Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6463

Search results for: knowledge workers

6463 Self-Efficacy, Self-Knowledge, Empathy and Psychological Well-Being as Predictors of Workers’ Job Performance in Food and Beverage Industries in the South-West, Nigeria

Authors: Michael Ayodeji Boyede


Studies have shown that workers’ job performance is very low in Nigeria, especially in the food and beverage industry. This trend had been partially attributed to low workers’ self-efficacy, poor self-knowledge, lack of empathy and poor psychological well-being. The descriptive survey design was adopted. Four factories were purposively selected from three states in Southwestern, Nigeria (Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States). Proportionate random sampling techniques were used in selecting 1,820 junior and supervisory cadre workers in Nestle Plc (369), Coca-Cola Plc (392), Cadbury Plc (443) and Nigeria Breweries (616). The five research instruments used were: Workers’ self-efficacy (r=0.81), Workers’ self-knowledge (r=0.78), Workers’ empathy (r=0.74), Workers’ psychological well-being (r=0.70) and Workers’ performance rating (r=0.72) scales. Quantitative data were analysed using Pearson product moment correlation, Multiple regression at 0.05 level of significance. Findings show that there were significant relationships between Workers’ job performance and self-efficacy (r=.56), self-knowledge (r=.54), Empathy (r=.55) and Psychological Well-being (r=.69) respectively. Self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy and psychological well-being jointly predict workers’ job performance (F (4,1815) = 491.05) accounting for 52.0% of its variance. Psychological well-being (B=.52). Self-efficacy (B=.10), self-knowledge (B=.11), empathy (B=. 09) had predictive relative weights on workers’ job performance. Inadequate knowledge and training of the supervisors led to a mismatch of workers thereby reducing workers’ job performance. High self-efficacy, empathy, psychological well-being and good self-knowledge influence workers job performance in the food and beverage industry. Based on the finding employers of labour should provide work environment that would enhance and promote the development of these factors among the workers.

Keywords: self-efficacy, self-knowledge, empathy, psychological well-being, job performance

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6462 The Relation of Water Intake with Level of Knowledge Related to Water Intake in Workers of Food Production Unit, Nutrition Installation at Puspa Hospital, Jakarta

Authors: Siti Rahmah Fitrianti, Mela Milani


Inadequate of water intake has negative effects on the health of the body, which can cause kidney failure and death. One of the factors that can affect someone intake of water is level of knowledge about the importance of water intake itself. A good knowledge of the daily water intake can increase the awareness of daily needed of water intake. Therefore, researchers initiated a study on the relationship of water intake to the level of knowledge related with water intake in food workers, at “Puspa” Hospital. Type of this research is quantitative research with cross-sectional approach. The research data was collected by measuring the independent and dependent variable at a time. This study took place in the food production unit of Nutrition Installation in "Puspa" Hospital, Jakarta in October 2016. The population target in this study were workers in food production unit aged 30-64 years. The instrument was a questionnaire question regarding water intake and 24 hours food recall. The result is 78.6% of respondents have less knowledge about the importance of water intake. Meanwhile, as many as 85.7% of respondents have adequate water intake. Tested by Chi-Square test, showed that no significant relationship between water intake with the level of knowledge related to water intake in workers of food production unit. Adequate intake of water in food workers commonly may be not caused by the level of knowledge related to water intake, but it may be cause of work environment factor which has a high temperature.

Keywords: food production unit, food workers, level of knowledge, water intake

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6461 Quality of Work Life of Alien Workers in Thailand

Authors: Chetsada Noknoi


This research aims to study the quality of life of alien workers in Thailand and to compare the quality of work life of alien workers based on personal factors and work factors. Data analysis is performed using frequencies, percentage, mean standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA. Findings will benefit to the relevant authorities to be aware of the quality of life of alien workers in Thailand. This will help to find ways to enhance the quality of life of alien workers. It also brings awareness to the problems and obstacles that alien workers face in their work and life. It is a strategic approach to improve the management of the country's alien workers to be more efficient and effective. Moreover, the knowledge can be the basis of service to the society in different ways.

Keywords: quality of work life, alien worker, contemporary marketing, management

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6460 Contextual Enablers and Behaviour Outputs for Action of Knowledge Workers

Authors: Juan-Gabriel Cegarra-Navarro, Alexeis Garcia-Perez, Denise Bedford


This paper provides guidelines for what constitutes a knowledge worker. Many graduates from non-managerial domains adopt, at some point in their professional careers, management roles at different levels, ranging from team leaders through to executive leadership. This is particularly relevant for professionals from an engineering background. Moving from a technical to an executive-level requires an understanding of those behaviour management techniques that can motivate and support individuals and their performance. Further, the transition to management also demands a shift of contextual enablers from tangible to intangible resources, which allows individuals to create new capacities, competencies, and capabilities. In this dynamic process, the knowledge worker becomes that key individual who can help members of the management board to transform information into relevant knowledge. However, despite its relevance in shaping the future of the organization in its transition to the knowledge economy, the role of a knowledge worker has not yet been studied to an appropriate level in the current literature. In this study, the authors review both the contextual enablers and behaviour outputs related to the role of the knowledge worker and relate these to their ability to deal with everyday management issues such as knowledge heterogeneity, varying motivations, information overload, or outdated information. This study highlights that the aggregate of capacities, competences and capabilities (CCCs) can be defined as knowledge structures, the study proposes several contextual enablers and behaviour outputs that knowledge workers can use to work cooperatively, acquire, distribute and knowledge. Therefore, this study contributes to a better comprehension of how CCCs can be managed at different levels through their contextual enablers and behaviour outputs.

Keywords: knowledge workers, capabilities, capacities, competences, knowledge structures

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6459 Protective Custody in Child Protection: Reflection of Residential Care Workers in the Philippines

Authors: Hazel S. Cometa-Lamberte


This paper presents the residential care workers reflections in working with children who were under protective custody and placed in a residential care facility for children. Key informant interviews and focus group discussion were employed in this study to analyze the views of residential care workers on the programs and services and case management system in residential care for children. Results suggest that working in a residential care facility for children needs the interplay of both the worker’s personal and professional values, knowledge and skills in working with children. Analyzing the residential care workers experiences in handling children in residential care facilities is vital for the improvement of the policies, programs and services, the repertoire of techniques and facilitate the creation of a new social work practice framework/model in child protection specifically in residential care facilities.

Keywords: child protection, residential care, residential care workers, social workers

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6458 Effect of Incentives on Knowledge Sharing and Learning: Evidence from the Indian IT Sector

Authors: Asish O. Mathew, Lewlyn L. R. Rodrigues


The organizations in the knowledge economy era have recognized the importance of building knowledge assets for sustainable growth and development. In comparison to other industries, Information Technology (IT) enterprises, holds an edge in developing an effective Knowledge Management (KM) program, thanks to their in-house technological abilities. This paper tries to study the various knowledge-based incentive programs and its effect on Knowledge Sharing and Learning in the context of the Indian IT sector. A conceptual model is developed linking KM incentives, knowledge sharing, and learning. A questionnaire study is conducted to collect primary data from the knowledge workers of the IT organizations located in India. The data was analysed using Structural Equation Modeling using Partial Least Square method. The results show a strong influence of knowledge management incentives on knowledge sharing and an indirect influence on learning.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge management incentives, knowledge sharing, learning

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6457 The Effectiveness of Exchange of Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Using Digital and Face to Face Sharing

Authors: Delio I. Castaneda, Paul Toulson


The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge sharing effectiveness of two types of knowledge, tacit and explicit, depending on two channels: face to face or digital. Participants were 217 knowledge workers in New Zealand and researchers who attended a knowledge management conference in the United Kingdom. In the study, it was found that digital tools are effective to share explicit knowledge. In addition, digital tools that facilitated dialogue were effective to share tacit knowledge. It was also found that face to face communication was an effective way to share tacit and explicit knowledge. Results of this study contribute to clarify in what cases digital tools are effective to share tacit knowledge. Additionally, even though explicit knowledge can be easily shared using digital tools, this type of knowledge is also possible to be shared through dialogue. Result of this study may support practitioners to redesign programs and activities based on knowledge sharing to make strategies more effective.

Keywords: digital knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge sharing, tacit knowledge

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6456 The Role of Knowledge Management in Innovation: Spanish Evidence

Authors: María Jesús Luengo-Valderrey, Mónica Moso-Díez


In the knowledge-based economy, innovation is considered essential in order to achieve survival and growth in organizations. On the other hand, knowledge management is currently understood as one of the keys to innovation process. Both factors are generally admitted as generators of competitive advantage in organizations. Specifically, activities on R&D&I and those that generate internal knowledge have a positive influence in innovation results. This paper examines this effect and if it is similar or not is what we aimed to quantify in this paper. We focus on the impact that proportion of knowledge workers, the R&D&I investment, the amounts destined for ICTs and training for innovation have on the variation of tangible and intangibles returns for the sector of high and medium technology in Spain. To do this, we have performed an empirical analysis on the results of questionnaires about innovation in enterprises in Spain, collected by the National Statistics Institute. First, using clusters methodology, the behavior of these enterprises regarding knowledge management is identified. Then, using SEM methodology, we performed, for each cluster, the study about cause-effect relationships among constructs defined through variables, setting its type and quantification. The cluster analysis results in four groups in which cluster number 1 and 3 presents the best performance in innovation with differentiating nuances among them, while clusters 2 and 4 obtained divergent results to a similar innovative effort. However, the results of SEM analysis for each cluster show that, in all cases, knowledge workers are those that affect innovation performance most, regardless of the level of investment, and that there is a strong correlation between knowledge workers and investment in knowledge generation. The main findings reached is that Spanish high and medium technology companies improve their innovation performance investing in internal knowledge generation measures, specially, in terms of R&D activities, and underinvest in external ones. This, and the strong correlation between knowledge workers and the set of activities that promote the knowledge generation, should be taken into account by managers of companies, when making decisions about their investments for innovation, since they are key for improving their opportunities in the global market.

Keywords: high and medium technology sector, innovation, knowledge management, Spanish companies

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6455 Adopting Collaborative Business Processes to Prevent the Loss of Information in Public Administration Organisations

Authors: A. Capodieci, G. Del Fiore, L. Mainetti


Recently, the use of web 2.0 tools has increased in companies and public administration organizations. This phenomenon, known as "Enterprise 2.0", has, de facto, modified common organizational and operative practices. This has led “knowledge workers” to change their working practices through the use of Web 2.0 communication tools. Unfortunately, these tools have not been integrated with existing enterprise information systems, a situation that could potentially lead to a loss of information. This is an important problem in an organizational context, because knowledge of information exchanged within the organization is needed to increase the efficiency and competitiveness of the organization. In this article we demonstrate that it is possible to capture this knowledge using collaboration processes, which are processes of abstraction created in accordance with design patterns and applied to new organizational operative practices.

Keywords: business practices, business process patterns, collaboration tools, enterprise 2.0, knowledge workers

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6454 Availability of Safety Measures and Knowledge Towards Hazardous Waste Management among Workers in Scientific Laboratories of Two Universities in Lebanon

Authors: Inaam Nasrallah, Pascale Salameh, Abbas El-Outa, Assem Alkak, Rihab Nasr, Wafa Toufic Bawab


Background: Hazardous Waste Management(HWM). is critical to human health outcomes and environmental protection. This study evaluated the knowledge regarding safety measures to be applied when collecting and storing waste in scientific laboratories of two universities in Lebanon.Method: A survey-based observational study was conducted in scientific laboratories of the public university and that of a private university, where a total of 309 participants were recruited.Result: The mean total knowledge score on safety measures of HWM was 9.02±4.34 (maximum attainable score, 13). Significant association (p<0.05) was found between knowledge score and job function, years of experience, educational level, professional status, work schedule, and training on proper HWM. Participants had adequate perceptions regarding the impact of HWM on health and the environment. Linear regression modeling revealed that knowledge score was significantly higher among bachelor level lab workers compared to those with doctoral degrees (p=0.043), full-time schedule workers versus part-timers (p=0.03), and among public university participants as compared to those of the private university (p<0.001).Conclusion: This study showed good knowledge concerning HWM in the scientific laboratoriesof the studied universities in Lebanon and a good awareness of the HWM on health and the environment. It highlights the importance of culture, attitude, and practice on proper HWM in the academic scientific laboratory.

Keywords: hasardous waste, safety measures, waste management, knwoledge score, scientific laboratory workers

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6453 A Study on Occupational Injuries among Building Construction Workers in Bhubaneswar City Odisha

Authors: Rahul Pal


In India, construction industry plays a vital role in the development of infrastructures. It is one of the most hazardous industries. Construction workers are a group that is particularly vulnerable to health risks because they have few legal protection. India has the world’s highest accident rate among construction workers. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of occupation injury among construction workers and to find out the factors responsible for such injuries. Methodology: A cross-sectional study using a semi-structured questionnaire among 305 construction workers in Bhubaneswar city. In this study, it was found that the overall prevalence of injury was 43.28% in the previous one year period. Majority of the construction workers were less experience in the construction work. Factors responsible for injuries are fall of the object followed by striking, and majority of the workers reported their injuries to have occurred in the summer season. And most of the construction workers are not using personal protective equipment (PPE). Conclusion: Given the occupational injuries, the majority of the construction workers are injured in this study; there is a need to address this issue to ensure necessary step for the safety and well-being of construction workers.

Keywords: construction, construction workers, occupational injuries, personal protective equipment

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6452 Elimination of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS: A Study of the Knowledge, Attitudes and Perceptions of Healthcare Workers in Abuja Nigeria

Authors: Ezinne K. Okoro, Takahiko Katoh, Yoko Kawamura, Stanley C. Meribe


HIV infection in children is largely as a result of vertical transmission (mother to child transmission [MTCT]). Thus, elimination of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS is critical in eliminating HIV infection in children. In Nigeria, drawbacks such as; limited pediatric screening, limited human capital, insufficient advocacy and poor understanding of ART guidelines, have impacted efforts at combating the disease, even as treatment services are free. Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) program relies on health workers who not only counsel pregnant women on first contact but can competently provide HIV-positive pregnant women with accurate information about the PMTCT program such as feeding techniques and drug adherence. In developing regions like Nigeria where health care delivery faces a lot of drawbacks, it becomes paramount to address these issues of poor PMTCT coverage by conducting a baseline assessment of the knowledge, practices and perceptions related to HIV prevention amongst healthcare workers in Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 250 health workers currently employed in health facilities in Abuja, Nigeria where PMTCT services were offered with the capacity to carry out early infant diagnosis testing (EID). Data was collected using a self-administered, pretested, structured questionnaire. This study showed that the knowledge of PMTCT of HIV was poor (30%) among healthcare workers who offer this service day-to-day to pregnant women. When PMTCT practices were analyzed in keeping with National PMTCT guidelines, over 61% of the respondents reported observing standard practices and the majority (58%) had good attitudes towards caring for patients with HIV/AIDS. Although 61% of the respondents reported being satisfied with the quality of service being rendered, 63% reported not being satisfied with their level of knowledge. Predictors of good knowledge were job designation and level of educational attainment. Health workers who were more satisfied with their working conditions and those who had worked for a longer time in the PMTCT service were more likely to observe standard PMTCT practices. With over 62% of the healthcare workers suggesting that more training would improve the quality of service being rendered, this is a strong pointer to stakeholders to consider a ‘healthcare worker-oriented approach’ when planning and conducting PMTCT training for healthcare workers. This in turn will increase pediatric ARV coverage, the knowledge and effectiveness of the healthcare workers in carrying out appropriate PMTCT interventions and culminating in the reduction/elimination of HIV transmission to newborns.

Keywords: attitudes, HIV/AIDS, healthcare workers, knowledge, mother to child transmission, Nigeria, perceptions

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6451 Effects of Poor Job Performance Practices on the Job Satisfaction of Workers

Authors: Prakash Singh, Thembinkosi Twalo


The sustainability of the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM), in South Africa, is being threatened by the reported cases of poor administration, weak management of resources, inappropriate job performance, and inappropriate job behaviour of some of the workers. Since the structural-functionalists assume that formal education is a solution to societal challenges, it therefore means that the BCMM should not be experiencing this threat since many of its workers have various levels of formal education. Consequently, this study using the mixed method research approach, set out to investigate the paradoxical co-existence of inappropriate job behaviour and performance with formal education at the BCMM. Considering the impact of human factors in the labour process, this study draws attention to the divergent objectives of skill and skill bearer, with the application of knowledge subject to the knowledge bearer’s motives, will, attitudes, ethics and values. Consequently, inappropriate job behaviour and performance practices could be due to numerous factors such as lack of the necessary capabilities or refusal to apply what has been learnt due to racial or other prejudices. The role of the human factor in the labour process is a serious omission in human capital theory, which regards schooling as the only factor contributing to the ability to do a job. For this reason this study’s theoretical framework is an amalgamation of the four theories - human capital, social capital, cultural capital, and reputation capital – in an effort to obtain a broader view of the factors that shape job behaviour and performance. Since it has been established that human nature plays a crucial role in how workers undertake their responsibilities, it is important that this be taken into consideration in the BCMM’s monitoring and evaluation of the workers’ job performance practices. Hence, this exploratory study brings to the fore, the effects of poor job performance practices on the job satisfaction of workers.

Keywords: human capital, poor job performance practices, service delivery, workers’ job satisfaction

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6450 Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Anthrax among Community Members, Health and Veterinary Workers in Maragua, Kenya

Authors: Isaiah Chacha, Samuel Arimi, Andrew Thaiya


Background: This study was conducted to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding anthrax in Maragua, Kenya to provide baseline information to design interventions. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted among head of households, health and veterinary workers in Maragua Sub-county in August and September 2014. Administered questionnaires were used to collect data from household members and a key informant interview held with health and veterinary workers. Multi stage sampling was used to obtain participants’ knowledge, attitudes and practices. Questions were scored and descriptively analyzed using Excel spreadsheet then exported to GenStat Discovery Edition 4. Results: A total of 293 community members were recruited in this study. The overall level of knowledge was 77.9% of all community members regarding cause, transmission, symptoms and prevention of the disease in both humans and animals. Majority of the participants (96.3%) had heard about anthrax. A total of 99 (33.8%) correspondents had seen a person with anthrax and 75.1% think that anthrax is a very serious disease in the area. Of the interviewed correspondents, 14.3% of them have had their animals (mostly cattle) suffer from anthrax while 15.7% had either suffered from anthrax or have had their family member who suffered from anthrax. Conclusion: The study findings indicate above average knowledge on cause, symptoms, transmission and prevention of anthrax among community members in humans and animals. Practices in this study were still risk among community members. Veterinary and Medical health planners should design anthrax awareness interventions as a team targeting to reach these communities and the public through barazas, radio, CHW and other communication channel on a regular basis.

Keywords: anthrax, attitudes, Kenya, knowledge, Maragua, practices

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6449 Antecedents of Knowledge Sharing: Investigating the Influence of Knowledge Sharing Factors towards Postgraduate Research Supervision

Authors: Arash Khosravi, Mohamad Nazir Ahmad


Today’s economy is a knowledge-based economy in which knowledge is a crucial facilitator to individuals, as well as being an instigator of success. Due to the impact of globalization, universities face new challenges and opportunities. Accordingly, they ought to be more innovative and have their own competitive advantages. One of the most important goals of universities is the promotion of students as professional knowledge workers. Therefore, knowledge sharing and transferring at tertiary level between students and supervisors is vital in universities, as it decreases the budget and provides an affordable way of doing research. Knowledge-sharing impact factors can be categorized into three groups, namely: organizational, individual and technical factors. There are some individual barriers to knowledge sharing, namely: lack of time and trust, lack of communication skills and social networks. IT systems such as e-learning, blogs and portals can increase knowledge sharing capability. However, it must be stated that IT systems are only tools and not solutions. Individuals are still responsible for sharing information and knowledge. This paper proposes new research model to examine the effect of individual factors and organisational factors, namely: learning strategy, trust culture, supervisory support, as well as technological factor on knowledge sharing in a research supervision process at the University of Technology Malaysia.

Keywords: knowledge management, knowledge sharing, research supervision, knowledge transferring

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6448 Play-Based Intervention Training Program for Daycare Workers Attending to Children with Autism

Authors: Raymond E. Raguindin


Objective: This research studied the teaching improvement of daycare workers in imitation, joint attention, and language activities using the play-based early intervention training program in Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija. Methods: Focus group discussions were developed to explore the attitude, beliefs, and practices of daycare workers. Results: Findings of the study revealed that daycare workers have existing knowledge and experience in teaching children with autism. Their workshops on managing inappropriate behaviors of children with autism resulting in a general positive perception of accepting and teaching children with autism in daycare centers. Play based activities were modelled and participated in by daycare workers. These include demonstration, modelling, prompting and providing social reinforcers as reward. Five lectures and five training days were done to implement the training program. Daycare workers’ levels of skill in teaching imitation, joint attention and language were gathered before and after the participation in the training program. Findings suggest significant differences between pre-test and post test scores. They have shown significant improvement in facilitating imitation, joint attention, and language children with autism after the play-based early intervention training. They were able to initiate and sustain imitation, joint attention, and language activities with adequate knowledge and confidence. Conclusions: 1. Existing attitudes and beliefs greatly influenced the positive delivery mode of instruction. 2. Teacher-directed approach to improve attention, imitation, joint attention, and language of children with autism can be acquired by daycare workers. 3. Teaching skills and experience can be used as reference and basis for identifying future training needs.

Keywords: early intervention, imitation, joint attention, language

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6447 Immigrant Workers’ Perspectives of Occupational Health and Safety and Work Conditions that Challenge Work Safety

Authors: Janki Shankar, Shu-Ping Chen


This Canadian study explored the perspectives of recent immigrant workers regarding occupational health and safety (OHS) and workplace conditions that increase workers’ vulnerability to sustaining injury or illness. Using an interpretive research approach and semi structured qualitative interviews, 42 recent immigrant workers from a range of industries operating in two cities in a province in Canada were interviewed. A constant comparative approach was used to identify key themes across the workers’ experiences. The findings revealed that these workers have an incomplete understanding of OHS. In many workplaces, poor job training, little worker support, lack of power in the workplace, and a poor workplace safety culture make it difficult for recent immigrant workers to acquire OHS information and implement safe work practices. This study proposes workplace policies and practices that will improve worker OHS awareness and make workplaces safer for immigrant workers.

Keywords: new immigrant workers, occupational health and safety, workplace challenges, policy, practice

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6446 Expansive-Restrictive Style: Conceptualizing Knowledge Workers

Authors: Ram Manohar Singh, Meenakshi Gupta


Various terms such as ‘learning style’, ‘cognitive style’, ‘conceptual style’, ‘thinking style’, ‘intellectual style’ are used in literature to refer to an individual’s characteristic and consistent approach to organizing and processing information. However, style concepts are criticized for mutually overlapping definitions and confusing classification. This confusion should be addressed at the conceptual as well as empirical level. This paper is an attempt to bridge this gap in literature by proposing a new concept: expansive-restrictive intellectual style based on phenomenological analysis of an auto-ethnography and interview of 26 information technology (IT) professionals working in knowledge intensive organizations (KIOs) in India. Expansive style is an individual’s preference to expand his/her horizon of knowledge and understanding by gaining real meaning and structure of his/her work. On the contrary restrictive style is characterized by an individual’s preference to take minimalist approach at work reflected in executing a job efficiently without an attempt to understand the real meaning and structure of the work. The analysis suggests that expansive-restrictive style has three dimensions: (1) field dependence-independence (2) cognitive involvement and (3) epistemological beliefs.

Keywords: expansive, knowledge workers, restrictive, style

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6445 Knowledge Creation and Diffusion Dynamics under Stable and Turbulent Environment for Organizational Performance Optimization

Authors: Jessica Gu, Yu Chen


Knowledge Management (KM) is undoubtable crucial to organizational value creation, learning, and adaptation. Although the rapidly growing KM domain has been fueled with full-fledged methodologies and technologies, studies on KM evolution that bridge the organizational performance and adaptation to the organizational environment are still rarely attempted. In particular, creation (or generation) and diffusion (or share/exchange) of knowledge are of the organizational primary concerns on the problem-solving perspective, however, the optimized distribution of knowledge creation and diffusion endeavors are still unknown to knowledge workers. This research proposed an agent-based model of knowledge creation and diffusion in an organization, aiming at elucidating how the intertwining knowledge flows at microscopic level lead to optimized organizational performance at macroscopic level through evolution, and exploring what exogenous interventions by the policy maker and endogenous adjustments of the knowledge workers can better cope with different environmental conditions. With the developed model, a series of simulation experiments are conducted. Both long-term steady-state and time-dependent developmental results on organizational performance, network and structure, social interaction and learning among individuals, knowledge audit and stocktaking, and the likelihood of choosing knowledge creation and diffusion by the knowledge workers are obtained. One of the interesting findings reveals a non-monotonic phenomenon on organizational performance under turbulent environment while a monotonic phenomenon on organizational performance under a stable environment. Hence, whether the environmental condition is turbulence or stable, the most suitable exogenous KM policy and endogenous knowledge creation and diffusion choice adjustments can be identified for achieving the optimized organizational performance. Additional influential variables are further discussed and future work directions are finally elaborated. The proposed agent-based model generates evidence on how knowledge worker strategically allocates efforts on knowledge creation and diffusion, how the bottom-up interactions among individuals lead to emerged structure and optimized performance, and how environmental conditions bring in challenges to the organization system. Meanwhile, it serves as a roadmap and offers great macro and long-term insights to policy makers without interrupting the real organizational operation, sacrificing huge overhead cost, or introducing undesired panic to employees.

Keywords: knowledge creation, knowledge diffusion, agent-based modeling, organizational performance, decision making evolution

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6444 Benefits of Collegial Teaming to Improve Knowledge-Worker Productivity

Authors: Prakash Singh, Piet Maphodisa Kgohlo


Knowledge-worker productivity is one of the biggest leadership challenges facing all organizations in the twenty-first century. It cannot be denied that knowledge-worker productivity affects all organizations. The work and the workforce are both undergoing greater changes currently than at any time, since the beginning of the industrial revolution two centuries ago. Employees welcome collegial teaming (CT) as an innovative way to develop their work-integrated learning competencies. Human resource development policies must evoke the symbiotic relationship between CT and work-integrated learning, seeing that employees need to be endowed with the competence to move from one skill to another, as each one becomes obsolete, and to simultaneously develop their cognitive and emotional intelligence. The outcome of this relationship must culminate in the development of highly productive knowledge-workers. While this study focuses on teachers, the conceptual framework and the findings of this research can be beneficial for any organization, public or private sector, business or non-business. Therefore, in this quantitative study, the benefits of CT are considered in developing human resources to sustain knowledge-worker productivity. The ANOVA p-values reveal that the majority of teachers agree that CT can empower them to overcome the challenges of managing curriculum change. CT can equip them with continuous and sustained learning, growth and improvement, necessary for knowledge-worker productivity. This study, therefore, confirms that CT benefits all workers, immaterial of their age, gender or experience. Hence, this exploratory research provides a new perspective of CT in addressing knowledge-worker productivity when organizational change alters the vision of the organization.

Keywords: collegial teaming, human resource development, knowledge-worker productivity, work-integrated learning

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6443 Factors Affecting the Wages of Native Workers in Thailand's Construction Industry

Authors: C. Noknoi, W. Boripunt, K. Boomid, S. Suwitphanwong


This research studies the factors influencing the wages of native workers in Thailand's construction industry. The sample used comprised some 156 native construction workers from Songkhla Province, Thailand. The utilized research instrument was a questionnaire, with the data being analyzed according to frequency, percentage, and regression analysis. The results revealed that in general, native Thai construction workers are generally married males aged between 26 and 37 years old. They typically have four to six years of education, are employed as laborers with an average salary of 4,000–9,200 baht per month, and have fewer than five years of work experience. Most Thai workers work five days a week. Each establishment typically has 10–30 employees, with fewer than 10 of these being migrant workers in general. Most Thai workers are at a 20% to 40% risk from work, and they have never changed employer. The average wage of Thai workers was found to be 10,843.03 baht per month with a standard deviation of 4,898.31 baht per month. Hypothesis testing revealed that position, work experience, and the number of times they had switched employer were the factors most affecting the wages of native Thai construction workers. These three factors alone explain the salaries of Thai construction workers at 51.9%.  

Keywords: construction industry, native workers, Thailand, wages

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6442 An Examination of Factors Leading to Knowledge-Sharing Behavior of Sri Lankan Bankers

Authors: Eranga N. Somaratna, Pradeep Dharmadasa


In the current competitive environment, the factors leading to organization success are not limited to the investment of capital, labor, and raw material, but in the ability of knowledge innovation from all the members of an organization. However, knowledge on its own cannot provide organizations with its promised benefits unless it is shared, as organizations are increasingly experiencing unsuccessful knowledge sharing efforts. In such a backdrop and due to the dearth of research in this area in the South Asian context, the study set forth to develop an understanding of the factors that influence knowledge-sharing behavior within an organizational framework, using widely accepted social psychology theories. The purpose of the article is to discover the determinants of knowledge-sharing intention and actual knowledge sharing behaviors of bank employees in Sri Lanka using an aggregate model. Knowledge sharing intentions are widely discussed in literature through the application of Ajzen’s Theory of planned behavior (TPB) and Theory of Social Capital (SCT) separately. Both the theories are rich to explain knowledge sharing intention of workers with limitations. The study, therefore, combines the TPB with SCT in developing its conceptual model. Data were collected through a self-administrated paper-based questionnaire of 199 bank managers from 6 public and private banks of Sri Lanka and analyzed the suggested research model using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The study supported six of the nine hypotheses, where Attitudes toward Knowledge Sharing Behavior, Perceived Behavioral Control, Trust, Anticipated Reciprocal Relationships and Actual Knowledge Sharing Behavior were supported while Organizational Climate, Sense of Self-Worth and Anticipated Extrinsic Rewards were not, in determining knowledge sharing intentions. Furthermore, the study investigated the effect of demographic factors of bankers (age, gender, position, education, and experiences) to the actual knowledge sharing behavior. However, findings should be confirmed using a larger sample, as well as through cross-sectional studies. The results highlight the need for theoreticians to combined TPB and SCT in understanding knowledge workers’ intentions and actual behavior; and for practitioners to focus on the perceptions and needs of the individual knowledge worker and the need to cultivate a culture of sharing knowledge in the organization for their mutual benefit.

Keywords: banks, employees behavior, knowledge management, knowledge sharing

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6441 Capacity Enhancement for Agricultural Workers in Mangosteen Product

Authors: Cholpassorn Sitthiwarongchai, Chutikarn Sriviboon


The two primary objectives of this research were (1) to examine the current knowledge and actual circumstance of agricultural workers about mangosteen product processing; and (2) to analyze and evaluate ways to develop capacity of mangosteen product processing. The population of this study was 15,125 people who work in the agricultural sector, in this context, mangosteen production, in the eastern part of Thailand that included Chantaburi Province, Rayong Province, Trad Province and Pracheenburi Province. The sample size based on Yamane’s calculation with 95% reliability was therefore 392 samples. Mixed method was employed included questionnaire and focus group discussion with Connoisseurship Model used in order to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Key informants were used in the focus group including agricultural business owners, academic people in agro food processing, local academics, local community development staff, OTOP subcommittee, and representatives of agro processing industry professional organizations. The study found that the majority of the respondents agreed with a high level (in five-rating scale) towards most of variables of knowledge management in agro food processing. The result of the current knowledge and actual circumstance of agricultural human resource in an arena of mangosteen product processing revealed that mostly, the respondents agreed at a high level to establish 7 variables. The guideline to developing the body of knowledge in order to enhance the capacity of the agricultural workers in mangosteen product processing was delivered in the focus group discussion. The discussion finally contributed to an idea to produce manuals for mangosteen product processing methods, with 4 products chosen: (1) mangosteen soap, (2) mangosteen juice, (3) mangosteen toffee, and (4) mangosteen preserves or jam.

Keywords: capacity enhancement, agricultural workers, mangosteen product processing, marketing management

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6440 Assessing the Gap between the Policies and Existing Living Conditions of Migrant Construction Workers: A Case Study of Vijayawada

Authors: Ayushi Mishra


Migrant construction workers or construction labors are one of the majority of the working population in our urban and rural areas. Even after being the majority, their involvement in the upbringing of the economy is hardly ever documented or recognized. Non-permanent or migrant workers face loads of exploitations and susceptibilities than other informal sector workers in India which in turn has affected the productivity of the labors. The relation of their employment and migration and the links of these dynamics to their housing and other basic needs in the city are mostly unstated. Even the urban planning and housing policies do not make thoughtful provision for them, they forcing them to live in extremely wretched conditions. And even if the policies are made, it frequently happens that they are not implemented. As the issue is very much prevalent in today’s time in India with so many large-scale and labor extensive projects going on, this study focuses on the assessment of the gap between the existing government policies and the current scenario of the construction workers in ongoing projects of Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh. A few of the policies for construction workers conditions a lot of things, out of which only a few are functional which makes this study to assess the reason behind the unorganized living condition and poor physical, the social and mental health of construction workers of Vijayawada. In present, the dignity of construction labors is compromised every day on construction sites, in terms of work and basic rights which leads to many other problems in future. So to work for the betterment of this community, knowledge on the differences is very much required and hence this study is a little effort to replenish the difference and compare the policies with the existing conditions of construction labors in Vijayawada.

Keywords: construction, labours, policy, productivity

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6439 Assessing the Impact of Covid-19 Pandemic on Waste Management Workers in Ghana

Authors: Mensah-Akoto Julius, Kenichi Matsui


This paper examines the impact of COVID-19 on waste management workers in Ghana. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 60 waste management workers in Accra metropolis, the capital region of Ghana, to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on waste generation, workers’ safety in collecting solid waste, and service delivery. To find out correlations between the pandemic and safety of waste management workers, a regression analysis was used. Regarding waste generation, the results show the pandemic led to the highest annual per capita solid waste generation, or 3,390 tons, in 2020. Regarding the safety of workers, the regression analysis shows a significant and inverse association between COVID-19 and waste management services. This means that contaminated wastes may infect field workers with COVID-19 due to their direct exposure. A rise in new infection cases would have a negative impact on the safety and service delivery of the workers. The result also shows that an increase in economic activities negatively impacts waste management workers. The analysis, however, finds no statistical relationship between workers’ service deliveries and employees’ salaries. The study then discusses how municipal waste management authorities can ensure safe and effective waste collection during the pandemic.

Keywords: Covid-19, waste management worker, waste collection, Ghana

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6438 Social Work Profession in a Mirror of the Russian Immigrant Media in Israel

Authors: Natalia Khvorostianov, Nelly Elias


The present study seeks to analyze representation of social work in immigrant media, focusing on the case of online newspapers established by immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) in Israel. This immigrant population is particularly interesting because social work did not exist as a profession practiced in the USSR and hence most FSU immigrants arrive in Israel without a basic knowledge of the essence of social work, the services it provides and the logic behind its treatment methods. The sample of 37 items was built through a Google search of the Russian online newspapers and portals originated in Israel by using keywords such as “social worker,” “social work services” and the like. All items were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. Principal analytical categories used for the analysis were: Assessment of social work services (negative, positive, neutral); social workers’ professionalism and effectiveness; goals and motives underlying their activity; cross-cultural contact with immigrants and methods used in working with immigrants. On this basis, four dominant images used to portray Israeli social work services and social workers were identified: Lack of professionalism, cultural gaps between FSU immigrants and Israeli social workers, repressive character of social work services and social workers’ involvement in corruption and crime.

Keywords: FSU immigrants, immigrant media, media images, social workers

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6437 Supporting Older Workers in the Workforce: Identifying Best Practices to Increase Participation

Authors: Dr Elliroma Gardiner


Extending the working life of older workers is one important strategy in alleviating the social and economic challenges associated with the ageing population. The Australian government has implemented several strategies to improve the participation rates of older workers, however, the success of these initiatives has been limited. The aim of this project is to identify what workplace practices influence the workforce participation decisions of older workers. Thirty semi-structured interviews were conducted with older Australians who were either recently retired or currently working. Participants were asks about the factors that influenced their decision to retire/continue working and their current (or former) workplace practices. The results of the thematic analysis identified several factors which either supported (i.e., job autonomy and managerial support) or hindered (i.e., perceptions of age discrimination and age-based stereotypes) continued workplace participation. This research has several important applications for organisation managing intergenerational workforces, as well as policy makers interested in increasing the working life of ageing workers.

Keywords: ageing workers, older workers, age discrimination, age diversity

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6436 An Ethnographic Study on How Namibian Sex Workers Experience Their Violation of Rights

Authors: Tessa Verhallen, Mama Africa


By co-constructing personal narratives of sex workers in Namibia this paper represents how sex workers experience their violation of rights in Namibia. It is written from an emic (as an advisor for a sex worker-led organization named Rights not Rescue Trust) and an etic (as an ethnographer) point of view, in collaboration with the staff of the organization Rights not Rescue Trust. This organization represents circa 3000 members. The paper describes the current deplorable situation of sex workers in Namibia, encompassing the stigma and discrimination they face, their struggle to have their work decriminalized and their urge to advocate for human rights and the end of violations. Based on a triangular research design (ethnography, narratives, literature study, human rights’ training and counseling sessions) the authors show that sex workers, particularly LGBTI sex workers, are extremely vulnerable to emotional, physical, and sexual violence in Namibia. The main perpetrators of violence turn out to be not only clients and intimate partners but also law enforcement officers and health care workers who are supposed to protect and support sex workers. The sex workers’ narratives voice their disgraceful circumstances regarding how their rights are violated. It also highlights their importance to fight for their rights and access to health care, legal services and education in order to improve the sexual reproductive health of sex workers.

Keywords: HIV/aids, LGBTI, methodological innovative, sex work

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6435 Students' Perception of Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) Skills in Setting up the Simulator Welding Technology

Authors: Mohd Afif Md Nasir, Faizal Amin Nur Yunus, Jamaluddin Hashim, Abd Samad Hassan Basari, A. Halim Sahelan


The aim of this study is to identify the suitability of Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) in welding simulator application towards Computer-Based Training (CBT) in developing skills upon new students at the Advanced Technology Training Center (ADTEC), Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia and GIATMARA, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia. The purpose of the study is to create a computer-based skills development approach in welding technology among new students in ADTEC and GIATMARA, as well as cultivating the elements of general skills among them. This study is also important in elevating the number of individual knowledge workers (K-workers) working in manufacturing industry in order to achieve a national vision which is to be an industrial nation in the year of 2020. The design of the study is a survey type of research which uses questionnaires as the instruments and 136 students from ADTEC and GIATMARA were interviewed. Descriptive analysis is used to identify the frequency and mean values. The findings of the study shows that the welding technology skills have developed in the students as a result of the application of VLE simulator at a high level and the respondents agreed that the skills could be embedded through the application of the VLE simulator. In summary, the VLE simulator is suitable in welding skills development training in terms of exposing new students with the relevant characteristics of welding skills and at the same time spurring the students’ interest towards learning more about the skills.

Keywords: computer-based training (CBT), knowledge workers (K-workers), virtual learning environment, welding simulator, welding technology

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6434 Association Between Occupation Type and Obesity Prevalence - An Analysis of the 2018 KNHANES -

Authors: Jeong Heon Kim, Kyu Rae Lee


Purpose: Although occupational factors such as working hours, shift workers are associated with obesity, the relationships between occupation types and the prevalence of obesity, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), were not still clarified. We, therefore, investigated the association between obesity markers (BMI and WC) and types of occupation using 2018 KNHANES data. Methods: We evaluated height, weight, WC, demographic variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking) from 2018 KNHANES data. The occupational groups were classified into 9 categories (managers, professionals and related workers, clerks, service workers, sales workers, skilled agriculture, forestry and fishery workers, craft and related trade workers, equipment, machine operating and assembling workers, elementary workers) using the Korean version of the Standard Classification of Occupations. We performed an ANCOVA test in order to assess the relationship between obesity markers (BMI, WC) and types of occupation. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in general and central obesity markers (BMI, WC) according to occupation categories after controlling socio-demographic covariates in men. The prevalence of general and central obesity in men was significantly higher in managers (25.7 +/- 2.6 kg/m2, 90.0 +/- 7.2 cm), and lower in craft and related trade workers (24.3 +/- 3.3 kg/m2, 85.2 +/- 8.4 cm) respectively. (p = 0.011) Conclusion: The central and general obesity prevalence was highest in the manager group and lowest in the craft and related trades workers group among all occupation groups of men.

Keywords: BMI, occupation, WC, men, Korea

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