Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 32583
Comparing Sumerograms in Akkadian and Arameograms in Middle Persian

Authors: Behzad Moeini Sam, Sara Mohammadi Avandi


Ancient scribes usually wrote an Akkadian word in Akkadian, spelling it out syllable by syllable. Sometimes, however, they wrote down the equivalent word in Sumerian for the Akkadians held Sumerian culture, from which they had inherited the cuneiform script, in high esteem. ‘Syllabic’ vs. ‘Sumerographic’ are the two forms of cuneiform writing. The Assyrian language was a branch of the Akkadian one that used the script and language of Aramaic throughout the whole of the empire. It caused the Aramaic language to apply as an Interlingua until the following periods. This paper aims to compare Sumerograms in Akkadian texts and Arameograms in Middle Persian texts to find a continuous written system that continued to apply from Akkadian to the Middle Persian. It will firstly introduce Sumerograms which are the earliest Akkadian texts, and will finally explain the Aramaic language, which continues its use by the Parthians and Sasanians as Arameograms. Thus, the main conclusion to be drawn is that just as the Akkadians who applied Sumerograms, Parthian and Pahlavi (including the inscriptions and the Psalter), too, employed a large number of, and more or less faithfully rendered, Aramaic words, also called Arameograms.

Keywords: Sumerogram, Mesopotamian, Akkadian. Aramaic, Middle Persian.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 236


[1] E. Cline. The Ancient World Civilizations of the Near East and South Asia. Vol 4. Malaysia. Sharpe Reference. 2007
[2] W. Soden. Grundriss der Akkadischen Grammatik. Roma. Editrice Pottificio Istituto Biblico. 1995
[3] J. Shimron. Language Processing and Acquisition in Languages of Semitic, Root-based, Morphology. Amsterdam. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 2002
[4] R. Byrne. Asia, Ancient Southwest: Script, Middle Aramaic. London and Canada. Elsvier Ltd. 2006
[5] G. Windfuhr. The Iranian Languages. London and New York. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. 2009
[6] E. S. Klima. & Bellugi. U. The signs of language. Cambridge, MA: Har vard University Press. 1979
[7] E. J. Sweeney. The Ramessides, Medes and Persians. New York. Algora Publishing. 2008
[8] B. Jagersma. A Descriptive Grammar of Sumerian. 2010.
[9] K. Reece. Ancient Civilizations the Mesopotamians, Conquerors of the Middle East. Florida. Rourke Publishing LLC. 2010
[10] S. R. Fischer. A History of Writing. Great Britain. St Edmundsbury Press. 2001
[11] J. R. Mcintosh. Mesopotamia, New Perspective. Oxford, England. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. 2005
[12] A. Ungnad. Akkadian Grammar. Atlanta, Georgia. Scholars Press. 1969
[13] C. Mass. The Akkadian Grammar. New York. Harvard University Press. 1996.
[14] L. H. Gray. Introduction to Semitic Comparative Linguistics. Amsterdam. Philo Press. 1971
[15] J. Huehnergard. A Grammar of Akkadian. Winona Lake, Indiana. Eisenbrauns Publishing. 2014
[16] J. A. Sawyer & Simpson. J.M.Y. Concise Encyclopedia of Language Religion. Amsterdam. Oxford. Elsevier. 2001
[17] M. Worthington. Principles of Akkadian Textual Criticism. Boston/Berlin. Walter de Gruyter Publishing, Inc. 2012
[18] K. K. Reimschneider. Lehrbuch des Akkadischen. Leipzig. Verlag Von Exzyklopadie. 1973
[19] E. Reiner. A Linguistic Analysis of Akkadian. London and Paris. Moutom & Co Publisher. 1966
[20] S. George. History of Assurbanipal. Published by Forgotten Books. 1871
[21] D. Beyer. Les Sceaux de Mari au IIIe Millénaire. Observations sur la Documentation Ancienne et les Données Nouvelles des Villes I et II. Akh Purattim 1. 2007
[22] A. Archi. Tradition and Innovation in the Ancient near East. Eisenbranus. Indiana. Winona Lake. 2015
[23] I. J. Gelb. Old Akkadian Writing and Grammar. Chicago. The University of Chicago Press. 1965
[24] H. Rogers. Writing System, a Linguistic Approach. Australia. Blackwell Publishing. 2005
[25] J. Naveh. Early History of the Alphabet. An Introduction to the Semitic Epigraphy and Palaeography. London. Varda Books. 2005
[26] P. O. Skjaervo. Introduction to Zoroastrianiam. New York. Harvard University Press. 2005
[27] K. Brown & O. Sarah. Concise Encyclopedia Languages of the World. New York. Oxford. Elsevier. 2009
[28] R. Schmitt. Die Iranische Sprachen in Geschichte und Gegenwarten. Wiesbaden. Reichert Verlag. 2000
[29] A. Dalby. Dictionary of Languages. London. A & C Black. 2004
[30] E. G. Browne. A Literary History of Persia, from the Earliest Times until Firdawsi. Vol 1. Cambridge. Cambridge University Press. 1956
[31] B. Comri. The World’s Major Languages. London and New York. Routledge Taylor and Francis Group. 1989
[32] M. Worthington. Teach yourself Complete Babylonian. Urbino. Www. Teach yourself. com. 2010
[33] I. J. Gelb. Glossary of Old Akkadian. Chicago, Illions. The University of Chicago Press. 1961
[34] J. Black & G. Andrew. A Concise Dictionary of Akkadian. Harrassowitz Verlag. Wiesbaden. 2000
[35] J. A. Halloran. Sumerian Lexicon. Harvard University Press. 2002
[36] D. Frayne. Sargonic and Gutian Period (2334-2113BC). Toronto Buffalo London. University of Toronto Press. 1993
[37] F. H. Weissbach. Die Keilshcriften der Achaemeniden. Leipzig. J.C. Hinrichs’sche Buchhandlung.1911
[38] D. Schwemer. Akkadische Ritual aus Hattuša, die Sammeltafel KBo XXXVI 29. Heiderberg. Universitstsverlag C. Winter. 1998
[39] J. Huehnergard. & Ch. Woods. Akkadian and Eblaite. Winona Lake, Indiana. Eisenbrauns Publishing. 2009.
[40] A. Archi. Elba and its Archives, Texts, History, and Society. Boston and Berlin. Walter de Gruyter Inc. Publishing. 2015
[41] S. Parpola. The Correspondence of Sargon II. Part I. Letters from Assyria and the West. Helsinki. The Helsiniki of University Press. 2010
[42] G. L.J. Haig. Alignment Change in Iranian Languages, a Construction Grammar Approach. Berlin. New York. Mouton de Gruyter. 2008
[43] H. Mirza. Origin of Pahlavi Ideograms. Vol 22. Bombay. Asiatic Journal. Dinshah Irani Memorial. 1920
[44] S. Nyberg. A Manual of Pahlavi. Vol I. Tehran. Asatir. 2003
[45] A. V. Williams. The Palavi Rivāyat Accompanying the Dādestān ī Dēnīg. Vol I.II. Denmark. The Royal Danish Academy of Science and Letters