Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 544

Search results for: vitamin D supplementation

544 Interaction of Dietary Protein and Vitamin E Supplementation on Gastrointestinal Nematode (Gnt) Parasitism of Naturally Infected Lambs

Authors: Ayobami Adeyemo, Michael Chimonyo, Munyaradzi Marufu

Abstract:

Gastrointestinal nematode (GNT) infection significantly hinder sustainable and profitable sheep production on rangelands. While vitamin E and protein supplementation have individually proven to improve host immunity to parasitism in lambs, to our knowledge, there is no information on the interaction of dietary vitamin E and protein supplementation on lamb growth and GIN faecal egg counts in naturally infected lambs. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation on faecal egg counts (FEC) and growth performance of lambs. Twenty four Dohne Merino lambs aged 12 months were allocated equally to each of four treatment combinations, with six lambs in each treatment group for a period of eight weeks. Treatment one lambs received dietary protein and vitamin E (PE), treatment two lambs received dietary protein and no vitamin E (PNE), treatment three received dietary vitamin E and no protein (NPE), and treatment four received no dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation (NPNE). The lambs were allowed to graze on Pennisetum clandestinum contaminated with a heavy load of nematodes. Dietary protein supplementation increased (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG) and body condition scores (BCS). Dietary vitamin E supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on ADG and BCS. There was no interaction (P > 0.05) between dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation on ADG and BCS. Combined supplementation of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation significantly reduced (P < 0.01) faecal egg counts and larval counts, respectively. Also, dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation reduced GNT faecal egg counts over the exposure period. The current findings support the hypothesis that the interaction of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation reduced faecal egg counts and larval counts in lambs. This necessitates future findings on the interaction of dietary protein and vitamin E supplementation on blood associated profiles.

Keywords: gastrointestinal nematodes, nematode eggs, Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus

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543 The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials

Authors: Simin Shahvazi, Sepideh Soltani, Seyed Mehdi Ahmadi, Russell J. De Souza, Amin Salehi-Abargouei

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Background and Objectives: Vitamin D has received attention for its potential to disrupt cancer processes such as attenuating cell proliferation and exacerbating differentiation and apoptosis. However, whether there exists a role for vitamin D in the treatment of prostate cancer specifically remains controversial. We systematically review the literature to assess whether supplementation with vitamin D influences PSA response and overall survival in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: We searched PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Science and Google scholar from inception through up to 10 September 2017 for both before-and-after and randomized trials that evaluated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the prostate specific antigen (PSA) response rate in participants with prostate cancer. The DerSimonian and Laird, inverse-weighted random-effects model was used to pool effect estimates from the studies. Heterogeneity and potential publication bias were evaluated. Subgroup analyses were also performed. Results: Twenty-two studies (16 before-after and 6 randomized controlled trials) were found and included in meta-analysis. The analysis on controlled clinical trials revealed that PSA change from baseline [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -1.66 ng/ml, 95%CI: -0.69, 0.36, P= 0.543)], PSA response (RR=1.18, 95%CI: 0.97, 1.45, P=0.104) and mortality rate (risk ratio (RR) = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.81-1.36; P=0.713) was not significantly different between vitamin D supplementation and placebo groups. Single arm trials revealed that vitamin D supplementation had had a modest effect on PSA response rate: 19% of those enrolled had at least a 50% reduction in PSA by the end of treatment (95% CI: 7% to 31%; p=0.002). Conclusion: We found that vitamin D modestly increases the PSA response rate in single arm studies. No effect on serum PSA levels, PSA response and mortality was seen in randomized controlled clinical trials. It does not seem patients with prostate cancer benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

Keywords: mortality, prostatic neoplasms, PSA response, vitamin D

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542 Efficacy of Vitamins A, C and E on the Growth Performance of Broiler Chickens Subjected to Heat Stress

Authors: Desierin Rodrin, Magdalena Alcantara, Cristina Olo

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The increase in environmental temperatures brought about by climate change impacts negatively the growth performance of broilers that may be solved by manipulating the diet of the animals. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different vitamin supplements on the growth performance of broiler chickens subjected to ambient (31°C) and heat stress (34°C) temperatures. The treatments were: I- Control (no vitamin supplement), II- Vitamin A (4.5 mg/kg of feed), III- Vitamin C (250 mg/kg of feed), IV- Vitamin E (250 mg/kg of feed), V- Vitamin C and E (250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VI- Vitamin A and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), VII- Vitamin A and C (4.5 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed), and VIII- Vitamin A, C and E (4.5 mg/kg of feed, 250 mg/kg of feed and 250 mg/kg of feed). The birds (n=240) were distributed randomly into eight treatments replicated three times, with each replicates having five birds. Ambient temperature was maintained using a 25 watts bulb for every 20 birds, while heat stress condition was sustained at 34°C for about 9 hours daily by using a 50 watts bulb per 5 birds. The interaction of vitamin supplements and temperatures did not significantly (P>0.05) affected body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the growing period. Similarly, supplementation of different vitamins did not improve (P>0.05) the overall production performance of birds throughout the rearing period. Birds raised in heat stress (34°C) condition had significantly lower ((P<0.05) body weight, average daily gain, and feed consumption compared to birds raised in ambient temperature at weeks 3, 4 and 5 of rearing. Supplementation of vitamins A, C, and E in the diet of broilers did not alleviate the effect of heat stress in the growth performance of broilers.

Keywords: broiler growth performance, heat stress, vitamin supplementation, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E

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541 Interaction Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation and Aerobic Exercises on Balance and Physical Performance in Children with Down Syndrome

Authors: Mohamed A. Eid, Sobhy M. Aly, Marwa M. Ibrahim, Nadia L. Radwan

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To investigate the interaction effects of vitamin D supplementation combined with aerobic exercises (AE) and conventional physical therapy program (CPTP) on balance and physical performance in children with Down syndrome (DS).Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted for 38 children with DS, with ages ranging from 8 to 12 years. They were divided randomly to two groups. The control group (n=19) received the CPTP, while the study group (n=19) received the CPTP, AE, and vitamin D in the form of an oral daily dose of vitamin D3 400 IU (Cholecalciferol). Evaluation of balance by using the Biodex Stability System and physical performance by using the six-minute walk test (6MWT)was performed before and after 12 weeks of the treatment program. Findings: All groups showed a significant improvement in balance and physical performance after treatment (p < 0.05). The study group showed a significant improvement in balance and physical performancecompared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation combined with AE and CPTP could improve balance and physical performance in children with DS. Therefore, vitamin D and AEshould be considered as adjunctive to the rehabilitation program of these children.

Keywords: aerobic exercises, balance, down syndrome, physical performance, vitamin D

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540 Effect of Varying Stocking Densities and Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Supplementation on Growth Performance of Japanese Quails

Authors: T. S. Olugbemi, T. S. Friday, O. O. Olusola

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This experiment was carried out to assess the effect of different stocking densities and vitamin C supplementation on the performance of Japanese quails. Five hundred and twenty (520) unsexed quail birds of two (2) weeks of age were allotted randomly into nine (9) groups with 3 replicates each in a 3x3 factorial arrangement (3 stocking density levels and 3 graded vitamin C levels) with densities of 150, 120, 90 cm2/bird(11, 16, 21 birds). During the five weeks growing trial (2- 6 weeks), results showed that stocking density had significant effects on final weight (131.59g compared to 111.10g for the lowest), total and daily weight gain. No significance difference was observed for feed conversion ratio, age at first lay and first egg weight. Observations on haematological parameters (packed cell volume (PCV), total protein (TP), haemoglobin, red blood cell (RBC), lymphocyte, heterophil) on stocking density showed no significant differences. Vitamin C supplementation at 50mg/kg and 100mg/kg did not have any significant effect on the growth performance parameters of growing quails. Stocking density at 150cm2/bird had a better performance with or without vitamin C supplementation hence it is recommended that stocking rates of quails between the ages of 2 – 6 weeks should not be below 150cm2/bird.

Keywords: anti-oxidants, performance, stress, stocking density

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539 Multiple Strategies in Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome Result from Vitamin D Deficiency in Children

Authors: Maryam Ghavam Sadri, Maryam Shahrooz

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Background: Nowadays the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (Mets) has taken on a growing trend. Studies have shown the relationship between vitamin D deficiency (VDD) status and Mets in children. Also studies have recorded that exerting strategies for vitamin D status improvement can help prevent Mets in children. This study investigated multiple strategies of prevention of Mets resulting from VDD in children. Methods: This review study has been done by using keywords related to the topic and 54 articles were found (2000-2015) that 25 were selected according to the indicators of Mets, supplementation and fortification of foods with vitamin D and attention to children environment and life style. Results: Studies have suggested the correlation between serum levels of vitamin D with waist circumference (p < 0.0001), systolic blood pressure (p=0.01), HOMA-IR (p=0.001) and HDL cholesterol (p < 0.0001). An inverse correlation between serum 25 (OH) D and HOMA-IR (p = 0.006) and insulin (P = 0.002) has been proved in overweight group. Higher HOMASDS and triglycerides found in vitamin D deficient obese children compared to control group without VDD (p=0.04). After supplementation with vitamin D, serum TG concentration decreases significantly (p=0.04), and improves insulin resistance (p=0.02). The prevalence of VDD is associated with time of watching TV (P < 0.01), hours of physical activity per week (P = 0.01), skipping breakfast (P < 0.001) soda intake (P < 0.001), and milk intake per day (P < 0.01). Conclusion: According to the beneficial role of vitamin D in prevention of Mets and proven relationship between serum levels of vitamin D and Mets indicators, we can prevent childhood Mets through the application of appropriate strategies such as supplementation and food fortification with vitamin D and positive changes in children life style with especial attention to physical activity in exposure of sunlight and their environment condition.

Keywords: children, metabolic syndrome, prevention strategies, vitamin D

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538 Nutritional Supplementation in the Management of Childhood/Youth Aggression: A Systematic Review

Authors: Sabrina M. Wang, Rameen Qamar, Fahad Manzar Qureshi, Laura La Chance, Nathan J. Kolla, Barna Konkolÿ Thege

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Elevated level of aggressive behaviour in children and youth can lead to impairments in family, social or academic functioning. The aim of the present study was to critically review the evidence on the effectiveness of nutritional supplements in reducing aggression in children and youth. The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, PsycINFO, and PubMed data bases were searched for relevant studies. Altogether, 22 studies met inclusion criteria; 13 investigated the effect of macronutrients (fatty acids and amino acids), 6 studies investigated the effect of micronutrients (vitamins and minerals), while 3 studies investigated a combination of macro and micronutrients. Out of the 22 studies, 7 reported a beneficial effect of nutritional supplementation (vitamins and minerals, essential fatty acids, or a certain combination of these). Eight studies did not report a significant beneficial effect of nutritional supplementation (essential fatty acids, vitamin D, and L-tryptophan), while 7 studies reported mixed effects (vitamin B6, essential fatty acids alone and in combination with vitamins and minerals, and carnitine). The results overall suggest that there may be a role for broad-range vitamin and mineral supplements in the treatment of aggression in youth and children.

Keywords: aggression, children, youth, nutritional supplementation, micronutrient, macronutrient

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537 Effect of Vitamin D3 on Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Prognosis, Anthropometric and Body Composition Parameters of Overweight Women: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

Authors: Nahla Al-Bayyari, Rae’d Hailat

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Vitamin D deficiency and overweight are common in women suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Weight gain in PCOS is an important factor for the development of menstrual dysfunction and signs of hyperandrogenism and alopecia. Features of PCOS such as oligomenorrhea can be predicted by anthropometric measurements as body mass index (BMI). Therefore, the aim of this trial was to study the effect of 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ supplementation on the body composition and on the anthropometric measurements of overweight women with PCOS and to examine the impact of this effect on ovaries ultrasonography and menstrual cycle regularity. The study design was a prospective randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted on 60 overweight Jordanian women aged (18-49) years with PCOS and vitamin D deficiency. The study participants were divided into two groups; vitamin D group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive 50,000 IU/week of vitamin D₃ and placebo group (n = 30) who were assigned to receive placebo tablets orally for 90 days. The anthropometric measurements and body composition were measured at baseline and after treatment for the PCOS and vitamin D deficient women. Also, assessment of the participants’ picture of ovaries by ultrasound and menstrual cycle regulatory were performed before and after treatment. Results showed that there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between the placebo and vitamin D group basal 25(OH)D levels, body composition and anthropometric parameters. After treatment, vitamin D group serum levels of 25(OH)D increased (12.5 ± 0.61 to 50.2 ± 2.04 ng/mL, (p < 0.001), and decreased (50.2 ± 2.04 to 48.2 ± 2.03 ng/mL, p < 0.001) after 14 days of vitamin D₃ treatment cessation. There were no significant changes in the placebo group. In the vitamin D group, there were significant (p < 0.001) decreases in body weight, BMI, waist, and hip circumferences and fat mass. In addition, there were significant increases (p < 0.05) in fat free mass and total body water. These improvements in both anthropometric and body composition as well as in 25(OH)D concentrations, resulted in significant improvements in the picture of PCOS women ovaries ultrasonography and in menstrual cycle regularity, where nearly most of them (93%) had regular cycles after vitamin D₃ supplementation. In the placebo group, there were only significant decreases (p < 0.05) in waist and hip circumferences. It can be concluded that vitamin D supplementation improving serum 25(OH)D levels and PCOS prognosis by reducing body weight of overweight PCOS women and regulating their menstrual cycle.

Keywords: anthropometric, overweight, polycystic ovary syndrome, vitamin D₃

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536 Vitamin D Status in Tunisian Obese Patients

Authors: O. Berriche, R. Ben Othmen, H. Sfar, H. Abdesslam, S. Bou Meftah, S. Bhouri, F. Mahjoub, C. Amrouche, H. Jamoussi

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Introduction: Although current evidence emphasizes a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and an inverse association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) concentration and obesity, no studies have been conducted in Tunisian obese. The objectives of our study were to estimate the vitamin D deficiency in obese, identify risk factors for vitamin D deficiency, demonstrating a possible association between vitamin D levels and metabolic parameters. Methods: This was a descriptive study of 100 obese 18-65 year-old. Anthropometric measurements were determined. Fasting blood samples were assessed for the following essays : serum calcium, 25 OH vitamin D, inorganic phosphorus, fasting glucose, HDL, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride. Insulin resistance was evaluated by fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and HOMA-ß. Consumption of foods riche in vitamin D, sunscreen use, wearing protective clothes and exposed surface were assessed through applied questionnaires. Results: The deficit of vitamin D (< 30 ng/ml) among obese was 98,8%. Half of them had a rate < 10ng/ml. Environmental factors involved in vitamin D deficiency are : the veil (p = 0,001), wearing protective clothes (p = 0,04) and the exposed surface (p = 0,011) and dietary factors are represented by the daily caloric intake (p = 0,0001). The percent of fat mass was negatively related to vitamin D levels (p = 0,01) but not with BMI (p = 0,11) or waist circumference (p = 0,88). Similarly, lipid and glucose profile had no link with vitamin D. We found no relationship between Insulin resistance and vitamin D levels. Conclusion: At the end of our study, we have identified a very important vitamin D deficiency among obese. Dosage and systematic supplementation should be applied and for that physician awareness is needed.

Keywords: insulinresistance, risk factors, obesity, vitamin D

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535 Vitamin D Supplementation Potentiates the Clinical Benefits of Metformin and Pioglitazone in Indian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: Mohd Asharf Ganie, Aafia Rashid, Mohd Afzal Zargar, Showkat Ali Zargar, Syed Mudasar, Tabasum Parvaiz, Zafar Amin Shah

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Accumulating evidence suggests that Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) might at least contribute to the metabolic co-morbidities in PCOS. Hence, we aimed to study the effect of vitamin D supplementation in co-prescription with insulin sensitizers like metformin and pioglitazone on clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters in women with PCOS. In this open label randomized, controlled trial a total of 120 women with PCOS diagnosis (AE-PCOS 2009 Criteria) were assigned to four treatment groups (n= 30 in each): group I (metformin 1 gm/day in combination with cholecalciferol 4000 IU/day), group II (pioglitazone 30 mg/day in combination with cholecalciferol 4000 IU/day), group III (metformin 1 gm /day) and group IV (pioglitazone 30 mg/day). Vitamin D supplementation was given as 60,000 units every two weeks for 24 weeks. All the subjects were routinely evaluated for clinical, biochemical, hormonal and insulin sensitivity parameters in addition to various safety parameters especially serum calcium levels at baseline and after 24 weeks of the treatment. Our results indicate that 95.5% of PCOS women were vitamin D deficient at baseline. Serum 25 (OH) D levels increased significantly (p < 0.001) in groups I and II without any adverse effects after 24 weeks of oral administration of 4000 IU cholecalciferol daily. However, serum 25 (OH) D levels remained unchanged in group III and IV. By six months, number of menstrual cycles per year increased whereas Ferriman-Gallwey score, serum total testosterone and HOMA-IR decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in the treatment groups supplemented with cholecalciferol as compared to those treated either drug alone. No significant beneficial changes were observed on weight, BMI, blood pressure, glucose tolerance and serum lipids in any of the groups supplemented with cholecalciferol. We conclude that daily dose of 4000 IU cholecalciferol might be a useful adjunct in complex treatment of PCOS with fewer adverse events. Furthermore, pioglitazone and cholecalciferol combination seems to be marginally better although there was no statistical significance.

Keywords: PCOS, vitamin D supplementation, insulin resistance, spironolactone, metformin, pioglitazone

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534 Dietary Intake, Serum Vitamin D Status, and Sun Exposure of Malaysian Women of Different Ethnicity

Authors: H. Z. M. Chong, M. E. Y. Leong, G. L. Khor, S. C. Loke

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Vitamin D insufficiency is reported to be prevalent among women living in different altitudes including the equator where sunshine is available throughout the year. Multiple factors for vitamin D insufficiency include poor intake of vitamin D rich food and inadequate sun exposure, especially among women working indoor with a sedentary lifestyle. Furthermore, Muslim women in Malaysia whose attire covers the entire body are likely to receive poor sun exposure. This research determined serum vitamin D status, vitamin D intake and sun exposure of women aged 20-45 years of different ethnicity in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Blood samples were collected from 106 women for determination of serum 25(OH)D levels. Information about vitamin D intake and sun exposure were obtained by interviewing the subjects using pre-tested questionnaires. The overall mean serum 25(OH)D was found to be 29.9 ± 14 nmol/L. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was prevalent and highest among the Malay women. Less than ten percent of the subjects in this study met the sufficient vitamin D level recommendation of ≥50 nmol/L. Intake of vitamin D rich food such as oily fishes was poor across the different ethnicity. Other dietary sources of vitamin D in the diet were fortified bread and skim milk. On the other hand, the median sunlight exposure of the subjects was 3.9 hours per week. The Malay women reported to have the highest duration being exposed to the sun. Nevertheless, due to cultural clothing practices, these women had the least body surface area exposed to sunlight, resulting in the lowest calculated sun index score compared to the Chinese and the Indians. Low intake of vitamin D rich foods and sun exposure were negatively correlated with serum 25(OH)D level. In conclusion, intake of food sources rich in vitamin D and adequate body surface area exposed to the sun are essential to ensure healthy vitamin D level. Supplementation of vitamin D may be recommended to women whom unable to meet these recommendations.

Keywords: serum 25-OH, sun exposure, vitamin D food frequency, vitamin D deficiency

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533 Effect of Parenteral Administration of Vitamin A in Pregnant Dry Cows, on Vitamin A Status of Neonatal Calves

Authors: Samad Lotfollahzadeh

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To evaluate the effect of intramuscular administration of vitamin A during dry period in pregnant dairy cows, which already received it in their daily ration, on vitamin A status of neonatal calves, a total of 30 cows were randomly selected and divided to two main groups; treatment and control group. Animals in the treatment group were subdivided into two groups. Single intramuscular injection of 2000000 IU vitamin A; was carried in 10 dairy cows at 7 months of pregnancy (group 1). In the second group of treated animals (10 cows) the injection was performed in 8 months of pregnancy (group 2). Ten pregnant dairy cows were received saline injection as placebo and selected as the control group. Blood samples were collected from experimental dairy cows at 7 and 8 months of pregnancy as well as their newborn calves’ pre and after colostrum intake. There was no significant difference between vitamin A and β- carotene concentration of dairy cows of three groups in two last months of pregnancy (P > 0.05). Vitamin A concentration of calves of two treatment groups before and after receiving of colostrum were significantly higher than that in the control group (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between serum concentrations of vitamin A in calves of two treated groups (P > 0.05). β- Carotene concentration of serum samples of dairy cows and neonatal calves of three groups were not significantly different as compared with together. From results of the present study it can be concluded that daily supplementation of vitamin A in late pregnancy in dairy cows may not compensate the calves need for vitamin A and single injection of this vitamin A during dry either in 7 or 8 months of pregnancy can significantly increase level of vitamin A in their colostrum and neonatal calves.

Keywords: dry cow, beta carotene, newborn calves, vitamin A, dry cows

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532 Pellet Feed Improvements through Vitamin C Supplementation for Snakehead (Channa striata) Culture in Vietnam

Authors: Pham Minh Duc, Tran Thi Thanh Hien, David A. Bengtson

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Laboratory feeding trial: the study was conducted to find out the optimal dietary vitamin C, or ascorbic acid (AA) levels in terms of the growth performance of snakehead. The growth trial included six treatments with five replications. Each treatment contained 0, 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg AA equivalent kg⁻¹ diet which included six iso-nitrogenous (45% protein), iso-lipid (9% lipid) and isocaloric (4.2 Kcal.g¹). Eighty snakehead fingerlings (6.24 ± 0.17 g.fish¹) were assigned randomly in 0.5 m³ composite tanks. Fish were fed twice daily on demand for 8 weeks. The result showed that growth rates increased, protein efficiency ratio increased and the feed conversion ratio decreased in treatments with AA supplementation compared with control treatment. The survival rate of fish tends to increase with increase AA level. The number of RBCs, lysozyme in treatments with AA supplementation tended to rise significantly proportional to the concentration of AA. The number of WBCs of snakehead in treatments with AA supplementation was higher 2.1-3.6 times. In general, supplementation of AA in the diets for snakehead improved growth rate, feed efficiency and immune response. Hapa on-farm trial: based on the results of the laboratory feeding trial, the effects of AA on snakehead in hapas to simulate farm conditions, was tested using the following treatments: commercial feed; commercial feed plus hand mixed AA at 500; 750 and 1000 mg AA.kg⁻¹; SBM diet without AA; SBM diet plus 500; 750 and 1000 mg AA.kg⁻¹. The experiment was conducted in two experimental ponds (only SBM diet without AA placed in one pond and the rest in the other pond) with four replicate hapa each. Stocking density was 150 fish.m² and culture period was 5 months until market size was attained. The growth performance of snakehead and economic aspects were examined in this research.

Keywords: fish health, growth rate, snakehead, Vitamin C

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531 Deficiencies in Vitamin A and Iron Supply Potential of Selected Indigenous Complementary Foods of Infants in Uganda

Authors: Richard Kajjura, Joyce Kikafunda, Roger Whitehead

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Introduction: Indigenous complementary recipes for children (6-23 months) are bulky and inextricably linked. The potential contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs is not well investigated in Uganda. Less is known whether children in Uganda are living with or without adequate supply of vitamin A and iron nutrients. In this study, vitamin A and iron contents were assessed in the complementary foods fed to infants aged 6-11 months in a Peri-urban setting in Kampala District in Central Uganda. Objective: Assessment of vitamin A and iron contents of indigenous complementary foods of children as fed and associated demographic factor. Method: In a cross sectional study design, one hundred and three (153) households with children aged 6-11 months were randomly selected to participate in the assessment. Complementary food samples were collected from the children’s mothers/caretakers at the time of feeding the child. The mothers’ socio-demographic characteristics of age, education, marital status, occupation and sex collected a semi-qualitative questionnaire. The Vitamin A and iron contents in the complementary foods were analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer for vitamin A and Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer for iron samples. The data was analyzed using Gene-stat software program. Results: The mean vitamin A content was 97.0± 72.5 µg while that of iron was 1.5 ± 0.4 mg per 100g of food sample as fed. The contribution of indigenous complementary foods found was 32% for vitamin A and 15% iron of the recommended dietary allowance. Age of children was found to be significantly associated Vitamin A and Iron supply potential. Conclusion: The contribution of indigenous complementary foods to infant’s vitamin A and iron needs was low. Complementary foods in Uganda are more likely to be deficient in vitamin A and iron content. Nutrient dense dietary supplementation should be intervened in to make possible for Ugandan children attain full growth potential.

Keywords: indigenous complementary food, infant, iron, vitamin A

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530 Effects of Dietary E on Semen, Hormonal Profile and Testicular Biometry in Teddy Goat Bucks

Authors: Muhammad Zubair, Maqbool Ahmad, Al-Hafizah Shafia Tehseen Gul, Shujait Ali

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The use of vitamins has significant effects on the reproductive system of mammals. The present study was conducted to investigate the useful effects of vitamin E on reproductive functions of Teddy bucks. For this purpose, 8 adult Teddy bucks were randomly divided into two treatment groups viz; A (control) and B (vitamin E with dose of 200 mg/kg BW/day). These treatments continued for 12 weeks. Semen quality parameters (volume, motility, sperm morphology and sperm DNA integrity) of experimental bucks of each group was evaluated on weekly basis, while testicular measurements (length, scrotal circumference and weights) were recorded at 0 and 12th week of experiment. Serum concentrations of male sex hormones (testosterone, LH, FSH) and cortisol were recorded fortnightly. Similarly, body weights of bucks were also measured fortnightly until completion of the study. The data were subjected to two-way analysis of variance, followed by Duncan test for multiple mean comparisons. Supplementation of vitamin E improved significantly (P<0.05) the semen quality parameter, body weights, testicular measurements and serum levels of sex hormones. However, there was no effect on serum cortisol. It was concluded from the present study that dietary supplementation of vitamin E has beneficial effects on the semen and hormones in male reproductive system.

Keywords: hormones, semen, teddy bucks, testicular measurements

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529 The Role of NAD+ and Nicotinamide (Vitamin B3) in Glaucoma: A Literature Review

Authors: James Pietris

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Glaucoma is a collection of irreversible optic neuropathies which, if left untreated, lead to severe visual field loss. These diseases are a leading cause of blindness across the globe and are estimated to affect approximately 80 million people, particularly women and people of Asian descent.1This represents a major burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the potential of nicotinamide (vitamin B3) as a novel option in the management of glaucoma. This review aims to analyse the currently available literature to determine whether there is evidence of an association between nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and glaucomatous optic neuropathy and whether nicotinamide has the potential to prevent or reverse these effects. The literature showed a strong connection between reduced NAD+ levels and retinal ganglion cell dysfunction through multiple different studies. There is also evidence of the positive effect of nicotinamide supplementation on retinal ganglion cell function in models of mouse glaucoma and in a study involving humans. Based on the literature findings, a recommendation has been made that more research into the efficacy, appropriate dosing, and potential side effects of nicotinamide supplementation is needed before it can be definitively determined whether it is appropriate for widespread prophylactic and therapeutic use against glaucoma in humans.

Keywords: glaucoma, nicotinamide, vitamin B3, optic neuropathy

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528 The Effect of Probiotic and Vitamin B Complex Supplementation on Interferon-γ and Interleukin-10 Levels in Patients with TB Infection during Intensive Phase Therapy

Authors: Yulistiani Yulistiani, Wenny Nilamsari, Laurin Winarso, Rizkiya Rizkiya, Zamrotul Izzah, Budi Suprapti, Arif Bachtiar

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Approximately, a million new cases of TB have been found out per year, making Indonesia as the second greatest country with TBC after India. Nevertheless, until now, there are still many patients failure to conventional therapy with oral anti tuberculosis. Thus, the discovery of supplement therapy is urgently needed. Many studies showed that probiotic had the positive impact in lung diseases, diarrhea, pneumonia and it was attributed to its capability to balance the level of cytokine pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory. It was demonstrated in active disease the production of IFN-γ is strongly depressed and IL-10 level increases. This study aimed to investigate the effect of probiotic (multi strains) and vitamin B complex supplementation on IFN-γ and IL-10 level in patients with TB infection during intensive phase therapy. A randomized controlled trial, open labeled was conducted in TB patients with the following criteria: 1) age 18-55 years old 2) receiving oral antituberculosis during intensive therapy 3) not using probiotic, vitamin B1, B6, B12 2 weeks before enrollment 4) willing to participate in this study and signed an informed consent. While, patients with HIV, pregnant, had the history of diabetes mellitus, using corticosteroid or other immunosuppressants were excluded. IFN-γ and IL-10 levels were drawn before observation and after a month observation. The assay was performed by ELISA. There were seven patients in treated group and five patients in controlled group obtained in this study. Between groups, there was no statistical difference in comorbid, age, and disease duration. The mean level of IFN-γ after a month observation increased in treated group and controlled group, which were 31.47 ± 105.46 pg/ml and 15.09 ± 24.23 pg/ml, respectively (p> 0.005). Although, there were not statistically different, treated group showed a greater increase of IFN-γ level than that of the controlled group. IFN-γ plays an important role in immune response to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, by activating macrofag, monosit and furthermore killing Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. Thus the level was expected to increase after supplementation with probiotic and Vitamin B complex. While the mean level of IL-10 also increased after one month observation in the treated group and controlled group (4.28 ± 12.29 pg/ml and 5.77± 6.21 pg/ml, respectively) (p>0.005). To be compared, the increased level of IL-10 in the treated group were lower than the controlled group, although it was not statistically different. IL-10 is a cytokine anti-inflammatory, thus, the level after the observation was expected to decrease. In this study, a month therapy of probiotic and vitamin B complex was not able to demonstrate the decrease of the IL-10 level. It is suggested to prolong observation up to 2 months, because, in intensive phase, the level of cytokine anti-inflammatory is very high, so the longer therapy is needed. It is indicated that supplementation therapy with probiotic and vitamin B complex to Oral Anti-Tuberculosis may have a positive effect on increasing IFN-γ level and slowing the progression of IL-10.

Keywords: TB Infection, IFN-γ, IL-10, probiotic, vitamin B complex

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527 Vitamin C Supplementation Modulates Zinc Levels and Antioxidant Values in Blood and Tissues of Diabetic Rats Fed Zinc-Deficient Diet

Authors: W. Fatmi, F. Kriba, Z. Kechrid

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vitamin C on blood biochemical parameters, tissue zinc, and antioxidants enzymes in diabetic rats fed a zinc-deficient diet. For that purpose, Alloxan-induced diabetic rats were divided into four groups. The first group was fed a zinc-sufficient diet while the second group was fed a zinc-deficient diet. The third and fourth groups received zinc-sufficient or zinc-deficient diets plus oral vitamin C (1mg/l) for 27 days. Body weight and food intake were recorded regularly during 27 days. On day 28, animals were killed and glucose, total lipids, triglycerides, protein, urea, serum zinc , tissues zinc concentrations, liver glycogen, GSH, TBARS concentrations and serum GOT, GPT, ALP and LDH, liver GSH-Px, GST and Catalase activities were determined. Body weight gain and food intake of zinc deficient diabetic animals at the end of experimental period was significantly lower than that of zinc adequate diabetic animals. Dietary zinc intake significantly increased glucose, lipids, triglycerides, urea, and liver TBARS levels of zinc deficient diabetic rats. In contrast, serum zinc, tissues zinc, protein, liver glycogen and GSH levels were decreased. The consumption of zinc deficient diet led also to an increase in serum GOT, GPT and liver GST accompanied with a decrease in serum ALP, LDH and liver GSH-Px, CAT activities. Meanwhile, vitamin C treatment was ameliorated all the previous parameters approximately to their normal levels. Vitamin C supplementation presumably acting as an antioxidant, and it probably led to an improvement of insulin activity, which significantly reduced the severity of zinc deficiency in diabetes.

Keywords: antioxidant, experimental diabetes, liver enzymes, vitamin c, zinc deficiency

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526 Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) in Orange Juices Product

Authors: Wanida Wonsawat

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This research describes a voltammetric approach to determine amounts of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) in orange juice sample, using three screen printed electrode. The anodic currents of vitamin C were proportional to vitamin C concentration in the range of 0 – 10.0 mM with the limit of detection of 1.36 mM. The method was successfully employed with 2 µL of the working solution dropped on the electrode surface. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of vitamin C in packed orange juice without sample purification or complexion of sample preparation step.

Keywords: ascorbic acid, vitamin C, juice, voltammetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
525 Effects of Vitamin C and Spondias mombin Supplementation on Hematology, Growth, Egg Production Traits, and Eggshell Quality in Japanese Quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in a Hot-Humid Tropics

Authors: B. O. Oyebanji, I. O. Dudusola, C. T. Ademola, S. A. Olaniyan

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A 56 day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary inclusion of Spondias mombin on hematological, growth, egg parameters and egg shell quality of Japanese quails, Cortunix cortunix japonica. One hundred birds were used for this study, and they were allocated randomly into 5 groups and replicated twice. Group 1 animals served as control without inclusion of extract, groups 2, 3, and 4 had 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg inclusion of SM, group 5 had 600 mg/kg of vitamin C respectively. The birds were weighed weekly to determine weight change, the blood parameters analyzed at the completion of the experiment were PCV, Hb, RBC WBC, differential WBC count, MCH, MCH, and MCV were afterwards calculated from these parameters. 5 eggs were collected from each group and egg weight, eggshell weight, eggshell diameter, yolk weight, albumen weight, yolk diameter, yolk height, albumen percentage, yolk percentage and shell percentage were determined. There was no significant difference among the group for the hematological parameters measured and calculated. The egg weight and albumen weight of quails on 800 mg/kg was highest of all the groups, all other egg parameters measured showed no significant difference. The birds supplemented with Vitamin C had the highest weight gain (40.8±2.5 g) and the lowest feed conversion ratio (2.25). There was no mortality recorded in all the groups except in the SM800 group with 10% mortality. It can be concluded from this experiment that Vitamin C supplementation has positive effect on quail production in humid tropics and the inclusion of Spondias mombin leaf extract has a dose-dependent toxicity in quails.

Keywords: hematology, quails, Spondias mombin, vitamin C

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
524 Carbendazim Toxicity and Ameliorative Effect of Vitamin E in African Giant Rats

Authors: A. O. Omonona, T. A. Jarikre

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Increase specialization in agriculture and use of pesticides may inadvertently cause ecosystem degradation and eventually loss of biodiversity. The populations of numerous wildlife species have undergone a precipitous decline. Many of these problems have been attributed directly to habitat loss and over exploitation resulting from unregulated pesticide uses. Carbendazim a broad spectrum benzimidazole fungicide and a metabolite of benomyl, is used to control plant disease in cereals and fruit. The effect of carbendazim exposure and the ameliorative effect of tocopherol (vitamin E) were assessed on African giant rat AGR. Hematological, biochemical and histological changes were used to determine the health condition of the animals exposed to pesticide. Sixteen AGR were stabilized, weighed and then divided into four experimental groups (A to D). Two groups were pretreated with vitamin. Group A was exposed to carbendazim only, B- carbendazim + vitamin, C- vitamin only, and D- blank (control). Packed cell volume PCV was estimated by the microhematocrit method, Leucocyte and Platelet counts were determined using the hemocytometric method. Cholinesterase (AchE) and markers of oxidative stress were quantified, and tissue changes examined microscopically. There were no behavioral changes observed in the animals, but there was a decrease in body weight and abortion after 23 days of exposure to carbendazim. There was significant differences in the packed cell volume, the hemoglobin concentration and the red blood cell counts (p < 0.05). The increases in malonyl aldehyde MDA was significant (p < 0.05) in the pesticide intoxicated rats compared to control. Vitamin E supplementation reduced MDA level significantly (p < 0.05). There was a sharp remarkable decrease in acetylcholinesterase levels in the pesticide intoxicated rats (p < 0.05). Vitamin E supplementation normalise the AchE levels comparable to that in control. Grossly, the vital organs appeared normal in the pesticide exposed and control groups except moderate pulmonary congestion. Microscopically, there was severe diffuse hepatocellular swelling in carbendazim exposed group. The severity of hepatocellular injury was reduced in the rats with vitamin E. This study ascertained the toxic effect of carbendazim and antioxidative properties of vitamins in the Africa giant rat.

Keywords: African giant rat, antioxidant, carbendazim, pesticides, toxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
523 Vitamin D and Prevention of Rickets in Children

Authors: Mousa Saleh Daoud

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Rickets is a condition that affects the development of bones in children. It causes soft bones, which can become bowed or curved, this bending and curvature is evident in the age of Walking. The most common cause of rickets is dietary deficiency of vitamin D or Lack of exposure to sunlight or both together. The link between vitamin D and rickets has been known for many years and is well understood by doctors and scientists. If a child does not get enough of the vitamin D, the bones cannot form hard outer shells. This is why they become soft and weak. This study was conducted on children who reviewed by our medical clinic between the years 2011-2013. The study included 400 children, aged between one and six years. 11 children had clear clinical manifestations of rickets of varying degrees and all of them due to lack of vitamin D except for one case of rickets resistant to vitamin D. 389 cases ranged between natural and deficiency in vitamin D without clinical manifestations of Rickets.

Keywords: rickts, bone metabolic diseases, vitamin D, child

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
522 Bioaccessibility of Vitamin A Nanoemulsion: Influence of Carrier Oil and Surfactant Concentration

Authors: R. N. Astya, E. S. Nugraha, S. P. Nurheni, Hoerudin

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Vitamin A deficiency remains to be among the major malnutrition problems in Indonesia. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin which renders it difficult to be fortified in water-based foods and beverages. Furthermore, its low solubility and stability in aqueous system may limit its bioaccessibility in the gastrointestinal tract. Nanoemulsification of vitamin A may solve these problems. The objective of this study was to investigate bioaccessibility of vitamin A (retinyl palmitate/RP) nanoemulsion as influenced by two types of carrier oil (Virgin Coconut Oil/VCO and corn oil/CO) and surfactant concentrations (polysorbate 20/Tween 20 3% and 6%). Oil in water (o/w) nanoemulsions of vitamin A was produced through a combination of high shear-high pressure homogenization technique. The results showed that RP-VCO nanoemulsions were 121.62 nm (3%) and 115.40 (6%) nm in particle size, whereas RP-CO nanoemulsions were 154.72 nm (3%) and 134.00 nm (6%) in particle size. As for VCO nanoemulsions, the bioaccessibility of vitamin A was shown to be 89.84% and 55.32%, respectively. On the other hand, CO nanoemulsions produced vitamin A bioaccessibility of 53.66% and 44.85%, respectively. In general, VCO nanoemulsions showed better bioaccessibility of vitamin A than CO nanoemulsions. In this study, RP-VCO nanoemulsion with 3% Tween 20 had the highest ζ-potential value (-26.5 mV) and produced the highest bioaccessibility of vitamin A (89.84%, P<0.05). Additionally, the vitamin A nanoemulsion was stable even for after a week of freeze and thaw treatment. Following the freeze and thaw treatment, the vitamin A nanoemulsion showed good stability without aggregation and separation. These results would be useful for designing effective vitamin A delivery systems for food and beverage applications.

Keywords: bioaccessibility, carrier oil, surfactant, vitamin A nanoemulsion

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521 Physiological Response of Water-Restricted Xhosa Goats Supplemented with Vitamin C

Authors: O.F. Akinmoladun, F.N. Fon, C.T. Mpendulo, O. Okoh

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The sustainability of livestock production is under threat as a result of water scarcity, fluctuating precipitation, and high environmental temperature. These combined stressors have impacted negatively on general animal production and welfare, necessitating a very reliable and cost-effective management practices, especially in arid and water-limited regions of the world. Instead of the above, this study was designed to investigate the growth performance and physiological response of water-restricted Xhosa ear-lobe goats fed diets supplemented with single or multiple vitamin C (VC) during summer. The total forty-eight goats used for the experiment were balanced for body weight and randomly assigned to the seven treatment groups (seven goats/treatment): GI (W100%); GII (W70%); GIII (W50%); GIV (W70%+3g/day VC); GV ((W50% +3g/day VC); GVI (W70%+3g/d VC+extra 5g on every eight-day); GVII (W50%+3g/d VC+extra 5g on every eight-day). The design was a complete randomized design and VC was administered per os. At the end of the 75-day feeding trial, GIII (W50%) animals were the most affected (P<0.05) and the effect was more pronounced in their body condition scores (BCs). Weight loss and depression in feed intake due to water restriction (P<0.05) were attenuated by VC treated groups (GIV-GVII). Changes in body thermal gradient (BTG) and rectal temperature (RcT) were similar (P>0.05) across the various experimental groups. The attenuation effect of VC was significant in responses to respiratory rate (RR) and cortisol. Supplementation of VC (either single or multiple) did not significantly (P>0.05) improve water restriction effect on body condition scores (BCs) and FAMACHA©. The current study found out that Xhosa ear lobe goats can adapt to the prevailing bioclimatic changes and limited water intake. However, supplementation of vitamin C can be beneficial at modulating these stressful stimuli. Continuous consistencies in the outcome of vitamin C on water-stressed animals can help validate recommendations especially to farmers in the arid and water-limited regions across the globe.

Keywords: vitamin C, Xhosa ear-lobe, thermotolerance, water stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
520 Vitamin A Status and Its Correlation with the Dietary Intake of Young Females of Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Sarah Fatima, Ahmad A. Malik, Saima Sadaf

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This study was conducted in order to assess the dietary record and vitamin A status of young females of Lahore. A total sample of 376 consisted of 16 – 20 years of unmarried college going females. Three main tools were adopted: questionnaire, 3-day food diary and serum retinol test. The anthropometric measurements showed that a total of 32.6% of the sample was underweight (BMI < 18.5) and 54.5% had a healthy weight (BMI 18.5 – 22.9). The average Vitamin A intake of the sample was 257.95 µg/day while the RDA for the selected age group was 700 µg/day. The mean energy intake of the adolescents was 1153.64 kcal/ day, whereas the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for this age group was 2368 kcal/day. The mean serum Vitamin A level was 24.81µg/dL. 69.6% of the sample was deficient in serum Vitamin A i.e. serum retinol < 24 µg/dL. 30.4% had serum retinol in normal limit (24 – 84 µg/dL) from which 25.3% lied in lower limit (24 – 44 µg/dL) and only 5.1% had serum retinol in 44 – 64 µg/dL range. A slightly negative correlation (r = - 0.21, 95% confidence interval) was found between dietary intake of Vitamin A and serum Vitamin A It was concluded that the dietary intake of major nutrients and vitamin A is not adequate in the selected group. This is also confirmed by the lower serum retinol levels. Hence, vitamin An intake and status are generally inadequate, and vitamin deficiency is prevalent in the unmarried young females of Lahore.

Keywords: vitamin A, young Females, vitamin deficiency, Lahore

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519 Protective Effects of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on Experimentally Induced Testicular Torsion and Detorsion in Rat Model

Authors: Anu Vinod Ranade

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Aim: To evaluate and compare the effects of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on experimentally induced testicular torsion and detorsion in rats. Methods: Forty Male Wistar Albino rats were divided into five groups. Animals in the Group I underwent Sham operation, Group II consisted of animals that were subjected to torsion for three hours followed by detorsion for 24 hours without any treatment. While Group III, IV and V were orally pretreated with Vitamin C (40mg/kg.bw), vitamin E (100mg/kg.bw) and a combination of Vitamin C and vitamin E respectively for a period of 30 days. The testes of the experimental groups were manually rotated to 720° clockwise for three hours and counter rotated for 24 hours to induce ischemia and reperfusion. Sequential biopsies were performed and the testes were collected at the end of 24 hours of detrosion for morphological evaluation. Result: There was a significant decrease in the standard tubular diameter and the epithelial height of the seminiferous tubules in the untreated group when compared to Sham controls. The standard tubular diameter and seminiferous epithelial height showed near normal values when animals were pretreated with Vitamin C and Vitamin E individually or in combination. Conclusion: The results showed that pretreatment of with antioxidants vitamin E and vitamin C when administered prior to testicular torsion in rats significantly reduced the torsion and detorsion induced histopathlogical injury.

Keywords: vitamin C, vitamin E, standard tubular diameter, standard epithelial height, testicular torsion

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518 Vitamin D Intoxication with Hypercalcemia Due to Overuse of Supplement

Authors: Sara Ataei, Mohammad Bagher Oghazian, Mania Radfar

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We describe a patient with hypercalcemia associated with the injection of high doses vitamin D as supplement for a period of six months. A 76-year-old woman had been taking an intramuscular injection of vitamin D 300,000 IU every ten days for six months. She was hospitalized with symptoms of hypercalcemia: chronic constipation, unstable gait, a chronic generalized musculoskeletal pain and increased fatigue. On admission her 25 (OH) vitamin D and Calcium levels were 559 nmol/L and 13.85 mg/dL respectively, and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) level was 7.1 pg/mL. Immediately she received diuresis therapy with saline and furosemide in conjunction with calcitonin and pamidronate. At discharge her serum calcium level was 11.5 mg/dL. To lower endogenous overproduction of calcitriol, prednisolone 20 mg/day for 10 days was administered at discharge time.

Keywords: vitamin D, hypercalcemia, vitamin D toxicity, parathyroid hormone

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517 Effect of High Dose of Vitamin C in Reduction Serum Uric Acid: a Comparative Study between Hyperuricemic and Gouty Patients in Jeddah

Authors: Firas S. Azzeh

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Background: Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin that is necessary for normal growth and development. Hyperuricemia is commonly detected in subjects with abnormal purine metabolism. Prolonged hyperuricemia is an important risk factor for damaged joint and often associated with gout. Objectives: To compare the effect of high dose of vitamin C supplements on uric acid treatment between hyperuricemic and gouty patients in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, as well as finding out the effect of vitamin C on serum creatinine level and glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Subjects and Methods: This comparative study started on April 2013 and lasted tells March 2014. A convenience sample of 30 adults was recruited in this study from Doctor Abdulrahman Taha Bakhsh Hospital in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Eligible persons were assigned into two study groups; hyperuricemic (n=15) and gouty (n=15) groups. Subjects have been accepted for participating in the study after completing the consent form. Each participant consumed 500 mg/day vitamin C chew able tablets. All participants have been followed-up for 2 months. Twelve hours fasting blood samples have been collected 3 times from each participant during the study period; at the beginning before and retested after each month of the study period. Uric acid, serum creatinine and GFR were measured. Results: For gouty group, uric acid increased insignificantly after 2 months by about +0.3 mg/dl. On the other hand, hyperuricemic group showed decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in uric acid after 2 months of study period by about -0.78 mg/dl. Serum creatinine level insignificantly decreased for all participants during the study period, which leaded to insignificant increase in GFR for all participants. Conclusion: Supplementation with 500 mg/day vitamin C for 2 months significantly reduced serum uric acid for hyperuricemic patients and insignificantly increased serum uric acid for gouty patients. The ineffectiveness of vitamin C supplements on patients with established gout could be related to a number of potential reasons.

Keywords: vitamin c, Hyperuricemia, gout, creatinine, GFR

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516 Oral Supplementation of Sweet Orange Extract “Citrus Sinensis” as Substitute for Synthetic Vitamin C on Transported Pullets in Humid Tropics

Authors: Mathew O. Ayoola, Foluke Aderemi, Tunde E. Lawal, Opeyemi Oladejo, Micheal A. Abiola

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Food animals reared for meat require transportation during their life cycle. The transportation procedures could initiate stressors capable of disrupting the physiological homeostasis. Such stressors associated with transportation may include; loading and unloading, crowding, environmental temperature, fear, vehicle motion/vibration, feed / water deprivation, and length of travel. This may cause oxidative stress and damage to excess free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS). In recent years, the application of natural products as a substitute for synthetic electrolytes and tranquilizers as anti-stress agents during the transportation is yet under investigation. Sweet orange, a predominant fruit in humid tropics, has been reported to have a good content of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid). Vitamin C, which is an active ingredient in orange juice, plays a major role in the biosynthesis of Corticosterone, a hormone that enhances energy supply during transportation and heat stress. Ninety-six, 15weeks, Isa brown pullets were allotted to four (4) oral treatments; sterile water (T1), synthetic vit C (T2), 30ml orange/liter of water (T3), 50ml orange/1 liter (T4). Physiological parameters; body temperature (BTC), rectal temperature (RTC), respiratory rate (RR), and panting rate (PR) were measured pre and post-transportation. The birds were transported with a specialized vehicle for a distance of 50km at a speed of 60 km/hr. The average environmental THI and within the vehicle was 81.8 and 74.6, respectively, and the average wind speed was 11km/hr. Treatments and periods had a significant (p>0.05) effect on all the physiological parameters investigated. Birds on T1 are significantly (p<0.05) different as compared to T2, T3, and T4. Values recorded post-transportation are significantly (p<0.05) higher as compared to pre-transportation for all parameters. In conclusion, this study showed that transportation as a stressor can affect the physiological homeostasis of pullets. Oral supplementation of electrolytes or tranquilizers is essential as an anti-stress during transportation. The application of the organic product in form of sweet orange could serve as a suitable alternative for the synthetic vitamin C.

Keywords: physiological, pullets, sweet orange, transportation stress, and vitamin C

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
515 Effects of Oral Resveratrol Supplementation on Inflammation and Quality of Life in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

Authors: M. Samsami, A. Hekmatdoost, N. Ebrahimi Daryani, P. Rezanejad Asl

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Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease in which immune and inflammatory factors are thought to be effective in this disease. Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound. This study determined the effects of resveratrol compound on inflammatory factors in patients with ulcerative colitis. This study was a double-blind randomized clinical trial conducted on 50 patients with UC. Subjects received one capsule daily for 6 wk of either resveratrol (500 mg) or a placebo. Inflammatory factors, anthropometric measures, and IBDQ-9 (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire-9) scores were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. STATA12 software was used for data analysis. No significant differences were found in the background variables between the two groups at baseline. The results indicated that resveratrol supplementation for 6 week significantly decreased plasma levels of TNF-a and hs-CRP and the activity of NF-κB over the placebo group (p<0.001). Significant differences remained after adjustment for vitamin C (p<0.0001). The IBDQ-9 scores increased significantly in the resveratrol group over the placebo group (p<0.001). The findings of this study showed that resveratrol supplementation can be useful in patients with ulcerative colitis.

Keywords: IBD, inflammation, resveratrol, ulcerative colitis

Procedia PDF Downloads 293