Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 405

Search results for: turnover intentions

405 Work Engagement Reducing Employee Turnover Intentions in Telecommunication Sector: The Moderator Role of Human Resource Development Climate between Work Engagement and Turnover Intentions

Authors: Pirzada Sami Ullah Sabri

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The present study examines the relationship between work engagement (WE) and employee turnover intentions (TI) in telecommunication sector using human resource development climate (HRDC) as a moderator. Based on 538 employees of telecommunication sector Hierarchal regression analysis is employed to examine the influence of HRDC on the relationship of work engagement and turnover intentions. The result indicates the negative correlation between work engagement and turnover intentions; HRD climate support as a powerful moderator increases the work engagement and lessens the turnover intentions. The study shows the importance of favorable and supportive HRD climate which foster the work engagement of the employees in the organization. By understanding the importance of human resource development climate and work engagement in reducing the turnover intentions can increase the productivity and performance of the organization.

Keywords: turnover intentions, work engagement, human resource development, climate, hierarchal regression analysis, telecommunication sector

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404 The Influence of Workplace Aggression on Employee Turnover Intention

Authors: Nimra Parvez, Nawaz Ahmed

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Workplace aggression not only is a proven safety and health issue but it also is a problem witnessed at workplace which has far-reaching consequences. It hinders the overall productivity of the organizations and individual employees. The current study examined employee turnover intentions as a result of workplace aggression. The study was conducted on employees from the private sector. Self-report questionnaires that measured the workplace aggression and turnover intentions of employees were used to target a sample size of 200 employees. In the hypothesis, it was assumed that high levels of workplace aggression at any organization will result in subsequent high levels of employee turnover intentions. It was therefore identified that there has been a relationship between workplace aggression and employee turnover intentions. The results determined a positive relationship between the workplace bullying behaviors towards the individuals and the turnover intention.

Keywords: bullying, organizational commitment, turnover intention, workplace aggression

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403 Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Employee Engagement in Determining Turnover Intentions of Employees

Authors: Prashant Das, Tushar Singh, Virendra Byadwal

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The present study attempted to understand the role of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement in predicting employees’ turnover intentions. Employee turnover is a significant problem that many organizations are facing these days. Employee turnover is not only extremely expensive for the employer but also results in poor production levels. In developing countries like India, organizations once believed to have most stable employees, are facing major turnover problems. One such organization is banking organizations. Due to globalization, banks are now changing their work scenarios under which the employees have many different roles to perform. Cognitive flexibility which refers to an individual’s ability to shift cognitive sets and to adapt to one’s changing environment, thus seems to be an important factor that are responsible for the employee turnover in organizations. It is hypothesized that those with higher cognitive flexibility would be more able to adapt to the changing work demands of the organizations and thus would show less turnover intentions. Another factor that seems to be important in predicting turnover is employee engagement. Kahn referred to engagement in terms of the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles [by which they] employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances. Studies have shown a strong relationship between employee engagement and turnover intentions. Those with higher engagement with their jobs have found to show low turnover intentions. This study thus hypothesizes that employees with higher engagement will show lower levels of turnover intentions. A total of 150 bank employees (75 from private and 75 from public) participated in this study. They were administered Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Gallup Questionnaire and Intention to Stay Questionnaire along with another questionnaire asking for their demographic details. Results of the study revealed that employees with higher levels of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement show lover levels of turnover intentions. However, the effect is more prominent in case of employees of private banks. Demographic characteristics such as level of the employee and years of engagement in the current job have also been found to be influencing the relationship between cognitive flexibility, employee engagement and turnover intentions. Results of the study are interpreted in accordance to the prevalent literature and theoretical positions.

Keywords: cognitive flexibility, employee engagement, organization, turnover intentions

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402 The Effect of Socio-Affective Variables in the Relationship between Organizational Trust and Employee Turnover Intention

Authors: Paula A. Cruise, Carvell McLeary

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Employee turnover leads to lowered productivity, decreased morale and work quality, and psychological effects associated with employee separation and replacement. Yet, it remains unknown why talented employees willingly withdraw from organizations. This uncertainty is worsened as studies; a) priorities organizational over individual predictors resulting in restriction in range in turnover measurement; b) focus on actual rather than intended turnover thereby limiting conceptual understanding of the turnover construct and its relationship with other variables and; c) produce inconsistent findings across cultures, contexts and industries despite a clear need for a unified perspective. The current study addressed these gaps by adopting the theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework to examine socio-cognitive factors in organizational trust and individual turnover intentions among bankers and energy employees in Jamaica. In a comparative study of n=369 [nbank= 264; male=57 (22.73%); nenergy =105; male =45 (42.86)], it was hypothesized that organizational trust was a predictor of employee turnover intention, and the effect of individual, group, cognitive and socio-affective variables varied across industry. Findings from structural equation modelling confirmed the hypothesis, with a model of both cognitive and socio-affective variables being a better fit [CMIN (χ2) = 800.067, df = 364, p ≤ .000; CFI = 0.950; RMSEA = 0.057 with 90% C.I. (0.052 - 0.062); PCLOSE = 0.016; PNFI = 0.818 in predicting turnover intention. The findings are discussed in relation to socio-cognitive components of trust models and predicting negative employee behaviors across cultures and industries.

Keywords: context-specific organizational trust, cross-cultural psychology, theory of planned behavior, employee turnover intention

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401 Determining Antecedents of Employee Turnover: A Study on Blue Collar vs White Collar Workers on Marco Level

Authors: Evy Rombaut, Marie-Anne Guerry

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Predicting voluntary turnover of employees is an important topic of study, both in academia and industry. Researchers try to uncover determinants for a broader understanding and possible prevention of turnover. In the current study, we use a data set based approach to reveal determinants for turnover, differing for blue and white collar workers. Our data set based approach made it possible to study actual turnover for more than 500000 employees in 15692 Belgian corporations. We use logistic regression to calculate individual turnover probabilities and test the goodness of our model with the AUC (area under the ROC-curve) method. The results of the study confirm the relationship of known determinants to employee turnover such as age, seniority, pay and work distance. In addition, the study unravels unknown and verifies known differences between blue and white collar workers. It shows opposite relationships to turnover for gender, marital status, the number of children, nationality, and pay.

Keywords: employee turnover, blue collar, white collar, dataset analysis

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400 A Review of Existing Turnover Intention Theories

Authors: Pauline E. Ngo-Henha

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Existing turnover intention theories are reviewed in this paper. This review was conducted with the help of the search keyword “turnover intention theories” in Google Scholar during the month of July 2017. These theories include: The Theory of Organizational Equilibrium (TOE), Social Exchange Theory, Job Embeddedness Theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory, the Resource-Based View, Equity Theory, Human Capital Theory, and the Expectancy Theory. One of the limitations of this review paper is that data were only collected from Google Scholar where many papers were sometimes not freely accessible. However, this paper attempts to contribute to the research in clarifying the distinction between theories and models in the context of turnover intention.

Keywords: Literature Review, Theory, Turnover, Turnover intention

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399 Leadership Authenticity and Burnout: A Literature Review

Authors: Casey Gibson, Perry Haan

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A primary driver to the increase of voluntary turnover is occupational burnout. The “Great Resignation” is causing employers to rethink their approach to reducing voluntary turnover, and subsequently reduce risks of burnout. A literature review was conducted to determine a correlation between the trust between untrusted leaders and an increase in burnout. It was found that authentic leadership greatly reduces the likelihood of burnout, and thus voluntary turnover. Further, it was found that distrust between an employee and his or her leader can amplify feelings of occupational burnout.

Keywords: burnout, leadership, authenticity, stress, turnover

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398 Looking Elsewhere for Job: Relationship between Procedural Justice and Survivors’ Turnover Intent in Consolidated Nigeria Banks

Authors: Fasanmi Samuel Sunday

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The study examines the relationship between procedural justice and turnover intent among survivors in a consolidated Nigeria bank. Opinions of eight hundred and eighty five staff of First City Monumental Bank and Finbank who survived the consolidated process were conveniently sampled using battery of tests. Two hypotheses were tested for this study. Results revealed that procedural justice and demographic variables (sex, age, previous banking job experience, and year of work experience) were significantly, independently and jointly influence turnover intent among survivors in consolidated banks in Nigeria. Also, there was a significant relationship between procedural justice and turnover intent among survivors in a consolidated bank in Nigeria. It was recommended that if the workers perceived the process of downsizing to be fair, they tend to reason with their management and coast along with the process rather than increasing in their turnover intent which will eventually drastically reduce the profitability matrix which the banks desired so desperately.

Keywords: bankers, procedural justice, sex, turnover intent

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397 Did Nature of Job Matters - Impact of Perceived Job Autonomy on Turnover Intention in Sales and Marketing Managers: Moderating Effect of Procedural and Distributive Justice

Authors: Muhammad Babar Shahzad

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The purpose of our study is to investigate the relationship between perceived job autonomy and turnover intention in sales & marketing staff. Perceived job autonomy is considered one of most studied dimension of Job Characteristic Model. But still there is a confusion in scholars about predictive role of perceived job autonomy in turnover intention. In line of more complex research on this relation, we investigated the relationship between perceived job autonomy and turnover intention. Did nature of job have any impact on this relationship. On the call of different authors we take interactive effect of perceived job autonomy and procedural justice on turnover intention. Predictive role of distributive justice to employee outcomes is not deniable. But predictive role of distributive justice will be prone in different contextual influences. Interactive role of distributive justice and perceived job autonomy is also not tested before. We collected date from 279 marketing and sales managers working in financial institution, FMCG industries, Pharamesutical Industry & Bank. Strong and direct negative relation was found in perceived job autonomy, distributive justice & procedural justice on turnover intention. Distributive and procedural justice is also amplifying the negative relationship of perceived job autonomy and turnover intention. Limitation and future direction for research is also discussed.

Keywords: perceived job autonomy, turnover intention, procedural justice, distributive job

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396 Factor Influencing Pharmacist Engagement and Turnover Intention in Thai Community Pharmacist: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach

Authors: T. Nakpun, T. Kanjanarach, T. Kittisopee

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Turnover of community pharmacist can affect continuity of patient care and most importantly the quality of care and also the costs of a pharmacy. It was hypothesized that organizational resources, job characteristics, and social supports had direct effect on pharmacist turnover intention, and indirect effect on pharmacist turnover intention via pharmacist engagement. This research aimed to study influencing factors on pharmacist engagement and pharmacist turnover intention by testing the proposed structural hypothesized model to explain the relationship among organizational resources, job characteristics, and social supports that effect on pharmacist turnover intention and pharmacist engagement in Thai community pharmacists. A cross sectional study design with self-administered questionnaire was conducted in 209 Thai community pharmacists. Data were analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling technique with analysis of a moment structures AMOS program. The final model showed that only organizational resources had significant negative direct effect on pharmacist turnover intention (β =-0.45). Job characteristics and social supports had significant positive relationship with pharmacist engagement (β = 0.44, and 0.55 respectively). Pharmacist engagement had significant negative relationship with pharmacist turnover intention (β = - 0.24). Thus, job characteristics and social supports had significant negative indirect effect on turnover intention via pharmacist engagement (β =-0.11 and -0.13, respectively). The model fit the data well (χ2/ degree of freedom (DF) = 2.12, the goodness of fit index (GFI)=0.89, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.94 and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.07). This study can be concluded that organizational resources were the most important factor because it had direct effect on pharmacist turnover intention. Job characteristics and social supports were also help decrease pharmacist turnover intention via pharmacist engagement.

Keywords: community pharmacist, influencing factor, turnover intention, work engagement

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395 Examining the Impact of Training on Turnover Intention in Project-Based Organizations

Authors: Muhammad Safder Shafi, Uzma Javed, Tooba Qasim

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The purpose of this paper is to find out the relationship between training and turnover intention in the presence of mediating variables promotion opportunities and job satisfaction among IT professionals in project based industry. It investigates the relationship directly between 1 independent variable training and dependent variable turnover intention. It also investigates the relationship between independent variable to the mediating variables and mediating variables to the turnover intention. Promotion opportunities and job satisfaction act as a mediator. The study sample comprised of 186 IT professionals from Pakistan, who work on different IT projects. Linear regression and Baron and Kenny approach were used to test the direct and mediated relationship between variables. The survey results demonstrated that job satisfaction fully mediate the relationship between promotion opportunities and turnover intention. Promotion opportunities fully mediate the relationship between employee training and job satisfaction. Promotion opportunities and job satisfaction mediates the relationship between training and turnover intention. The findings from the collected data may help top management to improve organizational strategies to cope up with improving different HR practices like training, pay structure and promotions in order to retain their workforce.

Keywords: HCT, SET, career growth opportunities, job satisfaction, training, turnover intention

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394 Predicting Entrepreneurial Intentions among Undergraduates Using Theory of Planned Behaviour

Authors: Mohammed Abubakar Mawoli

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Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is a useful tool for predicting entrepreneurial intentions among individuals or groups of people. In view of the Nigerian government’s renewed educational policies and programs to prepare Nigerian undergraduates towards self-reliance and employers of labor after graduation, it becomes pertinent to empirically examine and predict the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions at graduation. Thus, this study primarily examines the undergraduates entrepreneurial intentions using TPB, which includes perceived desirability, perceived social norm, and perceived feasibility factors. In so doing, a questionnaire research method was adopted in which 219 copies of a questionnaire distributed to final year undergraduates were belonging to five departments with a total population of 487 students. A combination of relative frequency, mean standard deviation and multiple regression statistical tools were employed for data analysis. The study found that TPB components exert a significant composite effect on undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions. Based on individual contribution of the independent variables, Perceived Desirability is the strongest predictor of the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions, while Perceived Social Norm is a strong predictor of the undergraduate’s entrepreneurial intentions. However, Perceived Feasibility is not a strong predictor of student’s entrepreneurial intentions. The study therefore, recommends that the Perceived desirability, which is formed and shaped by ones level of education and skills acquisition, be improved upon to create the expected positive impact on graduates entrepreneurial intentions and possible venture creation.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial intentions, planned behaviour, prediction, Nigeria

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393 The Effects of Perceived Organizational Support and Abusive Supervision on Employee’s Turnover Intention: The Mediating Roles of Psychological Contract and Emotional Exhaustion

Authors: Seung Yeon Son

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Workers (especially, competent personnel) have been recognized as a core contributor to overall organizational effectiveness. Hence, verifying the determinants of turnover intention is one of the most important research issues. This study tested the influence of perceived organizational support and abusive supervision on employee’s turnover intention. In addition, mediating roles of psychological contract and emotional exhaustion were examined. Data from 255 Korean employees supported all hypotheses Implications for research and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: abusive supervision, emotional exhaustion, perceived organizational support, psychological contract, turnover intention

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392 Classification Method for Turnover While Sleeping Using Multi-Point Unconstrained Sensing Devices

Authors: K. Shiba, T. Kobayashi, T. Kaburagi, Y. Kurihara

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Elderly population in the world is increasing, and consequently, their nursing burden is also increasing. In such situations, monitoring and evaluating their daily action facilitates efficient nursing care. Especially, we focus on an unconscious activity during sleep, i.e. turnover. Monitoring turnover during sleep is essential to evaluate various conditions related to sleep. Bedsores are considered as one of the monitoring conditions. Changing patient’s posture every two hours is required for caregivers to prevent bedsore. Herein, we attempt to develop an unconstrained nocturnal monitoring system using a sensing device based on piezoelectric ceramics that can detect the vibrations owing to human body movement on the bed. In the proposed method, in order to construct a multi-points sensing, we placed two sensing devices under the right and left legs at the head-side of an ordinary bed. Using this equipment, when a subject lies on the bed, feature is calculated from the output voltages of the sensing devices. In order to evaluate our proposed method, we conducted an experiment with six healthy male subjects. Consequently, the period during which turnover occurs can be correctly classified as the turnover period with 100% accuracy.

Keywords: turnover, piezoelectric ceramics, multi-points sensing, unconstrained monitoring system

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391 Interaction between Mutual Fund Performance and Portfolio Turnover

Authors: Sheng-Ching Wu

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This paper examines the interaction between mutual fund performance and portfolio turnover. Active trading could affect fund performance, but underperforming funds could also be traded actively at the same time to perform well. Therefore, we used two-stage least squares to address with simultaneity. The results indicate that funds with higher portfolio turnovers exhibit inferior performance compared with funds having lower turnovers. Moreover, funds with poor performance exhibit higher portfolio turnover. The findings support the assumptions that active trading erodes performance, and that fund managers with poor performance attempt to trade actively to retain employment.

Keywords: mutual funds, portfolio turnover, simultaneity, two-stage least squares

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390 Behavioral Intentions and Cognitive-Affective Effects of Exposure to YouTube Advertisements among College Students

Authors: Abd El-Basit Ahmed Hashem Mahmoud, Othman Fekry Abdelbaki

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This study attempts to investigate the exposure to YouTube ads among Egyptian college students, their attitudes towards these ads, behavioral intentions to watch them, and the effects of this exposure and to examine the relationships among these variables as well. The current study is theoretically guided by the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and cognitive-affective behavioral model (CAB) through a questionnaire survey administered to a convenience sample of 390 college students who watch YouTube videos from Cairo University, Egypt from February to May 2019. The results showed that 98.7% of respondents exposed to YouTube ads, and both of their attitudes towards YouTube ads exposure and their intentions to this exposure were moderately positive. The findings also indicated that respondents' gender had a significant impact on their intention to expose these ads. One-way ANOVA indicated that their attitudes towards exposure to YouTube ads influenced their behavioral intentions to watch these ads, and it also demonstrated that their behavioral intentions to watch these ads had an impact on the exposure to such ads. Pearson correlation revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between respondents' attitudes towards YouTube ads exposure and the cognitive, affective, and behavioral effects of this exposure.

Keywords: attitudes, behavioral intentions, theory of reasoned action, YouTube ads

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389 The Mediating Impact of Entrepreneurial Alertness on Relationship between Entrepreneurial Education and Intentions

Authors: Altaf Hussain, Norashidah Hashim

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An important aspect needed for promoting entrepreneurship is to encourage individuals for becoming entrepreneurs by endowing them with the required skills and knowledge for identifying the opportunities and turning these opportunities into successful ventures. Literature has recognized entrepreneurship education has significant role in motivating individual’s intention to become an entrepreneurs. Developing upon the insights based on dynamic view of human capital theory, this conceptual paper explores the role of entrepreneurial alertness in a linkage between entrepreneurial education and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Prior knowledge which can be acquired through entrepreneurship education and or experience is an antecedent for developing specific human capital of alertness for identifying the opportunities which impact on individual intentions. This suggests cause & effect relationship between entrepreneurship education and intentions through entrepreneurial alertness by impacting on the attitude, social norms and perceived behavioral control of an individual which can motivate individual intention of becoming an entrepreneur. Thus, alertness skill acquired through entrepreneurship education for identifying the profitable opportunities mediates the relationship between entrepreneurship education and intentions.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship education, alertness, intentions, human capital

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388 The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support and Leader Member Exchange on Turnover Intention: A Field Study in the Healthcare Industry

Authors: Mehtap Öztürk, Adem Öğüt, Emine Öğüt

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Leader member exchange is considered as relationship-based approach to leadership. The focal point of this theory is that effective leadership processes occur when leaders and followers are able to develop mature leadership relationships and thus gain access to a variety of benefits these relationships bring. In this context, it can be claimed that the quality of leader member exchange appears to have a strong affect on perceived organizational support and reduce turnover intention. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between the levels of leader member exchange, perceived organizational support and turnover intention on the employees of a health institution operating in the province of Konya. A field study based on survey method on 134 physicians who are employees of a health institution operating in the mentioned sample. In accordance with this purpose, it has been observed that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between leader member exchange and turnover intention. Furthermore, it has been also realized that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between perceived organizational support and turnover intention.

Keywords: leader member exchange, perceived organizational support, social exchange theory, turnover intention

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387 Investigating the Relationship between Job Satisfaction, Role Identity, and Turnover Intention for Nurses in Outpatient Department

Authors: Su Hui Tsai, Weir Sen Lin, Rhay Hung Weng

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There are numerous outpatient departments at hospitals with enormous amounts of outpatients. Although the work of outpatient nursing staff does not include the ward, emergency and critical care units that involve patient life-threatening conditions, the work is cumbersome and requires facing and dealing with a large number of outpatients in a short period of time. Therefore, nursing staff often do not feel satisfied with their work and cannot identify with their professional role, leading to intentions to leave their job. Thus, the main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between the job satisfaction and role identity of nursing staff with turnover intention. This research was conducted using a questionnaire, and the subjects were outpatient nursing staff in three regional hospitals in Southern Taiwan. A total of 175 questionnaires were distributed, and 166 valid questionnaires were returned. After collecting the data, the reliability and validity of the study variables were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The influence of role identity and job satisfaction on nursing staff’s turnover intention was analyzed by descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that 'role identity' had significant differences in different types of marriages. Job satisfaction of 'grasp of environment' had significant differences in different levels of education. Job satisfaction of 'professional growth' and 'shifts and days off' showed significant differences in different types of marriages. 'Role identity' and 'job satisfaction' were negatively correlated with turnover intention respectively. Job satisfaction of 'salary and benefits' and 'grasp of environment' were significant predictors of role identity. The higher the job satisfaction of 'salary and benefits' and 'grasp of environment', the higher the role identity. Job satisfaction of 'patient and family interaction' were significant predictors of turnover intention. The lower the job satisfaction of 'patient and family interaction', the higher the turnover intention. This study found that outpatient nursing staff had the lowest satisfaction towards salary structure. It is recommended that bonuses, promotion opportunities and other incentives be established to increase the role identity of outpatient nursing staff. The results showed that the higher the job satisfaction of 'salary and benefits' and 'grasp of environment', the higher the role identity. It is recommended that regular evaluations be conducted to reward nursing staff with excellent service and invite nursing staff to share their work experiences and thoughts, to enhance nursing staff’s expectation and identification of their occupational role, as well as instilling the concept of organizational service and organizational expectations of emotional display. The results showed that the lower the job satisfaction of 'patient and family interaction', the higher the turnover intention. It is recommended that interpersonal communication and workplace violence prevention educational training courses be organized to enhance the communication and interaction of nursing staff with patients and their families.

Keywords: outpatient, job satisfaction, turnover, intention

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386 Emotional Labor Strategies and Intentions to Quit among Nurses in Pakistan

Authors: Maham Malik, Amjad Ali, Muhammad Asif

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Current study aims to examine the relationship of emotional labor strategies - deep acting and surface acting - with employees' job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intentions to quit. The study also examines the mediating role of job satisfaction and organizational commitment for relationship of emotional labor strategies with intentions to quit. Data were conveniently collected from 307 nurses by using self-administered questionnaire. Linear regression test was applied to find the relationship between the variables. Mediation was checked through Baron and Kenny Model and Sobel test. Results prove the existence of partial mediation of job satisfaction between the emotional labor strategies and quitting intentions. The study recommends that deep acting should be promoted because it is positively associated with quality of work life, work engagement and organizational citizenship behavior of employees.

Keywords: emotional labor strategies, intentions to quit, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, nursing

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385 Institutional Levels Entrepreneurial Orientations and Social Entrepreneurial Intentions: Understanding the Mediating Role of Empathy

Authors: Paulson Young Ofenimu Okhawere

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Research suggests that the main trait differentiating social entrepreneurs from traditional entrepreneurs is empathy. And although prior research has established the relevance of empathy in predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in different contexts, its usefulness at predicting social entrepreneurial intentions in emerging economy like Nigeria is yet to be well established. Whereas, it is well known that students in tertiary institutions in Nigeria (e.g. Universities, Polytechnics, and Colleges of Education) are given entrepreneurial orientations by being made to offer compulsory courses in entrepreneurship, research focusing on the effect of such students’ entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial intentions is scant. To address this gap in the entrepreneurship literature, this study attempts to enhance our understanding by focusing on students selected from one University of Technology, one Polytechnic, and one College of Education in Niger State of Nigeria. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the mechanism through which students’ institutional level entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions and the role empathy plays in this relationship. Building on complexity theory (Satish & Streufert, 2003, 2001), this study proposes empathy as a proximal antecedent of social entrepreneurial intentions and that it is the mechanism through which the students’ entrepreneurial orientations affect their social entrepreneurial intentions. Data collected from 598 respondents were analyzed using multilevel structural equation modelling with Mplus version 7.3. The findings reveal that (i) although students’ entrepreneurial orientation directly relates to their social entrepreneurial intentions, this relationship differs according to the kind of institution; and (ii) students’ entrepreneurial orientations positively relates to social entrepreneurial intentions indirectly through empathy. Finally, the paper discusses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings, highlights the study’s strengths and limitations, and then maps out some directions for future research.

Keywords: institutional level, entrepreneurial orientation, empathy, social entrepreneurial intentions

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384 Tax Avoidance and Leadership Replacement: Moderating Influence of Ownership and Political Connections

Authors: Radwan Hussien Alkebsee

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Under the argument that reputational costs deter firms from engaging in tax avoidance activities, this paper investigates the relationship between tax avoidance and forced CEO turnover. This study is based on a broad sample of Chinese listed companies spanning the period 2011 to 2018. The findings reveal that tax avoidance is positively associated with forced CEO turnover. This suggests that firms that engage in tax avoidance experience a high rate of leadership replacement. The findings also reveal that the positive association between tax avoidance and forced CEO turnover is pronounced for state-owned firms, firms with no political connections, and firms located in “more developed” regions with extensive tax enforcement action, while it is not for private firms, firms with political connections, and firms located in “less developed” regions with weak tax enforcement actions. The baseline results remain consistent and robust for endogeneity concerns.

Keywords: tax avoidance, CEO turnover, political connections, regional tax enforcement, China

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383 Employment Mobility and the Effects of Wage Level and Tenure

Authors: Idit Kalisher, Israel Luski

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One result of the growing dynamicity of labor markets in recent decades is a wider scope of employment mobility – i.e., transitions between employers, either within or between careers. Employment mobility decisions are primarily affected by the current employment status of the worker, which is reflected in wage and tenure. Using 34,328 observations from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLS79), which were derived from the USA population between 1990 and 2012, this paper aims to investigate the effects of wage and tenure over employment mobility choices, and additionally to examine the effects of other personal characteristics, individual labor market characteristics and macroeconomic factors. The estimation strategy was designed to address two challenges that arise from the combination of the model and the data: (a) endogeneity of the wage and the tenure in the choice equation; and (b) unobserved heterogeneity, as the data of this research is longitudinal. To address (a), estimation was performed using two-stage limited dependent variable procedure (2SLDV); and to address (b), the second stage was estimated using femlogit – an implementation of the multinomial logit model with fixed effects. Among workers who have experienced at least one turnover, the wage was found to have a main effect on career turnover likelihood of all workers, whereas the wage effect on job turnover likelihood was found to be dependent on individual characteristics. The wage was found to negatively affect the turnover likelihood and the effect was found to vary across wage level: high-wage workers were more affected compared to low-wage workers. Tenure was found to have a main positive effect on both turnover types’ likelihoods, though the effect was moderated by the wage. The findings also reveal that as their wage increases, women are more likely to turnover than men, and academically educated workers are more likely to turnover within careers. Minorities were found to be as likely as Caucasians to turnover post wage-increase, but less likely to turnover with each additional tenure year. The wage and the tenure effects were found to vary also between careers. The difference in attitude towards money, labor market opportunities and risk aversion could explain these findings. Additionally, the likelihood of a turnover was found to be affected by previous unemployment spells, age, and other labor market and personal characteristics. The results of this research could assist policymakers as well as business owners and employers. The former may be able to encourage women and older workers’ employment by considering the effects of gender and age on the probability of a turnover, and the latter may be able to assess their employees’ likelihood of a turnover by considering the effects of their personal characteristics.

Keywords: employment mobility, endogeneity, femlogit, turnover

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382 Families’ Entrepreneurial Background as a Moderator between Entrepreneurial Intentions and Its Antecedents among Undergraduate Students in Ethiopia

Authors: Messele Kumilachew Aga, Amanpreet Singh

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This study investigates the effect of attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on entrepreneurial intentions and examines the moderating role of families’ entrepreneurial background in this causal relationship. Three hundred thirty-five undergraduate students from four universities in Ethiopia filled and returned a self-administrated questionnaire which was analyzed through independent sample t-test and process macro. The result obtained indicated that there was no mean difference in entrepreneurial intentions and its antecedents between students who have families with an entrepreneurial background and not. Besides, the study shows that families’ entrepreneurial background has no moderating effect on entrepreneurial intentions due to attitude toward entrepreneurship, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Hence, the study suggests no need of considering families’ entrepreneurial background in nurturing entrepreneurship for undergraduate students in Ethiopian universities.

Keywords: attitude toward entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial intentions, families’ entrepreneurial background, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm

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381 Employees Retention through Effective HR Practices

Authors: Choi Sang Long

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It is vital for Human Resource (HR) managers to address and overcome employees’ turnover intention in their organization. Ability to keep good employees is critical for ensuring success of the organization in future. People are seeking many ways of live that is meaningful and less complicated and this new lifestyle actually has an impact on how an employee must be motivated and managed. Therefore, this paper discusses extensively on the impact of human resource practices that can alter the negative effect on the organization due to high employees’ turnover. These critical practices are employees’ career development, performance management, training and a fair compensation scheme.

Keywords: turnover intention, career development, performance management, compensation, human resource management, organization

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380 Optimism and Entrepreneurial Intentions: The Mediating Role of Emotional Intelligence

Authors: Neta Kela Madar, Tali Teeni-Harari, Tamar Icekson, Yaron Sela

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This paper proposes and empirically tests a theoretical model positing relationships between dispositional optimism, emotional intelligence, and entrepreneurial intention. To author's best knowledge, this study examined for the first time the role of dispositional optimism together with emotional intelligence as predictors of entrepreneurial intentions. The study findings suggest that optimism may increase entrepreneurial intentions indirectly by enhancing emotional intelligence/ model formulation is based on a random survey of students (N= 227). Model parameter estimation was supported by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results indicate that students’ optimism and emotional intelligence are associated with increased levels of entrepreneurial intention. Additionally, the present study argues that emotional intelligence mediates the positive relationship between optimism and entrepreneurial intention. Theoretical and practical implications of this model are discussed.

Keywords: entrepreneurial intentions, emotional intelligence, optimism, dispositional optimism

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379 Using Internal Marketing to Investigate Nursing Staff Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Tsung Chin Wu, Yu Chen Tsai, Rhay Hung Weng, Weir Sen Lin

Abstract:

In recent years, nursing staff’s lower job satisfaction has led to higher turnover rates, and high turnover rates not only cause medical institution costs to increase but also the quality of medical care to decrease. From the perspective of internal marketing, institution staffs are internal customers, and institutions should focus and meet the needs of staff, so that staff will strive to meet the needs of external customers and provide them with the required care. However, few previous studies have investigated the impact of internal staff satisfaction on external customers. Therefore, this study aimed to conduct job satisfaction surveys on internal staff to investigate the relationship between job satisfaction and quality of medical care through statistical analysis of the study results. The related study results may serve as a reference for healthcare managers. This study was conducted using a questionnaire and the subjects were nursing staff from four hospitals. A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed and 577 valid questionnaires were returned with a response rate of 96.1%. After collecting the data, the reliability and validity of the study variables were confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis. The impact of internal marketing and job satisfaction on turnover intention of nursing staff was analyzed using descriptive analysis, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis. The study results showed that there was a significant difference between nursing staff’s job title and ‘professional participation’ and ‘shifts’. There was a significant difference between salary and ‘shifts’ and ‘turnover intention’, as well as between marriage and ‘remuneration’ and ‘turnover intention’. A significant difference was found between professional advancement and ‘professional growth’ and ‘type of leave’, as well as between division of service and ‘shifts’ and ‘turnover intention’. Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between turnover intention and ‘internal marketing’, ‘interaction’, ‘professional participation’, ‘grasp of environment’, ‘remuneration’ and ‘shifts’, meaning that the higher the satisfaction, the lower the turnover intention. It is recommended that hospitals establish a comprehensive internal marketing mechanism to enhance staff satisfaction and in turn, reduce intention to resign, and the key to increasing job satisfaction is by establishing effective methods of internal communication.

Keywords: internal marketing, job satisfaction, turnover intention, nursing staff

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378 The Effect of Diversity Sensitive Orientation on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

Authors: Hyeondal Jeong, Yoonjung Baek

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of diversity sensitive orientation on job satisfaction and turnover intention. Diversity sensitive orientation is the attitude of the individual to respect and accommodate diversity. This is focused on an individual’s perception of diversity. Although being made from the most diversity related research team and organizational level, this study deals with diversity issues at the individual level. To test the proposed research model and hypothesis, the data were collected from 291 Korean employees. The study conducted a confirmatory factor analysis for the validity test. Furthermore, structural equation modeling (SEM) was employed to test the hypothesized relationship in the conceptual model. The results of this paper were as followings: First, diversity sensitive orientation was positively related to job satisfaction. Second, diversity sensitive orientation was negatively related to turnover intention. In other words, the positive influence of the diversity sensitive orientation has been verified. Based on the findings, this study suggested implications and directions for future research.

Keywords: diversity sensitive orientation, job satisfaction, turnover intention, perception, cognition

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377 The Impact of Employee Assistance Program on New Hire Well Being and Turnover

Authors: Steffira Anjani, Agnes Dessyana, Luciyana Lesmana

Abstract:

Employee well-being has been a major factor for employee to deliver optimal performance in the workplace. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a major concern for organizations to develop Employee Assistance Program as an approach to maintain employees’ well- being. However, there is little published evidence assessing the effectiveness of Employee Assistance Program for the employee’s well-being. The purpose of this paper is to advance theory and practice by understanding how the Employee Assistance Program (EAP) impacts to new hire well-being and turnover especially in private organization. This paper provides an intervention framework used on the onboarding program delivered to new employees. Researchers examined the impact of the intervention by analyzing the well-being score using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Researches also examined the percentage of recruitment quality index (RQI).

Keywords: employee assistance program, well-being, turnover, onboarding program

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376 The Relationship between HR Disclosure and Employee’s Turnover: Study on the Telecommunication Sector in Jordan

Authors: Dina Ahmed Alkhodary

Abstract:

Human Resources are the individual skills, knowledge, attitude, capabilities and experience collected to produce wealth to the company. Human Resource disclosure is the process of involving, reporting, and sharing the Investments made in the Human Resources of an Organization that such as organizations short goals and objectives, employees creation value, training and development plan are presently not accounted for in the conventional accounting practices which is importance nowadays to reduce the employee`s turnover. For the purpose of the study 3 telecommunications companies in Jordan have been selected. Telecommunication industry has been chosen for this study since it is a successful sector in Jordan and Human resource disclosure practices were adopted in all the selected companies and companies was aware to the HR practices. The objective of the study is to find out the HR disclosures practices of the telecommunication Companies in Jordan and to find the relationship between the HR Disclosures practices and employees’ turnover which has been measured by leaver proficiencies, remaining member proficiencies and the new comers proficiencies. The researcher has used the questioner to collect data for the research purpose. Results reveal that There are human resource disclosure practices in telecommunication companies in Jordan but in some areas only and has found There that there is a significant relationship between the human resource disclosure practices of the telecommunication companies in Jordan and Employees turnover. It is important to the companies to disclose more information and it’s important to the researchers to study the HR disclosure in the other industries in Jordan to increase the awareness about it.

Keywords: HR, disclosure, employee, turnover

Procedia PDF Downloads 232