Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 476

Search results for: yellow phosphorus

476 Carbothermic Reduction of Phosphoric Acid Extracted from Dephosphorization Slags to Produce Yellow Phosphorus

Authors: Ryoko Yoshida, Jyunpei Yoshida, Hua Fang Yu, Yasushi Sasaki, Tetsuya Nagasaka


Phosphorous is an important element for agriculture and industry and is a non-renewable resource. Especially, yellow phosphorus is an essential material in advanced industrial technology, but phosphorus resources were not produced in Japan at all, and all depend on imports. It has been suggested, however, that the remaining accessible reserves of phosphate ore will be depleted within 50 years. Therefore, alternative resources for phosphate ore must be found. In this research, we have developed a process that enables the production of high-purity yellow phosphorus from domestic unused phosphorus resources such as steelmaking slags. The process consists of two parts: (1) the production of crude phosphoric acid from wastes such as steelmaking slag; (2) producing high-purity yellow phosphorus by low-temperature carbothermic reduction of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). The details of the carbothermic reduction of phosphoric acid are presented in this paper. Yellow phosphorus is commercially produced by carbothermic reduction of phosphate ore in an electric arc furnace at more than 1673K. In the newly developed system, gaseous P4O10 evaporated from H3PO4 is successfully reduced to yellow phosphorus by using carbon packed bed at less than 1273K. To meet the depletion of phosphate ore, the proposed process in this study to produce yellow phosphorus by carbothermic reduction of H3PO4 that are extracted from dephosphorization slags will be one of the effective and economical solutions.

Keywords: carbothermic reduction, phosphoric acid, dephosphorization slags, yellow phosphorus

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475 Effects of Molybdenum on Phosphorus Concentration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: Hamed Zakikhani, Mohd Khanif Yusop, Amin Soltangheisi


A hydroponic trial was carried out to investigate the effect of molybdenum (Mo) on uptake of phosphorus (P) in different rice cultivars. The experiment was conducted using a randomized complete-block design, with a split-plot arrangement of treatments and three replications. Four rates of Mo (0, 0.01, 0.1 and 1 mg L−1) and five cultivars (MR219, HASHEMI, MR232, FAJRE and MR253) provided the main and sub-plots, respectively. Interaction of molybdenum×variety was significant on shoot phosphorus uptake (p≤0.01). Highest and lowest shoot phosphorus uptake were seen in Mo3V3 (0.6% plant-1) and Mo0V3 (0.14% plant-1) treatments, respectively. Molybdenum did not have a significant effect on root phosphorus content. According to results, application of molybdenum has a synergistic effect on uptake of phosphorus by rice plants.

Keywords: molybdenum, phosphorus, uptake, rice,

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
474 How Does Vicia faba-rhizobia Symbiosis Improve Its Performance under Low Phosphorus Availability?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, M. Mouradi, A. Kabbadj, M. Farissi, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam


This work focuses on the responses of Vicia fabarhizobia symbiosis to phosphorus deficiency and their contribution to tolerate this constraint. The study was carried out on four faba bean varieties, Aguadulce, Alfia, Luz Otono, and Reina Mora submitted to two phosphorus treatments, deficient and sufficient and cultivated under field and greenhouse hydroaeroponic culture. Plants were harvested at flowering stage for growth, nodulation and phosphorus content assessment. Phosphatases in nodules and rhizospheric soil were analyzed. The impact of phosphorus deficiency on yield component was assessed at maturity stage. Under field conditions, phosphorus deficiency affected negatively nodule biomass and nodule phosphorus content with Alfia and Reina Mora showing the highest biomass reduction. The phosphatase activities in nodules and rhizospheric soil were increased under phosphorus deficiency. At maturity stage, under soil low available phosphorus, the pods number and 100 seeds weight were reduced. The genotypic variation was evident for almost all tested parameters.

Keywords: faba bean, phosphorus, rhizobia, yield

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473 Impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 Nanoparticles on Biological Phosphorus Removal

Authors: H. Shiu, M.S. Lu, Y.P. Tsai


This study explored the impacts of CuO, TiO2, SiO2 nanoparticles on biological phosphorus removal. Experimental results showed that the phosphorus removal ability of phosphorus accumulating organism (PAO) was initially inhibited when CuO nanoparticle concentration was 5 mgl-1. The inhibition of phosphorus removal for 1000 mgl-1 of TiO2 with sunlight was higher than without sunlight case. The inhibition of phosphorus removal began at 500 mgl-1 SiO2 nanoparticle concentration. Inhibition became apparent when SiO2 nanoparticle concentration was up to 1000 mgl-1.

Keywords: nano copper oxide, nano titanium dioxide, nano silica, enhanced biological phosphate removal

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472 Technologies for Phosphorus Removal from Wastewater: Review

Authors: Thandie Veronicah Sima, Moatlhodi Wiseman Letshwenyo


Discharge of wastewater is one of the major sources of phosphorus entering streams, lakes and other water bodies causing undesired environmental problem such as eutrophication. This condition not only puts the ecosystem at risk but also causes severe economic damages. Stringent laws have been developed globally by different bodies to control the level of phosphorus concentrations into receiving environments. In order to satisfy the constraints, a high degree of tertiary treatment or at least a significant reduction of phosphorus concentration is obligatory. This comprehensive review summarizes phosphorus removal technologies, from the most commonly used conventional technologies such as chemical precipitation through metal addition, membrane filtration, reverse osmosis and enhanced biological phosphorus removal using activated sludge system to passive systems such as constructed wetlands and filtration systems. Trends, perspectives and scientific procedures conducted by different researchers have been presented. This review critically evaluates the advantages and limitations behind each of the technologies. Enhancement of passive systems using reactive media such as industrial wastes to provide additional uptake through adsorption or precipitation is also discussed in this article.

Keywords: adsorption, chemical precipitation, enhanced biological phosphorus removal, phosphorus removal

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471 The Effects of Organic or Inorganic Zinc and Microbial Phytase, Alone or in Combination, on the Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Fed a Diet Low in Available Phosphorus

Authors: Mustafa Midilli, Mustafa Salman, Omer Hakan Muglali, Tülay Ögretmen, Sena Cenesiz, Neslihan Ormanci


This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn) from different sources and microbial phytase on the broiler performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of nutrients when they were added to broiler diets containing low available phosphorus. A total of 875, 1-day-old male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were randomly separated into two control groups (positive and negative) and five treatment groups each containing 125 birds; each group was divided into 5 replicates of 25 birds. The positive control (PC) group was fed a diet containing adequate concentration (0.45%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The negative control (NC) group was fed a basal diet including low concentration (0.30%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.30% phosphorus and 500 FTU phytase (PH); 0.30% phosphorus and organic zinc (OZ; 75mg/kg of Zn from Zn-proteinate); 0.30% phosphorus and inorganic zinc (IZ; 75 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4); 0.30% phosphorus, organic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (OZ + PH); and 0.30% phosphorus, inorganic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (IZ + PH) in the treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The lowest value for mean body weight was in the negative control group on a diet containing low available phosphorus. The use of supplementation with organic and inorganic zinc alone or in combination with microbial phytase significantly (P<0.05) increased the digestibility of Zn in the male broilers. Supplementation of those diets with OZ + PH or IZ + PH was very effective for increasing the body weight, body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the effects on broilers of diets with low phosphorus levels may be overcome by the addition of inorganic or organic zinc compounds in combination with microbial phytase.

Keywords: broiler, performance, phytase, phosphorus, zinc

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470 Phosphorus Recovery Optimization in Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Abdullah Almatouq


Understanding the impact of key operational variables on concurrent energy generation and phosphorus recovery in microbial fuel cell is required to improve the process and reduce the operational cost. In this study, full factorial design (FFD) and central composite designs (CCD) were employed to identify the effect of influent COD concentration and cathode aeration flow rate on energy generation and phosphorus (P) recovery and to optimise MFC power density and P recovery. Results showed that influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration and cathode aeration flow rate had a significant effect on power density, coulombic efficiency, phosphorus precipitation efficiency and phosphorus precipitation rate at the cathode. P precipitation was negatively affected by the generated current during the batch duration. The generated energy was reduced due to struvite being precipitated on the cathode surface, which might obstruct the mass transfer of ions and oxygen. Response surface mathematical model was used to predict the optimum operating conditions that resulted in a maximum power density and phosphorus precipitation efficiency of 184 mW/m² and 84%, and this corresponds to COD= 1700 mg/L and aeration flow rate=210 mL/min. The findings highlight the importance of the operational conditions of energy generation and phosphorus recovery.

Keywords: energy, microbial fuel cell, phosphorus, struvite

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469 The Interactions between Phosphorus Leaching and Lime Application in Undisturbed Soil Columns with Different Soil Textures

Authors: Faezeh Eslamian, Zhiming Qi, Michael J. Tate


Phosphorus losses from agricultural fields through leaching is one of the main contributors to eutrophication of lakes in Quebec as well as North America. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the application of high calcium hydrated lime as a soil amendment in reducing the subsurface transport of phosphorus to water bodies by studying the interactions between phosphorus leaching and lime application in three common agricultural soil textures (sandy loam, loam and clay loam) in Quebec. For this purpose, 6 intact soil columns of 10 cm diameter and 20 cm deep were taken from each of the three different soil textured agricultural fields. Lime (high calcium hydrated lime) was applied to the top 5 cm of half of the intact soil columns while the rest were left as controls. The columns were leached with artificial rainwater in-consecutively at a rate of 3 mm h-1 over a 90-day period. The total amount of water added was equal to the average total rainfall of the region in fall. The leachate samples were collected daily and analyzed for dissolved reactive phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron. The results showed that lime was able to significantly reduce dissolved reactive phosphorus concentrations in the leachates by 70 and 40 percent in sandy loam and loam soil columns, respectively, while phosphorus concentration in the clay loam soil leachates were increased by 40 percent. The calcium in lime has P-binding capabilities. Soil chemical properties in sandy and loamy soils can affect phosphorus leaching, whereas, transport mechanisms in clay soils with macropores dominate phosphorus leaching behaviors. The presence of preferential pathways and cracks in the clay soil columns has led to a quick transport of phosphorus through the soil and the less contact time with the soil matrix, therefore, causing less opportunity for P sorption and larger P release. Application of lime to agricultural fields can be considered as a promising measure in mitigating phosphorus loss from sandy loam and loam soils.

Keywords: leaching, lime, phosphorus, soil texture

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468 Butene Catalytic Cracking to Propylene over Iron and Phosphorus Modified HZSM-5

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying


HZSM-5 zeolites modified by iron and phosphorus were applied in catalytic cracking of butene. N2 adsorption and NH3-TPD were employed to measure the structure and acidity of catalysts. The results indicate that increasing phosphorus loading decreased surface area, pore volume and strong acidity of catalysts. The introduction of phosphorus significantly decreased butene conversion and promoted propylene selectivity. The catalytic performance of catalyst was strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. Appropriate reaction conditions could suppress side reactions and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: butene catalytic cracking, HZSM-5, modification, reaction conditions

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467 Phosphorus Uptake of Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) Genotypes at Different Growth Stages

Authors: Imren Kutlu, Nurdilek Gulmezoglu


Triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) is a man-made crop developed by crossing wheat (Triticum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.). Triticale has until now been used mostly for animal feed; however, it can be consumed by humans in the form of biscuits, cookies, and unleavened bread. Moreover, one of the reasons for the development of triticale is that it is more efficient in nutrient deficient soil than wheat cultivars. After nitrogen fertilizer, phosphorus (P) is the most used fertilizer for crop production because P fixation occurs highly when it is applied the soil. The aim of the present study was to evaluate P uptake of winter triticale genotypes under different P fertilizer rates in different growth stages. The experiment was conducted in Eskisehir, Central Anatolia, Turkey. Treatments consisted of five triticale lines and one triticale cultivars (Samursortu) with four rates of P fertilization (0, 30, 60 and 120 kg P2O5 ha⁻¹). Phosphorus uptake of triticale genotypes in tillering, heading, as well as grain and straw at harvest stage and yield of grain and straw were determined. The results showed that a P rate of 60 kg/ha and the TCL-25 genotype produced the highest yields of straw and grain at harvest. Phosphorus uptake was the highest in tillering stage, and it decreased towards to harvest time. Phosphorus uptake of all growth stage increased as P rates raised and the application of 120 kg/ha P₂O₅ had the highest P uptake. Phosphorus uptake of genotypes was found differently. The regression analyses indicated that P uptake at tillering stage was the most effective on grain yield. These results will provide useful information to triticale growers about suitable phosphorus fertilization for both forage and food usage.

Keywords: grain yield, growth stage, phosphorus fertilization, phosphorus uptake, triticale

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466 Catalytic Cracking of Butene to Propylene over Modified HZSM-5 Zeolites

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying


Catalytic cracking of butene to propylene was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over HZSM-5 catalysts modified by nickel and phosphorus. The structure and acidity of catalysts were measured by N2 adsorption, NH3-TPD and XPS. The results revealed that surface area and strong acid sites both decreased with increasing phosphorus loadings. The increment of phosphorus loadings reduced the butene conversion but enhanced the propylene selectivity and catalyst stability.

Keywords: butene, catalytic cracking, HZSM-5, modification

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465 Synthesis of Beetosan's Hydrogels with Yellow Tea

Authors: Jolanta Jaskowska, Anna Drabczyk, Sonia Kudlacik, Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec, Bozena Tyliszczak


The aim of the study was to select the best conditions for the synthesis of Beetosan's hydrogels with yellow tea. The study determined recipe hydrogel matrix by selecting the appropriate ratio of substrates and to investigate the effect of yellow tea, on the structure and properties of the hydrogel materials. The scope of the research included both to obtain of raw materials required for the synthesis of hydrogel materials, as well as an assessment of their properties. In the first stage of research Beetosan (chitosan derived from bees), and extract the yellow tea China Kekecha was obtained. The second stage was synthesis hydrogels modified by yellow tea. The synthesis of polymeric matrix was preparation under UV radiation. Obtained hydrogel materials were investigated extensively using incubation investigations, absorption capacity, and spectroscopic (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Moreover, there was also performed the surface wettability test and a photomicrograph of the structure using scanning electron microscope. Analysis of the obtained results confirms that presence of yellow tea does not significantly affect the behavior of the hydrogels in the incubation fluids. The results show that hydrogel materials exhibit compatibility with the incubatory solutions and they also retain the stability in the tested liquids. Hydrogels obtained in this method might be applied in the cosmetics industry and in the field of medicine. This is possible due to the many interesting properties of tea and biocompatibility and non-toxicity hydrogel materials. The authors would like to thank the The National Centre for Research and Development (Grant no: LIDER/033/697/L-5/13/NCBR/2014) for providing financial support to this project.

Keywords: Beetosan, hygrogels, materials, yellow tea

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464 Wasteless Solid-Phase Method for Conversion of Iron Ores Contaminated with Silicon and Phosphorus Compounds

Authors: А. V. Panko, Е. V. Ablets, I. G. Kovzun, М. А. Ilyashov


Based upon generalized analysis of modern know-how in the sphere of processing, concentration and purification of iron-ore raw materials (IORM), in particular, the most widespread ferrioxide-silicate materials (FOSM), containing impurities of phosphorus and other elements compounds, noted special role of nano technological initiatives in improvement of such processes. Considered ideas of role of nano particles in processes of FOSM carbonization with subsequent direct reduction of ferric oxides contained in them to metal phase, as well as in processes of alkali treatment and separation of powered iron from phosphorus compounds. Using the obtained results the wasteless solid-phase processing, concentration and purification of IORM and FOSM from compounds of phosphorus, silicon and other impurities excelling known methods of direct iron reduction from iron ores and metallurgical slimes.

Keywords: iron ores, solid-phase reduction, nanoparticles in reduction and purification of iron from silicon and phosphorus, wasteless method of ores processing

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463 Development of Soil Test Kits to Determine Organic Matter Available Phosphorus and Exchangeable Potassium in Thailand

Authors: Charirat Kusonwiriyawong, Supha Photichan, Wannarut Chutibutr


Soil test kits for rapid analysis of the organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were developed to drive a low-cost field testing kit to farmers. The objective was to provide a decision tool for improving soil fertility. One aspect of soil test kit development was ease of use which is a time requirement for completing organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium test in one soil sample. This testing kit required only two extractions and utilized no filtration consuming approximately 15 minutes per sample. Organic matter was principally created by oxidizing carbon KMnO₄ using the standard color chart. In addition, modified single extractant (Mehlich I) was applied to extract available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. Molybdenum blue method and turbidimetric method using standard color chart were adapted to analyze available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively. Modified single extractant using in soil test kits were highly significant matching with analytical laboratory results (r=0.959** and 0.945** for available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively). Linear regressions were statistically calculated between modified single extractant and standard laboratory analysis (y=0.9581x-12.973 for available phosphorus and y=0.5372x+15.283 for exchangeable potassium, respectively). These equations were calibrated to formulate a fertilizer rate recommendation for specific corps. To validate quality, soil test kits were distributed to farmers and extension workers. We found that the accuracy of soil test kits were 71.0%, 63.9% and 65.5% for organic matter, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium, respectively. The quantitative survey was also conducted in order to assess their satisfaction with soil test kits. The survey showed that more than 85% of respondents said these testing kits were more convenient, economical and reliable than the other commercial soil test kits. Based upon the finding of this study, soil test kits can be another alternative for providing soil analysis and fertility recommendations when a soil testing laboratory is not available.

Keywords: available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, modified single extractant, organic matter, soil test kits

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462 Phosphorus Reduction in Plain and Fully Formulated Oils Using Fluorinated Additives

Authors: Gabi N. Nehme


The reduction of phosphorus and sulfur in engine oil are the main topics of this paper. Very reproducible boundary lubrication tests were conducted as part of Design of Experiment software (DOE) to study the behavior of fluorinated catalyst iron fluoride (FeF3), and polutetrafluoroethylene or Teflon (PTFE) in developing environmentally friendly (reduced P and S) anti-wear additives for future engine oil formulations. Multi-component Chevron fully formulated oil (GF3) and Chevron plain oil were used with the addition of PTFE and catalyst to characterize and analyze their performance. Lower phosphorus blends were the goal of the model solution. Experiments indicated that new sub-micron FeF3 catalyst played an important role in preventing breakdown of the tribofilm.

Keywords: wear, SEM, EDS, friction, lubricants

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461 Preparation and Flame-Retardant Properties of Epoxy Resins Containing Organophosphorus Compounds

Authors: Tachita Vlad-Bubulac, Ionela-Daniela Carja, Diana Serbezeanu, Corneliu Hamciuc, Vicente Javier Forrat Perez


The present work describes the preparation of new organophosphorus compounds with high content of phosphorus followed by the incorporation of these compounds into epoxy resin systems in order to investigate the phosphorus effect in terms of thermal stability, flame-retardant and mechanical properties of modified epoxy resins. Thus, two new organophosphorus compounds have been synthesized and fully characterized. 6-Oxido-6H-dibenz[c,e][1,2]oxaphosphorinyl-phenylcarbinol has been prepared by the addition reaction of P–H group of 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide to carbonyl group of benzaldehyde. By treating the phenylcarbinol derivative with POCl3 a new phosphorus compound was obtained, having a content of 12.227% P. The organophosphorus compounds have been purified by recrystallization while their chemical structures have been confirmed by melting point measurements, FTIR and HNMR spectroscopies. In the next step various flame-retardant epoxy resins with different content of phosphorus have been prepared starting from a commercial epoxy resin and using dicyandiamide (DICY) as a latent curing agent in the presence of an accelerator. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been applied to investigate the behavior and kinetics of curing process of thermosetting systems. The results showed that the best curing characteristic and glass transition temperature are obtained at a ratio of epoxy resin: DICY: accelerator equal to 94:5:1. The thermal stability of the phosphorus-containing epoxy resins was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in nitrogen and air, DSC, SEM and LOI test measurements.

Keywords: epoxy resins, flame retardant properties, phosphorus-containing compounds, thermal stability

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460 How Much the Role of Fertilizers Management and Wheat Planting Methods on Its Yield Improvement?

Authors: Ebrahim Izadi-Darbandi, Masoud Azad, Masumeh Dehghan


In order to study the effects of nitrogen and phosphoruse management and wheat sowing method on wheat yield, two experiments was performed as factorial, based on completely randomized design with three replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2009. In the first experiment nitrogen application rates (100kg ha-1, 200 kg ha-1, 300 kg ha-1), phosphorus application rates (100 kg ha-1, 200 kg ha-1) and two levels of their application methods (Broadcast and Band) were studied. The second experiment treatments included of wheat sowing methods (single-row with 30 cm distance and twine row on 60 cm width ridges), as main plots and nitrogen and phosphorus application methods (Broadcast and Band) as sub plots (150 kg ha-1). Phosphorus and nitrogen sources for fertilization at both experiment were respectively super phosphate, applied before wheat sowing and incorporated with soil and urea, applied in two phases (50% pre plant) and (50%) near wheat shooting. Results from first experiment showed that the effect of fertilizers application methods were significant (p≤0.01) on wheat yield increasing. Band application of phosphorus and nitrogen were increased biomass and seed yield of wheat with nine and 15% respectively compared to their broadcast application. The interaction between the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus application rate with phosphorus and nitrogen application methods, showed that band application of fertilizers and the rate of application of 200kg/ha phosphorus and 300kg/ha nitrogen were the best methods in wheat yield improvement. The second experiment also showed that the effect of wheat sowing method and fertilizers application methods were significant (p≤0.01) on wheat seed and biomass yield improvement. Wheat twine row on 60 cm width ridges sowing method, increased its biomass and seed yield for 22% and 30% respectively compared to single-row with 30 cm. Wheat sowing method and fertilizers application methods interaction indicated that band application of fertilizers and wheat twine row on 60 cm width ridges sowing method was the best treatment on winter wheat yield improvement. In conclusion these results indicated that nitrogen and phosphorus management in wheat and modifying wheat sowing method have important role in increasing fertilizers use efficiency.

Keywords: band application, broadcast application, rate of fertilizer application, wheat seed yield, wheat biomass yield

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459 Intentional Cultivation of Non-toxic Filamentous Cyanobacteria Tolypothrix as an Approach to Treat Eutrophic Waters

Authors: Simona Lucakova, Irena Branyikova


Eutrophication, a condition when water becomes over-enriched with nutrients (P, N), can lead to undesirable excessive growth of phytoplankton, so-called algal bloom. This process results in the accumulation of toxin-producing cyanobacteria and oxygen depletion, both possibly leading to the collapse of the whole ecosystem. In real conditions, the limiting nutrient, which determines the possible growth of harmful algal bloom, is usually phosphorus. Algicides or flocculants have been applied in the eutrophicated waterbody in order to reduce the phytoplankton growth, which leads to the introduction of toxic chemicals into the water. In our laboratory, the idea of the prevention of harmful phytoplankton growth by the intentional cultivation of non-toxic cyanobacteria Tolypothrix tenuis in semi-open floating photobioreactors directly on the surface of phosphorus-rich waterbody is examined. During the process of cultivation, redundant phosphorus is incorporated into cyanobacterial biomass, which can be subsequently used for the production of biofuels, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, or biostimulants for agricultural use. To determine the ability of phosphorus incorporation, batch-cultivation of Tolypothrix biomass in media simulating eutrophic water (10% BG medium) and in effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant, both with the initial phosphorus concentration in the range 0.5-1.0 mgP/L was performed in laboratory-scale models of floating photobioreactors. After few hours of cultivation, the phosphorus content was decreased below the target limit of 0.035 mgP/L, which was given as a borderline for the algal bloom formation. Under laboratory conditions, the effect of several parameters on the rate of phosphorus decrease was tested (illumination, temperature, stirring speed/aeration gas flow, biomass to medium ratio). Based on the obtained results, a bench-scale floating photobioreactor was designed and will be tested for Tolypothrix growth in real conditions. It was proved that intentional cultivation of cyanobacteria Tolypothrix could be a suitable approach for extracting redundant phosphorus from eutrophic waters as prevention of algal bloom formation.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, eutrophication, floating photobioreactor, Tolypothrix

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458 The First Import of Yellow Fever Cases in China and Its Revealing Suggestions for the Control and Prevention of Imported Emerging Diseases

Authors: Chao Li, Lei Zhou, Ruiqi Ren, Dan Li, Yali Wang, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng, Qun Li


Background: In 2016, yellow fever had been first ever discovered in China, soon after the yellow fever epidemic occurred in Angola. After the discovery, China had promptly made the national protocol of control and prevention and strengthened the surveillance on passenger and vector. In this study, a descriptive analysis was conducted to summarize China’s experiences of response towards this import epidemic, in the hope of providing experiences on prevention and control of yellow fever and other similar imported infectious diseases in the future. Methods: The imported cases were discovered and reported by General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and several hospitals. Each clinically diagnosed yellow fever case was confirmed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). The data of the imported yellow fever cases were collected by local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) through field investigations soon after they received the reports. Results: A total of 11 imported cases from Angola were reported in China, during Angola’s yellow fever outbreak. Six cases were discovered by the AQSIQ, among which two with mild symptom were initiative declarations at the time of entry. Except for one death, the remaining 10 cases all had recovered after timely and proper treatment. All cases are Chinese, and lived in Luanda, the capital of Angola. 73% were retailers (8/11) from Fuqing city in Fujian province, and the other three were labors send by companies. 10 cases had experiences of medical treatment in Luanda after onset, among which 8 cases visited the same local Chinese medicine hospital (China Railway four Bureau Hospital). Among the 11 cases, only one case had an effective vaccination. The result of emergency surveillance for mosquito density showed that only 14 containers of water were found positive around places of three cases, and the Breteau Index is 15. Conclusions: Effective response was taken to control and prevent the outbreak of yellow fever in China after discovering the imported cases. However, though the similar origin of Chinese in Angola has provided an easy access for disease detection, information sharing, health education and vaccination on yellow fever; these conveniences were overlooked during previous disease prevention methods. Besides, only one case having effective vaccination revealed the inadequate capacity of immunization service in China. These findings will provide suggestions to improve China’s capacity to deal with not only yellow fever but also other similar imported diseases in China.

Keywords: yellow fever, first import, China, suggestion

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457 Control Effect of Flowering Chrysanthemum, the Trap Plant to the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Greenhouse

Authors: YongSeok Choi, HwaYoung Seo, InSu Whang, GeogKee Park


Frankliniella. occidentalis is major pest in chrysanthemum in worldwide. The density of F. occidentalis increased continuously in spite of the periodical chemical control after planting in this study. F. occidentalis began to increase mid-May. The numbers of F. occidentalis collected on a tray with wet paper by heating the flowers of pink, white, and yellow Chrysanthemum standard mums were 18.4, 56.6, and 52.6 in the flowering season. Also, the numbers were 15.2, 45.8, and 41.6 in bud season, but in the case of the leaves, the numbers were 2, 8.8 and 3.4. In the Y-tube olfactometer test, the frequency of F. occidentalis’ visits to one side arm of the Y-tube olfactometer was higher in the odor cue of the white flower than of the yellow, red, and violet flowers, but the frequency was higher in the odor cue of the violet and red flowers than of the yellow without white. In the case of the four-choice olfactometer test, in the same visual cues as the odor cues of the pot mum flowers, the frequency of F. occidentalis was higher in the yellow flower than in the other flowers (white, red, and violet) in all the observation times (10, 15, and 20 minutes).

Keywords: Frankliniella occidentalis, Chrysanthemum, trap plant, control effect

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456 Elimination of Phosphorus by Activated Carbon Prepared from Algerian Dates Stones

Authors: A. Kamarchoua, A. A. Bebaa, A. Douadi


The current work has a goal of the preparation of activated carbon from the stones of dates from southern Algeria (El-Oued province) using a simple pyrolysis proceeded by chemical impregnation in sulphuric acid. For the preparation of the carbon, we choose the diameter of the pellets (0.5-1)mm, activation by acid and water (1:1), carbonization at 450˚C. The prepared carbon has the following characteristics: specific surface 125.86 m2/g, methylene blue number 40, CCE = 0.3meq.g/l, IR and micrographics SEM. The activated carbon thus obtained is used at the water purification in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) at Kouinine, El- Oued province, to totally eliminate phosphorus. We analyzed the water at the WWTP before the purification procedure. In this study, we have looked at the effect of the following parameters on the adsorption of carbon: the pH, the contact time (Tc) and the agitation speed (Va). The best conditions for phosphorus adsorption are: pH=4 or pH >5, Tc = 60 min and Va = 900 rotations per minute.

Keywords: activated carbon, date stones, pyrolysis, phosphate pollutants

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455 Effect on Nutritional and Antioxidant Properties of Yellow Alkaline Noodles Substituted with Different Levels of Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) Pericarp Powder

Authors: Mardiana Ahamad Zabidi, Nurain Abdul Karim, Nur Shazrinna Sazali


Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) pericarp is considered as agricultural waste and not fully utilized in food products. It is widely reported that mangosteen pericarp contains high antioxidant properties. The objective of this study is to develop novel yellow alkaline noodle (YAN) substituted with different levels of mangosteen pericarp powder (MPP). YAN formulation was substituted with different levels of MPP (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%). The effect on nutritional and antioxidant properties were evaluated. Higher substitution levels of MPP resulted in significant increase (p < 0.05) of ash, fibre, specific mineral elements, and antioxidant properties (total phenolic, total flavonoid, anthocyanin and DPPH) than control sample.

Keywords: antioxidant properties, Mangosteen pericarp, proximate composition, yellow alkaline noodle

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454 Characterization and Geographical Differentiation of Yellow Prickly Pear Produced in Different Mediterranean Countries

Authors: Artemis Louppis, Michalis Constantinou, Ioanna Kosma, Federica Blando, Michael Kontominas, Anastasia Badeka


The aim of the present study was to differentiate yellow prickly pear according to geographical origin based on the combination of mineral content, physicochemical parameters, vitamins and antioxidants. A total of 240 yellow prickly pear samples from Cyprus, Spain, Italy and Greece were analyzed for pH, titratable acidity, electrical conductivity, protein, moisture, ash, fat, antioxidant activity, individual antioxidants, sugars and vitamins by UPLC-MS/MS as well as minerals by ICP-MS. Statistical treatment of the data included multivariate analysis of variance followed by linear discriminant analysis. Based on results, a correct classification of 66.7% was achieved using the cross validation by mineral content while 86.1% was achieved using the cross validation method by combination of all analytical parameters.

Keywords: geographical differentiation, prickly pear, chemometrics, analytical techniques

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453 Comparison of Soil Test Extractants for Determination of Available Soil Phosphorus

Authors: Violina Angelova, Stefan Krustev


The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different soil test extractants for the determination of available soil phosphorus in five internationally certified standard soils, sludge and clay (NCS DC 85104, NCS DC 85106, ISE 859, ISE 952, ISE 998). The certified samples were extracted with the following methods/extractants: CaCl₂, CaCl₂ and DTPA (CAT), double lactate (DL), ammonium lactate (AL), calcium acetate lactate (CAL), Olsen, Mehlich 3, Bray and Kurtz I, and Morgan, which are commonly used in soil testing laboratories. The phosphorus in soil extracts was measured colorimetrically using Spectroquant Pharo 100 spectrometer. The methods used in the study were evaluated according to the recovery of available phosphorus, facility of application and rapidity of performance. The relationships between methods are examined statistically. A good agreement of the results from different soil test was established for all certified samples. In general, the P values extracted by the nine extraction methods significantly correlated with each other. When grouping the soils according to pH, organic carbon content and clay content, weaker extraction methods showed analogous trends; also among the stronger extraction methods, common tendencies were found. Other factors influencing the extraction force of the different methods include soil: solution ratio, as well as the duration and power of shaking the samples. The mean extractable P in certified samples was found to be in the order of CaCl₂ < CAT < Morgan < Bray and Kurtz I < Olsen < CAL < DL < Mehlich 3 < AL. Although the nine methods extracted different amounts of P from the certified samples, values of P extracted by the different methods were strongly correlated among themselves. Acknowledgment: The financial support by the Bulgarian National Science Fund Projects DFNI Н04/9 and DFNI Н06/21 are greatly appreciated.

Keywords: available soil phosphorus, certified samples, determination, soil test extractants

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452 Wastewater Treatment Using Microalgae

Authors: Chigbo Ikechukwu Emmanuel


Microalgae can be used for tertiary treatment of wastewater due to their capacity to assimilate nutrients. The pH increase which is mediated by the growing algae also induces phosphorus precipitation and ammonia stripping to the air, and may in addition act disinfecting on the wastewater. Domestic wastewater is ideal for algal growth since it contains high concentrations of all necessary nutrients. The growth limiting factor is rather light, especially at higher latitudes. The most important operational factors for successful wastewater treatment with microalgae are depth, turbulence and hydraulic retention time.

Keywords: microalgae, wastewater treatment, phosphorus, nitrogen, light, operation, ponds, growth

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451 Performance of an Anaerobic Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor Hybrid System for Wastewater Treatment and Phosphorus Recovery

Authors: Ming-Yeh Lu, Shiao-Shing Chen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Hung-Te Hsu


The submerged anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor (AnOMBR) integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from wastewater was evaluated. A laboratory-scale AnOMBR used cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes with effective membrane area of 130 cm² was fully submerged into a 5 L bioreactor at 30-35 ℃. Active layer was orientated to feed stream for minimizing membrane fouling and scaling. Additionally, a peristaltic pump was used to circulate magnesium sulphate (MgSO₄) solution applied as draw solution (DS). Microfiltration membrane periodically extracted about 1 L solution when the TDS reaches to 5 g/L to recover phosphorus and simultaneously control the salt accumulation in the bioreactor. During experiment progress, the average water flux was around 1.6 LMH. The AnOMBR process showed greater than 95% removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), nearly 100% of total phosphorous whereas only partial of ammonia was removed. On the other hand, the average methane production of 0.22 L/g sCOD was obtained. Subsequently, the overall performance demonstrates that a novel submerged AnOMBR system is potential for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery from wastewater. Therefore, the new concept of this system can be used to replace for the conventional AnMBR in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic treatment, forward osmosis, phosphorus recovery, membrane bioreactor

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450 Which Mechanisms are Involved by Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis to Increase Its Phosphorus Use Efficiency under Low Phosphorus Level?

Authors: B. Makoudi, R. Ghanimi, A. Bargaz, M. Mouradi, M. Farissi, A. Kabbaj, J. J. Drevon, C. Ghoulam


Legume species are able to establish a nitrogen fixing symbiosis with soil rhizobia that allows them, when it operates normally, to ensure their necessary nitrogen nutrition. This biological process needs high phosphorus (P) supply and consequently it is limited under low phosphorus availability. To overcome this constraint, legume-rhizobia symbiosis develops many mechanisms to increase P availability in the rhizosphere and also the efficiency of P fertilizers. The objectives of our research works are to understand the physiological and biochemical mechanisms implemented by legume-rhizobia symbiosis to increase its P use efficiency (PUE) in order to select legume genotypes-rhizobia strains combination more performing for BNF under P deficiency. Our studies were carried out on two grain legume species, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and faba bean (Vicia faba) tested in farmers’ fields and in experimental station fewer than two soil phosphorus levels. Under field conditions, the P deficiency caused a significant decrease of Plant and nodule biomasses in all of the tested varieties with a difference between them. This P limitation increased the contents of available P in the rhizospheric soils that was positively correlated with the increase of phosphatases activities in the nodules and the rhizospheric soil. Some legume genotypes showed a significant increase of their P use efficiency under P deficiency. The P solubilization test showed that some rhizobia strains isolated from Haouz region presented an important capacity to grow on solid and liquid media with tricalcium phosphate as the only P source and their P solubilizing activity was confirmed by the assay of the released P in the liquid medium. Also, this P solubilizing activity was correlated with medium acidification and the excretion of acid phosphatases and phytases in the medium. Thus, we concluded that medium acidification and excretion of phosphatases in the rhizosphere are the prominent reactions for legume-rhizobia symbiosis to improve its P nutrition.

Keywords: legume, phosphorus deficiency, rhizobia, rhizospheric soil

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449 Flexible Technologies of Granulated Complex Fertilizers

Authors: Andrey M. Norov, Denis A. Pagaleshkin, Pavel S. Fedotov, Viacheslav M. Kolpakov, Konstantin G. Gorbovskiy


The article focuses on the latest research and developments (R&D) aimed at the development of plants for production of complex phosphorus-containing fertilizers which are in line with the principles of the best available techniques (BAT). The advantages of the implemented technical solutions are given. The paper describes developed options of flexible technologies for schemes with DGD (drum granulator dryer) and for schemes with AG-DD (ammoniator-granulator and dryer drum).

Keywords: ammoniator-granulator drier drum, phosphorus-containing fertilizer technology, PK, PKS and NPKS-fertilizers, WPA

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448 Evaluation of Wheat Sowing and Fertilizer Application Methods in Wheat Weeds Management

Authors: Ebrahim Izadi-Darbandi


In order to investigation the effects of sowing methods, nitrogen and phosphorus application methods in wheat weeds management, an experiment was performed as split plot, based on randomized completely block design with three replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, in 2010. Treatments included, wheat sowing methods (single-row with 30 cm distance and twine row on 50 cm width ridges) as main plots and nitrogen and phosphorus application methods (Broadcast and Band) as sub plots. In this experiment, phosphorus and nitrogen sources for fertilization were super phosphate triple (150 kg ha-1) applied before wheat sowing and incorporated with soil and urea (200 kg ha-1) respectively, applied in 2 phases (pre-plant 50%) and near wheat shooting (50%). Results showed that the effect of fertilizers application methods and wheat sowing methods were significant (p≤0.01) on wheat yield increasing and reducing weed-wheat competition. Wheat twine row sowing method, reduced weeds biomass for 25% compared wheat single-row sowing method and increased wheat seed yield and biomass for 60% and 30% respectively. Phosphorus and nitrogen band application reduced weeds biomass for 46% and 53% respectively and increased wheat seed yield for 22% and 33% compared to their broadcast application. The effects of wheat sowing method plus phosphorus and nitrogen application methods interactions, showed that the fertilizers band application and wheat twine-row sowing method were the best methods in wheat yield improvement and reducing wheat-weeds interaction. These results shows that modifying of fertilization methods and wheat sowing method can have important role in fertilizers use efficiency and improving of weeds managements.

Keywords: competition, wheat yield, fertilizer management, biomass

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447 Application of a Submerged Anaerobic Osmotic Membrane Bioreactor Hybrid System for High-Strength Wastewater Treatment and Phosphorus Recovery

Authors: Ming-Yeh Lu, Shiao-Shing Chen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Hung-Te Hsu


Recently, anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) has been widely utilized, which combines anaerobic biological treatment process and membrane filtration, that can be present an attractive option for wastewater treatment and water reuse. Conventional AnMBR is having several advantages, such as improving effluent quality, compact space usage, lower sludge yield, without aeration and production of energy. However, the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus in the AnMBR permeate was negligible which become the biggest disadvantage. In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging technology that utilizes osmotic pressure as driving force to extract clean water without additional external pressure. The pore size of FO membrane is kindly mentioned the pore size, so nitrogen or phosphorus could effectively improve removal of nitrogen or phosphorus. Anaerobic bioreactor with FO membrane (AnOMBR) can retain the concentrate organic matters and nutrients. However, phosphorus is a non-renewable resource. Due to the high rejection property of FO membrane, the high amount of phosphorus could be recovered from the combination of AnMBR and FO. In this study, development of novel submerged anaerobic osmotic membrane bioreactor integrated with periodic microfiltration (MF) extraction for simultaneous phosphorus and clean water recovery from wastewater was evaluated. A laboratory-scale AnOMBR utilizes cellulose triacetate (CTA) membranes with effective membrane area of 130 cm² was fully submerged into a 5.5 L bioreactor at 30-35℃. Active layer-facing feed stream orientation was utilized, for minimizing fouling and scaling. Additionally, a peristaltic pump was used to circulate draw solution (DS) at a cross flow velocity of 0.7 cm/s. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO₄) solution was used as DS. Microfiltration membrane periodically extracted about 1 L solution when the TDS reaches to 5 g/L to recover phosphorus and simultaneous control the salt accumulation in the bioreactor. During experiment progressed, the average water flux was achieved around 1.6 LMH. The AnOMBR process show greater than 95% removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), nearly 100% of total phosphorous whereas only partial removal of ammonia, and finally average methane production of 0.22 L/g sCOD was obtained. Therefore, AnOMBR system periodically utilizes MF membrane extracted for phosphorus recovery with simultaneous pH adjustment. The overall performance demonstrates that a novel submerged AnOMBR system is having potential for simultaneous wastewater treatment and resource recovery from wastewater, and hence, the new concept of this system can be used to replace for conventional AnMBR in the future.

Keywords: anaerobic treatment, forward osmosis, phosphorus recovery, membrane bioreactor

Procedia PDF Downloads 173