. If we take this dimension to infinity, we obtain a learnable problem for which the uniform convergence property fails for a vast family of distributions.

Keywords: Statistical learning theory, learnability, uniform convergence, stability, regularized loss minimization.

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202 A BERT-Based Model for Financial Social Media Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Josiel Delgadillo, Johnson Kinyua, Charles Mutigwe


The purpose of sentiment analysis is to determine the sentiment strength (e.g., positive, negative, neutral) from a textual source for good decision-making. Natural Language Processing (NLP) in domains such as financial markets requires knowledge of domain ontology, and pre-trained language models, such as BERT, have made significant breakthroughs in various NLP tasks by training on large-scale un-labeled generic corpora such as Wikipedia. However, sentiment analysis is a strong domain-dependent task. The rapid growth of social media has given users a platform to share their experiences and views about products, services, and processes, including financial markets. StockTwits and Twitter are social networks that allow the public to express their sentiments in real time. Hence, leveraging the success of unsupervised pre-training and a large amount of financial text available on social media platforms could potentially benefit a wide range of financial applications. This work is focused on sentiment analysis using social media text on platforms such as StockTwits and Twitter. To meet this need, SkyBERT, a domain-specific language model pre-trained and fine-tuned on financial corpora, has been developed. The results show that SkyBERT outperforms current state-of-the-art models in financial sentiment analysis. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of SkyBERT.

Keywords: BERT, financial markets, Twitter, sentiment analysis.

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201 Native Language Identification with Cross-Corpus Evaluation Using Social Media Data: 'Reddit'

Authors: Yasmeen Bassas, Sandra Kuebler, Allen Riddell


Native Language Identification is one of the growing subfields in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The task of Native Language Identification (NLI) is mainly concerned with predicting the native language of an author’s writing in a second language. In this paper, we investigate the performance of two types of features; content-based features vs. content independent features when they are evaluated on a different corpus (using social media data “Reddit”). In this NLI task, the predefined models are trained on one corpus (TOEFL) and then the trained models are evaluated on a different data using an external corpus (Reddit). Three classifiers are used in this task; the baseline, linear SVM, and Logistic Regression. Results show that content-based features are more accurate and robust than content independent ones when tested within corpus and across corpus.

Keywords: NLI, NLP, content-based features, content independent features, social media corpus, ML.

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200 Puhr(i)puhr ‘Son’s Son’ at the Shahpuhr Inscription at Haji-Abad

Authors: Behzad Moeini Sam, Sara Mohammadi Avandi, Abbas Moradi Zirkuhi


Ancient Near East civilizations were successive powers with a similar structure as the Median and Persian Empires that came after them; that is, the ancient Empires were founded under new leadership, and their political power transferred from one nation to another. The replacement of the Iranians instead of the Mesopotamian civilizations caused the Old Iranian languages to influence the Mesopotamian ones. However, the changes were relatively small. This paper aims to compare the word of puhre(ī)puhr or son’s son in Haji-Abad inscription with that of the son of the son in Mesopotamian texts to find out the relationship with the Mesopotamian languages. First, we introduced the morphological derivation of ‘Grandchild’ from the Indo-European to the New Persian language; second, we searched for the same in the Mesopotamian languages from Sumerian to the Neo-Babylonian Period. Thus, we conclude that it is logical to assume puhre(ī)puhr’s (son’s son) morphology at the Haji-Abad inscription may be affected by that of the Mesopotamian languages.

Keywords: Indo-European, Mesopotamia, puhre(ī)puhr, son’s son.

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199 Sound Instance: Art, Perception and Composition through Soundscapes

Authors: Ricardo Mestre


The soundscape stands out as an agglomeration of sounds available in the world, associated with different contexts and origins, being a theme studied by various areas of knowledge, seeking to guide their benefits and their consequences, contributing to the welfare of society and other ecosystems. With the objective for a greater recognition of sound reality, through the selection and differentiation of sounds, the soundscape studies focus on the contribution for a better tuning of the world and to the balance and well-being of humanity. Sound environment, produced and created in various ways, can provide various sources of information, contributing to the orientation of the human being, alerting and manipulating him during his daily journey, like small notifications received on a cell phone or other device with these features. In this way, it becomes possible to give sound its due importance in relation to the processes of individual representation, in manners of social, professional and emotional life. Ensuring an individual representation means providing the human being with new tools for the long process of reflection by recognizing his environment, the sounds that represent him, and his perspective on his respective function in it. In order to provide more information about the importance of the sound environment inherent to the individual reality, one introduces the term sound instance, in order to refer to the whole sound field existing in the individual's life, which is divided into four distinct subfields, but essential to the process of individual representation, called sound matrix, sound cycles, sound traces and sound interference. Alongside volunteers we were able to create six representations of sound instances, based on the individual perception of his/her life, focusing on the present, past and future. With this investigation it was possible to determine that sound instance has a tool for self-recognition, considering the statements of opinion about the experience from the volunteers, reflecting about the three time lines, based on memories, thoughts and wishes.

Keywords: Sound instance, soundscape, sound art, self-recognition.

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198 On a Theoretical Framework for Language Learning Apps Evaluation

Authors: Juan Manuel Real-Espinosa


This paper addresses the first step to evaluate language learning apps: what theoretical framework to adopt when designing the app evaluation framework. The answer is not just one, since there are several options that could be proposed. However, the question to be clarified is to what extent the learning design of apps is based on a specific learning approach, or on the contrary, on a fusion of elements from several theoretical proposals and paradigms, such as m-learning, Mobile Assisted Language Learning and a number of theories about language acquisition. The present study suggests that the reality is closer to the second assumption. This implies that the theoretical framework against which the learning design of the apps should be evaluated, must also be a hybrid theoretical framework, which integrates evaluation criteria from the different theories involved in language learning through mobile applications.

Keywords: Action-oriented approach, apps evaluation, mobile-assisted language learning, post-method pedagogy.

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197 Comparing Sumerograms in Akkadian and Arameograms in Middle Persian

Authors: Behzad Moeini Sam, Sara Mohammadi Avandi


Ancient scribes usually wrote an Akkadian word in Akkadian, spelling it out syllable by syllable. Sometimes, however, they wrote down the equivalent word in Sumerian for the Akkadians held Sumerian culture, from which they had inherited the cuneiform script, in high esteem. ‘Syllabic’ vs. ‘Sumerographic’ are the two forms of cuneiform writing. The Assyrian language was a branch of the Akkadian one that used the script and language of Aramaic throughout the whole of the empire. It caused the Aramaic language to apply as an Interlingua until the following periods. This paper aims to compare Sumerograms in Akkadian texts and Arameograms in Middle Persian texts to find a continuous written system that continued to apply from Akkadian to the Middle Persian. It will firstly introduce Sumerograms which are the earliest Akkadian texts, and will finally explain the Aramaic language, which continues its use by the Parthians and Sasanians as Arameograms. Thus, the main conclusion to be drawn is that just as the Akkadians who applied Sumerograms, Parthian and Pahlavi (including the inscriptions and the Psalter), too, employed a large number of, and more or less faithfully rendered, Aramaic words, also called Arameograms.

Keywords: Sumerogram, Mesopotamian, Akkadian. Aramaic, Middle Persian.

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196 Aspect-Level Sentiment Analysis with Multi-Channel and Graph Convolutional Networks

Authors: Jiajun Wang, Xiaoge Li


The purpose of the aspect-level sentiment analysis task is to identify the sentiment polarity of aspects in a sentence. Currently, most methods mainly focus on using neural networks and attention mechanisms to model the relationship between aspects and context, but they ignore the dependence of words in different ranges in the sentence, resulting in deviation when assigning relationship weight to other words other than aspect words. To solve these problems, we propose an aspect-level sentiment analysis model that combines a multi-channel convolutional network and graph convolutional network (GCN). Firstly, the context and the degree of association between words are characterized by Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) and self-attention mechanism. Besides, a multi-channel convolutional network is used to extract the features of words in different ranges. Finally, a convolutional graph network is used to associate the node information of the dependency tree structure. We conduct experiments on four benchmark datasets. The experimental results are compared with those of other models, which shows that our model is better and more effective.

Keywords: Aspect-level sentiment analysis, attention, multi-channel convolution network, graph convolution network, dependency tree.

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195 The Relationship between Representational Conflicts, Generalization, and Encoding Requirements in an Instance Memory Network

Authors: Mathew Wakefield, Matthew Mitchell, Lisa Wise, Christopher McCarthy


This paper aims to provide an interpretation of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and explore some of its implications. The interpretation views ANNs as a memory which encodes instances of experience. An experiment explores the behavior of encoding and retrieval of instances from memory. A localised representation ANN is created that allows control over encoding and retrieved memory sample size and is experimented with using the MNIST digits dataset. The relationship between input familiarity, conflict within retrieved samples, and error rates is described and demonstrated to be an effective driver for memory encoding. Results indicate that selective encoding and retrieval samples that allow detection of memory conflicts produce optimal performance, and that error rates are normally distributed with input familiarity and conflict. By using input familiarity and sample consistency to guide memory encoding, the number of encoding trials on the dataset were reduced to 18.33% of the training data while maintaining good recognition performance on the test data.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, ANNs, representation, memory, conflict monitoring, confidence.

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194 An Enhanced Support Vector Machine-Based Approach for Sentiment Classification of Arabic Tweets of Different Dialects

Authors: Gehad S. Kaseb, Mona F. Ahmed


Arabic Sentiment Analysis (SA) is one of the most common research fields with many open areas. This paper proposes different pre-processing steps and a modified methodology to improve the accuracy using normal Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification. The paper works on two datasets, Arabic Sentiment Tweets Dataset (ASTD) and Extended Arabic Tweets Sentiment Dataset (Extended-ATSD), which are publicly available for academic use. The results show that the classification accuracy approaches 86%.

Keywords: Arabic, hybrid classification, sentiment analysis, tweets.

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193 The Morphology and Meaning of the Pārs Based on the Linguistic Evolutions and Historical-Mythological Traditions

Authors: Bezad Moeini Sam, Sara Mohammadi Avandi


The morphology of most Persian words goes back to the Indo-European and Indo-Iranian periods. These words show the beliefs and views of the earliest people about their structure. It is also necessary to search for the vocabulary in the Indo-European and Indo-Iranian periods. During recent centuries, comparative linguistics and mythology have facilitated the common Indo-European lexicon to reconstruct. The Persians have been appeared in the Assyrian inscriptions and affected by the Mesopotamians. It is also worth paying attention to the cultural and linguistic exchanges with the Mesopotamian civilizations. This paper aims to show the morphology of Pārsa based on linguistic evolutions and historical-mythological traditions. The method of this study is also to reconstruct both morphology and the earliest form of Persia. Then, it is tried to find the most plausive meaning according to the historical-mythological traditions. In the end, the sickle or scythe is considered the most probable meaning for Pārsa.

Keywords: Pārs, Parsumaš, Perseus, corner, leopard, ax, sickle.

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192 Language Learning, Drives, and Context: A Grounded Theory of Learning Behavior

Authors: Julian Pigott


This paper presents the Language Learning as a Means of Drive Engagement (LLMDE) theory, derived from a grounded theory analysis of interviews with Japanese university students. According to LLMDE theory, language learning can be understood as a means of engaging one or more of four self-fulfillment drives: the drive to expand one’s horizons (perspective drive); the drive to make a success of oneself (status drive); the drive to engage in interaction with others (communication drive); and the drive to obtain intellectual and affective stimulation (entertainment drive). While many theories of learner psychology focus on conscious agency, LLMDE theory addresses the role of the unconscious. In addition, supplementary thematic analysis of the data revealed the role of context in mediating drive engagement. Unexpected memorable events, for example, play a key role in instigating and, indirectly, in regulating learning, as do institutional and cultural contexts. Given the apparent importance of such factors beyond the immediate control of the learner, and given the pervasive role of habit and drives, it is argued that the concept of motivation merits theoretical reappraisal. Rather than an underlying force determining language learning success or failure, it can be understood to emerge sporadically in consciousness to promote behavioral change, or to protect habitual behavior from disruption.

Keywords: Drives, grounded theory, motivation, significant events.

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191 Manodharmam: A Scientific Methodology for Improvisation and Cognition in Carnatic Music

Authors: Raghavi Janaswamy, Saraswathi K. Vasudev


Music is ubiquitous in human lives. Ever since the foetus hears the sound inside the mother’s womb and later upon birth the baby experiences alluring sounds, the curiosity of learning emanates and evokes exploration. Music is an education than a mere entertainment. The intricate balance between music, education and entertainment has well been recognized by the scientific community and is being explored as a viable tool to understand and improve the human cognition. There are seven basic swaras (notes) Sa, Ri, Ga, Ma, Pa, Da and Ni in the Carnatic music system that are analogous to C, D, E, F, G, A and B of the western system. The Carnatic music builds on the conscious use of microtones, gamakams (oscillation) and rendering styles that evolved over centuries and established its stance. The complex but erudite raga system has been designed with elaborate experiments on srutis (musical sounds) and human perception abilities. In parallel, ‘rasa’- the emotions evoked by certain srutis and hence the ragas been solidified along with the power of language in combination with the musical sounds. The Carnatic music branches out as Kalpita sangeetam (pre-composed music) and Manodharma sangeetam (improvised music). This article explores the Manodharma sangeetam and its subdivisions such as raga alapana, swara kalpana, neraval and ragam-tanam-pallavi (RTP). The intrinsic mathematical strategies in its practice methods toward improvising the music have been discussed in detail with concert examples. The techniques on swara weaving for swara kalpana rendering and methods on the alapana development are also discussed at length with an emphasis on the impact on the human cognitive abilities. The articulation of the outlined conscious practice methods not only helps to leave a long-lasting melodic impression on the listeners but also onsets cognitive developments.

Keywords: Carnatic, Manodharmam, music cognition, Alapana.

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190 The Canonical Object and Other Objects in Arabic

Authors: Safiah A. Madkhali


The grammatical relation object has not attracted the same attention in the literature as subject has. Where there is a clearly monotransitive verb such as kick, the criteria for identifying the grammatical relation may converge. However, the term object is also used to refer to phenomena that do not subsume all, or even most, of the recognized properties of the canonical object. Instances of such phenomena include non-canonical objects such as the ones in the so-called double-object construction i.e., the indirect object and the direct object as in (He bought his dog a new collar). In this paper, it is demonstrated how criteria of identifying the grammatical relation object that are found in the theoretical and typological literature can be applied to Arabic. Also, further language-specific criteria are here derived from the regularities of the canonical object in the language. The criteria established in this way are then applied to the non-canonical objects to demonstrate how far they conform to, or diverge from, the canonical object. Contrary to the claim that the direct object is more similar to the canonical object than is the indirect object, it was found that it is, in fact, the indirect object rather than the direct object that shares most of the aspects of the canonical object in monotransitive clauses.

Keywords: Canonical objects, double-object constructions, direct object, indirect object, non-canonical objects.

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189 Comparative Study of Affricate Initial Consonants in Chinese and Slovak

Authors: Maria Istvanova


The purpose of the comparative study of the affricate consonants in Chinese and Slovak is to increase the awareness of the main distinguishing features between these two languages taking into consideration this particular group of consonants. We determine the main difficulties of the Slovak learners in the process of acquiring correct pronunciation of affricate initial consonants in Chinese based on the understanding of the distinguishing features of Chinese and Slovak affricates in combination with the experimental measuring of voice onset time (VOT) values. The software tool Praat is used for the analysis of the recorded language samples. The language samples contain recordings of a Chinese native speaker and Slovak students of Chinese with different language proficiency levels. Based on the results of the analysis in Praat, we identify erroneous pronunciation and provide clarification of its cause.

Keywords: Chinese, comparative study, initial consonants, pronunciation, Slovak

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188 Scenario and Decision Analysis for Solar Energy in Egypt by 2035 Using Dynamic Bayesian Network

Authors: Rawaa H. El-Bidweihy, Hisham M. Abdelsalam, Ihab A. El-Khodary


Bayesian networks are now considered to be a promising tool in the field of energy with different applications. In this study, the aim was to indicate the states of a previous constructed Bayesian network related to the solar energy in Egypt and the factors affecting its market share, depending on the followed data distribution type for each factor, and using either the Z-distribution approach or the Chebyshev’s inequality theorem. Later on, the separate and the conditional probabilities of the states of each factor in the Bayesian network were derived, either from the collected and scrapped historical data or from estimations and past studies. Results showed that we could use the constructed model for scenario and decision analysis concerning forecasting the total percentage of the market share of the solar energy in Egypt by 2035 and using it as a stable renewable source for generating any type of energy needed. Also, it proved that whenever the use of the solar energy increases, the total costs decreases. Furthermore, we have identified different scenarios, such as the best, worst, 50/50, and most likely one, in terms of the expected changes in the percentage of the solar energy market share. The best scenario showed an 85% probability that the market share of the solar energy in Egypt will exceed 10% of the total energy market, while the worst scenario showed only a 24% probability that the market share of the solar energy in Egypt will exceed 10% of the total energy market. Furthermore, we applied policy analysis to check the effect of changing the controllable (decision) variable’s states acting as different scenarios, to show how it would affect the target nodes in the model. Additionally, the best environmental and economical scenarios were developed to show how other factors are expected to be, in order to affect the model positively. Additional evidence and derived probabilities were added for the weather dynamic nodes whose states depend on time, during the process of converting the Bayesian network into a dynamic Bayesian network.

Keywords: Bayesian network, Chebyshev, decision variable, dynamic Bayesian network, Z-distribution

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