Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: thallium selenide

23 Dielectric Properties of Thalium Selenide Thin Films at Radio Wave Frequencies

Authors: Onur Potok, Deniz Deger, Kemal Ulutas, Sahin Yakut, Deniz Bozoglu

Abstract:

Thalium Selenide (TlSe) is used for optoelectronic devices, pressure sensitive detectors, and gamma-ray detectors. The TlSe samples were grown as large single crystals using the Stockbarger-Bridgman method. The thin films, in the form of Al/TlSe/Al, were deposited on the microscope slide in different thicknesses (300-3000 Å) using thermal evaporation technique at 10-5 Torr. The dielectric properties of (TlSe) thin films, capacitance (C) and dielectric loss factor (tanδ), were measured in a frequency range of 10-105 Hz, and temperatures between 213K and 393K via Broadband Dielectric Spectroscopy analyzer. The dielectric constant (ε’) and the dielectric loss (ε’’) of the thin films were derived from measured parameters (C and tanδ). These results showed that the dielectric properties of TlSe thin films are frequency and temperature dependent. The capacitance and the dielectric constant decrease with increasing frequency and decreasing temperature. The dielectric loss of TlSe thin films decreases with increasing frequency, on the other hand, they increase with increasing temperature and increasing thicknesses. There is two relaxation region in the investigated frequency and temperature interval. These regions can be called as low and high-frequency dispersion regions. Low-frequency dispersion region can be attributed to the polarization of the main part of the chain structure of TlSe while high-frequency dispersion region can be attributed to the polarization of side parts of the structure.

Keywords: thin films, thallium selenide, dielectric spectroscopy, binary compounds

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22 Examination of Contaminations in Fabricated Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots Using Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy

Authors: Walid Tawfik, W. Askam Farooq, Sultan F. Alqhtani

Abstract:

Quantum dots (QDots) are nanometer-sized crystals, less than 10 nm, comprise a semiconductor or metallic materials and contain from 100 - 100,000 atoms in each crystal. QDots play an important role in many applications; light emitting devices (LEDs), solar cells, drug delivery, and optical computers. In the current research, a fundamental wavelength of Nd:YAG laser was applied to analyse the impurities in homemade cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDots through laser-induced plasma (LIPS) technique. The CdSe QDots were fabricated by using hot-solution decomposition method where a mixture of Cd precursor and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) is prepared at concentrations of TOPO under controlled temperatures 200-350ºC. By applying laser energy of 15 mJ, at frequency 10 Hz, and delay time 500 ns, LIPS spectra of CdSe QDots samples were observed. The qualitative LIPS analysis for CdSe QDs revealed that the sample contains Cd, Te, Se, H, P, Ar, O, Ni, C, Al and He impurities. These observed results gave precise details of the impurities present in the QDs sample. These impurities are important for future work at which controlling the impurity contents in the QDs samples may improve the physical, optical and electrical properties of the QDs used for solar cell application.

Keywords: cadmium selenide, TOPO, LIPS spectroscopy, quantum dots

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21 Radiation Skin Decontamination Formulation

Authors: Navneet Sharma, Himanshu Ojha, Dharam Pal Pathak, Rakesh Kumar Sharma

Abstract:

Radio-nuclides decontamination is an important task because any extra second of deposition leads to deleterious health effects. We had developed and characterise nanoemulsion of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens using phase inversion temperature (PIT) method and evaluate its decontamination efficacy (DE). The solubility of the drug was determined in various oils and surfactants. Nanoemulsion developed with an HLB value of 11 and different ratios of the surfactants 10% (7:3, w/w), oil (20%, w/w), and double distilled water (70%) were selected. Formulation was characterised by multi-photon spectroscopy and parameters like viscosity, droplet size distribution, zeta potential and stability were optimised. In vitro and Ex vivo decontamination efficacy (DE) was evaluated against Technetium-99m, Iodine-131, and Thallium-201 as radio-contaminants applied over skin of Sprague-Dawley rat and human tissue equivalent model. Contaminants were removed using formulation soaked in cotton swabs at different time intervals and whole body imaging and static counts were recorded using SPECT gamma camera before and after decontamination attempt. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and was found to be significant (p <0.05). DE of the nanoemulsion loaded with p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens was compared with placebo and recorded to be 88±5%, 90±3% and 89±3% for 99mTc, 131I and 201Tl respectively. Ex-vivo complexation study of p-tertbutylcalix[4]arene nanoemulsion with surrogate nuclides of radioactive thallium and Iodine, were performed on rat skin mounted on Franz diffusion cell using high-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (HR-SF-ICPMS). More than 90% complexation of the formulation with these nuclides was observed. Results demonstrate that the prepared nanoemulsion formulation was found efficacious for the decontamination of radionuclides from a large contaminated population.

Keywords: p-tertbutylcalix[4]arens, skin decontamination, radiological emergencies, nanoemulsion, iodine-131, thallium-201

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20 A Straightforward Method for Determining Inorganic Selenium Speciations by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy in Water Samples

Authors: Sahar Ehsani, David James, Vernon Hodge

Abstract:

In this experimental study, total selenium in solution was measured with Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, GFAAS, then chemical reactions with sodium borohydride were used to reduce selenite to hydrogen selenide. Hydrogen selenide was then stripped from the solution by purging the solution with nitrogen gas. Since the two main speciations in oxic waters are usually selenite, Se(IV) and selenate, Se(VI), it was assumed that after Se(IV) is removed, the remaining total selenium was Se(VI). Total selenium measured after stripping gave Se(VI) concentration, and the difference of total selenium measured before and after stripping gave Se(IV) concentration. An additional step of reducing Se(VI) to Se(IV) was performed by boiling the stripped solution under acidic conditions, then removing Se(IV) by a chemical reaction with sodium borohydride. This additional procedure of removing Se(VI) from the solution is useful in rare cases where the water sample is reducing and contains selenide speciation. In this study, once Se(IV) and Se(VI) were both removed from the water sample, the remaining total selenium concentration was zero. The method was tested to determine Se(IV) and Se(VI) in both purified water and synthetic irrigation water spiked with Se(IV) and Se(VI). Average recovery of spiked samples of diluted synthetic irrigation water was 99% for Se(IV) and 97% for Se(VI). Detection limits of the method were 0.11 µg L⁻¹ and 0.32 µg L⁻¹ for Se(IV) and Se(VI), respectively.

Keywords: Analytical Method, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Selenate, Selenite, Selenium Speciations

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19 Metal Extraction into Ionic Liquids and Hydrophobic Deep Eutectic Mixtures

Authors: E. E. Tereshatov, M. Yu. Boltoeva, V. Mazan, M. F. Volia, C. M. Folden III

Abstract:

Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a class of liquid organic salts with melting points below 20 °C that are considered to be environmentally friendly ‘designers’ solvents. Pure hydrophobic ILs are known to extract metallic species from aqueous solutions. The closest analogues of ionic liquids are deep eutectic solvents (DESs), which are a eutectic mixture of at least two compounds with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are acknowledged to be attractive for organic synthesis and metal processing. Thus, these non-volatile and less toxic compounds are of interest for critical metal extraction. The US Department of Energy and the European Commission consider indium as a key metal. Its chemical homologue, thallium, is also an important material for some applications and environmental safety. The aim of this work is to systematically investigate In and Tl extraction from aqueous solutions into pure fluorinated ILs and hydrophobic DESs. The dependence of the Tl extraction efficiency on the structure and composition of the ionic liquid ions, metal oxidation state, and initial metal and aqueous acid concentrations have been studied. The extraction efficiency of the TlXz3–z anionic species (where X = Cl– and/or Br–) is greater for ionic liquids with more hydrophobic cations. Unexpectedly high distribution ratios (> 103) of Tl(III) were determined even by applying a pure ionic liquid as receiving phase. An improved mathematical model based on ion exchange and ion pair formation mechanisms has been developed to describe the co-extraction of two different anionic species, and the relative contributions of each mechanism have been determined. The first evidence of indium extraction into new quaternary ammonium- and menthol-based hydrophobic DESs from hydrochloric and oxalic acid solutions with distribution ratios up to 103 will be provided. Data obtained allow us to interpret the mechanism of thallium and indium extraction into ILs and DESs media. The understanding of Tl and In chemical behavior in these new media is imperative for the further improvement of separation and purification of these elements.

Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, indium, ionic liquids, thallium

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18 Recovery of Selenium from Scrubber Sludge in Copper Process

Authors: Lakshmikanth Reddy, Bhavin Desai, Chandrakala Kari, Sanjay Sarkar, Pradeep Binu

Abstract:

The sulphur dioxide gases generated as a by-product of smelting and converting operations of copper concentrate contain selenium apart from zinc, lead, copper, cadmium, bismuth, antimony, and arsenic. The gaseous stream is treated in waste heat boiler, electrostatic precipitator and scrubbers to remove coarse particulate matter in order to produce commercial grade sulfuric acid. The gas cleaning section of the acid plant uses water to scrub the smelting gases. After scrubbing, the sludge settled at the bottom of the scrubber, was analyzed in present investigation. It was found to contain 30 to 40 wt% copper and selenium up to 40 wt% selenium. The sludge collected during blow-down is directly recycled to the smelter for copper recovery. However, the selenium is expected to again vaporize due to high oxidation potential during smelting and converting, causing accumulation of selenium in sludge. In present investigation, a roasting process has been developed to recover the selenium before the copper recovery from the sludge at smelter. Selenium is associated with copper in sludge as copper selenide, as determined by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The thermodynamic and thermos-gravimetry study revealed that the copper selenide phase present in the sludge was amenable to oxidation at 600°C forming oxides of copper and selenium (Cu-Se-O). However, the dissociation of selenium from the copper oxide was made possible by sulfatation using sulfur dioxide between 450 to 600°C, resulting into the formation of CuSO₄ (s) and SeO₂ (g). Lab scale trials were carried out in vertical tubular furnace to determine the optimum roasting conditions with respect to roasting time, temperature and molar ratio of O₂:SO₂. Using these optimum conditions, selenium up to 90 wt% in the form of SeO₂ vapors could be recovered from the sludge in a large-scale commercial roaster. Roasted sludge free from the selenium and containing oxides and sulfates of copper could now be recycled in the smelter for copper recovery.

Keywords: copper, selenium, copper selenide, sludge, roasting, SeO₂

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17 NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes as Efficient Electrocatalysts for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Alkaline Media

Authors: Oluwaseun A. Oyetade, Roelof J. Kriek

Abstract:

The development of effective catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is of great importance to combat energy-related concerns in the environment. Herein, we report a one-step solvothermal method employed for the fabrication of nickel selenide hybrids (NiSe-Ni₃Se₂) and a series of nickel selenide hybrid/multiwalled carbon nanotube composites (NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT) as electrocatalysts for OER in alkaline media. The catalytic activities of these catalysts were investigated via several electrochemical characterization techniques, such as linear sweep voltammetry, chronoamperometric studies at constant potential, electrochemical surface area determination, and Tafel slope calculation, under alkaline conditions. Morphological observations demonstrated the agglomeration of non-uniform NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ microspheres around carbon nanotubes (CNTs), demonstrating the successful synthesis of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites. Among the tested electrocatalysts, the 20% NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposite demonstrated the highest activity, exhibiting an overpotential of 325 mV to achieve a current density of 10 mA.cm⁻² in 0.1 mol.dm⁻³ KOH solution. The NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites showed improved activity toward OER compared to bare NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids and MWCNTs, exhibiting an overpotential of 528, 392 and 434 mV for 10%, 30% and 50% NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites, respectively. These results compare favourably to the overpotential of noble catalysts, such as RuO₂ and IrO₂. Our results imply that the addition of MWCNTs increased the activity of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids due to an increased number of catalytic sites, dispersion of NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrid nanoparticles, and electronic conductivity of the nanocomposites. These nanocomposites also demonstrated better long-term stability compared to NiSe-Ni₃Se₂ hybrids and MWCNTs. Hence, NiSe-Ni₃Se₂/MWCNT nanocomposites possess the potential as effective electrocatalysts for OER in alkaline media.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, electrocatalysts, nanocomposites, nickel selenide hybrids, oxygen evolution reaction

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16 Enhanced Ripening Behaviour of Manganese Doped Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (Mn-doped CdSe QDs)

Authors: N. A. Hamizi, M. R. Johan, Y. H. Hor, A. N. Sabri, Y. Y. A. Yong

Abstract:

In this research, Mn-doped CdSe QDs is synthesized by using paraffin liquid as the reacting solvent and oleic acid as the ligands for Cd in order to produce Mn-doped CdSe QDs in zinc-blende crystal structure. Characterization studies for synthesized Mn-doped CdSe QDs are carried out using UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The absorption wavelengths in UV-vis test and emission wavelengths in PL test were increase with the increases in the ripening temperature and time respectively.

Keywords: semiconductor, chemical synthesis, optical properties, ripening

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15 Investigation on Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Transition Metals Doped Zinc Selenide

Authors: S. Bentata, W. Benstaali, A. Abbad, H. A. Bentounes, B. Bouadjemi

Abstract:

The full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) based on density-functional theory (DFT) is employed to study the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of some transition metals doped ZnSe. Calculations are carried out by varying the doped atoms. Four 3D transition elements were used as a dopant: Cr, Mn, Co and Cu in order to induce spin polarization. Our results show that, Mn and Cu-doped ZnSe could be used in spintronic devices only if additional dopants are introduced, on the contrary, transition elements showing delocalized quality such as Cr, and Co doped ZnSe might be promising candidates for application in spintronic.

Keywords: spin-up, spin-down, magnetic properties, transition metal, composite materials

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14 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD) of Cds Used in Closed Space Sublimation (CSS) of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Fahimullah Babar, Surriyia Naz, Hafiz Ur Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Elipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here).The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper- indium –gallium- selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %.The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: CBD, CdS, CdTe, CSS

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13 Different Types of Bismuth Selenide Nanostructures for Targeted Applications: Synthesis and Properties

Authors: Jana Andzane, Gunta Kunakova, Margarita Baitimirova, Mikelis Marnauza, Floriana Lombardi, Donats Erts

Abstract:

Bismuth selenide (Bi₂Se₃) is known as a narrow band gap semiconductor with pronounced thermoelectric (TE) and topological insulator (TI) properties. Unique TI properties offer exciting possibilities for fundamental research as observing the exciton condensate and Majorana fermions, as well as practical application in spintronic and quantum information. In turn, TE properties of this material can be applied for wide range of thermoelectric applications, as well as for broadband photodetectors and near-infrared sensors. Nanostructuring of this material results in improvement of TI properties due to suppression of the bulk conductivity, and enhancement of TE properties because of increased phonon scattering at the nanoscale grains and interfaces. Regarding TE properties, crystallographic growth direction, as well as orientation of the nanostructures relative to the growth substrate, play significant role in improvement of TE performance of nanostructured material. For instance, Bi₂Se₃ layers consisting of randomly oriented nanostructures and/or of combination of them with planar nanostructures show significantly enhanced in comparison with bulk and only planar Bi₂Se₃ nanostructures TE properties. In this work, a catalyst-free vapour-solid deposition technique was applied for controlled obtaining of different types of Bi₂Se₃ nanostructures and continuous nanostructured layers for targeted applications. For example, separated Bi₂Se₃ nanoplates, nanobelts and nanowires can be used for investigations of TI properties; consisting from merged planar and/or randomly oriented nanostructures Bi₂Se₃ layers are useful for applications in heat-to-power conversion devices and infrared detectors. The vapour-solid deposition was carried out using quartz tube furnace (MTI Corp), equipped with an inert gas supply and pressure/temperature control system. Bi₂Se₃ nanostructures/nanostructured layers of desired type were obtained by adjustment of synthesis parameters (process temperature, deposition time, pressure, carrier gas flow) and selection of deposition substrate (glass, quartz, mica, indium-tin-oxide, graphene and carbon nanotubes). Morphology, structure and composition of obtained Bi₂Se₃ nanostructures and nanostructured layers were inspected using SEM, AFM, EDX and HRTEM techniques, as well as home-build experimental setup for thermoelectric measurements. It was found that introducing of temporary carrier gas flow into the process tube during the synthesis and deposition substrate choice significantly influence nanostructures formation mechanism. Electrical, thermoelectric, and topological insulator properties of different types of deposited Bi₂Se₃ nanostructures and nanostructured coatings are characterized as a function of thickness and discussed.

Keywords: bismuth seleinde, nanostructures, topological insulator, vapour-solid deposition

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12 Endocrine Therapy-Induced Alopecia in Patients with Breast Cancer in Tunisia

Authors: Aref Zribi, Sonia Ben Nasr, Sana Fendri, Mahdi Balti, Abderazzek Haddaoui

Abstract:

Background: Despite their benefit, Endocrine therapies (ET) are known to have substantial adverse events (AEs) such as hot flashes, mood disorders and osteoarticular pain. ET induced alopecia(EIA) is less frequently noted by patients and is less reported in the literature. The aim of our study was to report ET alopecia characteristics and their influence on patient and treatment observance. Method: We conducted a retrospective study including luminal BC patients treated in the oncology department of the military hospital of Tunis between January 2015 and December 2020. Patients treated with previous chemotherapy-inducing alopecia were excluded. Results: 145 female patients were included. The median age was 59 years. EIA was reported in 44% of cases. Alopecia was attributed to aromatase inhibitors in 53% and tamoxifen in 21%. Severity was grade 1 in 80% and grade 2 in the remaining cases. ET discontinuation because of alopecia was noted in 6.5 % of patients. Moderate improvement of alopecia was observed with topical minoxidil and Thallium metallicum 9CH homeopathy during ET in 60% of patients. Conclusions: EIA is frequent in BC patients and should be considered to improve treatment observance and patients’ quality of life.

Keywords: endocrine therapy, alopecia, breast cancer, Tunisia

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11 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique of CdS Used in Closed Space Sublimation of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Z. Mahmood, F. U. Babar, S. Naz, H. U. Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Ellipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here). The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper-indium–gallium-selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %. The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD), cadmium sulphide (CdS), CdTe, CSS (Closed Space Sublimation)

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10 Simultaneous Analysis of 25 Trace Elements in Micro Volume of Human Serum by Inductively Coupled Plasma–Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Azmawati Mohammed Nawi, Siok-Fong Chin, Shamsul Azhar Shah, Rahman Jamal

Abstract:

In recent years, trace elements have gained importance as biomarkers in many chronic diseases. Unfortunately, the requirement for sample volume increases according to the extent of investigation for diagnosis or elucidating the mechanism of the disease. Here, we describe the method development and validation for simultaneous determination of 25 trace elements (lithium (Li), beryllium (Be), magnesium (Mg), aluminium (Al), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), gallium (Ga), arsenic (As), selenium (Se), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), caesium (Cs), barium (Ba), mercury (Hg), thallium (Tl), lead (Pb), uranium (U)) using just 20 µL of human serum. Serum samples were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid (ratio 1:1, v/v) and analysed using inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Seronorm®, a human-derived serum control material was used as quality control samples. The intra-day and inter-day precisions were consistently < 15% for all elements. The validated method was later applied to 30 human serum samples to evaluate its suitability. In conclusion, we have successfully developed and validated a precise and accurate analytical method for determining 25 trace elements requiring very low volume of human serum.

Keywords: acid digestion, ICP-MS, trace element, serum

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9 Radionuclide Contents and Exhalation Studies in Soil Samples from Sub-Mountainous Region of Jammu and Kashmir

Authors: Manpreet Kaur

Abstract:

The effect of external and internal exposure in outdoor and indoor environment can be significantly gauged by natural radionuclides. Therefore, it is a consequential to approximate the level of radionuclide contents in soil samples of any area and the risks associated with it. Rate of radon emerging from soil is also one of the prominent parameters for the assessment of radon levels in environmental. In present study, natural radionuclide contents viz. ²³²Th, ²³⁸U and ⁴⁰K and radon/thoron exhalation rates were evaluated operating thallium doped sodium iodide gamma radiation detector and advanced Smart Rn Duo technique in the soil samples from 30 villages of Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Radon flux rate was also measured by using surface chamber technique. Results obtained with two different methods were compared to investigate the cause of emanation factor in the soil profile. The radon mass exhalation rate in the soil samples has been found varying from 15 ± 0.4 to 38 ± 0.8 mBq kg⁻¹ h⁻¹ while thoron surface exhalation rate has been found varying from 90 ± 22 to 4880 ± 280 Bq m⁻² h⁻¹. The mean value of radium equivalent activity (99 ± 27 Bq kg⁻¹) was appeared to be well within the admissible limit of 370 Bq kg⁻¹ suggested by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2009) report. The values of various parameters related to radiological hazards were also calculated and all parameters have been found to be well below the safe limits given by various organizations. The outcomes pointed out that region was protected from danger as per health risks effects associated with these radionuclide contents is concerned.

Keywords: absorbed dose rate, exhalation rate, human health, radionuclide

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8 Shape Evolution of CdSe Quantum Dots during the Synthesis in the Presence of Silver Halides

Authors: Pavel Kotin, Sergey Dotofeev, Daniil Kozlov, Alexey Garshev

Abstract:

We propose the investigation of CdSe quantum dots which were synthesized in the presence of silver halides. To understand a process of nanoparticle formation in more detail, we varied the silver halide amount in the synthesis and proposed a sampling during colloidal growth. The attempts were focused on the investigation of shape, structure and optical properties of nanoparticles. We used the colloidal method of synthesis. Cadmium oleate, tri-n-octylphosphine selenide (TOPSe) and AgHal in TOP were precursors of cadmium, selenium and silver halides correspondingly. The molar Ag/Cd ratio in synthesis was varied from 1/16 to 1/1. The sampling was basically realized in 20 sec, 5 min, and 30 min after the beginning of quantum dots nucleation. To investigate nanoparticles we used transmission electron microscopy (including high resolution one), X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy. It was established that silver halides lead to obtaining tetrapods with different leg length and large ellipsoidal nanoparticles possessing an intensive near IR photoluminescence. The change of the amount of silver halide in synthesis and the selection of an optimal growth time allows controlling the shape and the share of tetrapods or ellipsoidal nanoparticles in the product. Our main attempts were focused on a detailed investigation of the quantum dots structure and shape evolution and, finally, on mechanisms of such nanoparticle formation.

Keywords: colloidal quantum dots, shape evolution, silver doping, tetrapods

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7 Recent Progress in the Uncooled Mid-Infrared Lead Selenide Polycrystalline Photodetector

Authors: Hao Yang, Lei Chen, Ting Mei, Jianbang Zheng

Abstract:

Currently, the uncooled PbSe photodetectors in the mid-infrared range (2-5μm) with sensitization technology extract more photoelectric response than traditional ones, and enable the room temperature (300K) photo-detection with high detectivity, which have attracted wide attentions in many fields. This technology generally contains the film fabrication with vapor phase deposition (VPD) and a sensitizing process with doping of oxygen and iodine. Many works presented in the recent years almost provide and high temperature activation method with oxygen/iodine vapor diffusion, which reveals that oxygen or iodine plays an important role in the sensitization of PbSe material. In this paper, we provide our latest experimental results and discussions in the stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine and its influence on the polycrystalline structure and photo-response. The experimental results revealed that crystal orientation was transformed from (200) to (420) by sensitization, and the responsivity of 5.42 A/W was gained by the optimal stoichiometry of oxygen and iodine with molecular density of I2 of ~1.51×1012 mm-3 and oxygen pressure of ~1Mpa. We verified that I2 plays a role in transporting oxygen into the lattice of crystal, which is actually not its major role. It is revealed that samples sensitized with iodine transform atomic proportion of Pb from 34.5% to 25.0% compared with samples without iodine from XPS data, which result in the proportion of about 1:1 between Pb and Se atoms by sublimation of PbI2 during sensitization process, and Pb/Se atomic proportion is controlled by I/O atomic proportion in the polycrystalline grains, which is very an important factor for improving responsivity of uncooled PbSe photodetector. Moreover, a novel sensitization and dopant activation method is proposed using oxygen ion implantation with low ion energy of < 500eV and beam current of ~120μA/cm2. These results may be helpful to understanding the sensitization mechanism of polycrystalline lead salt materials.

Keywords: polycrystalline PbSe, sensitization, transport, stoichiometry

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6 Investigation of Doping of CdSe QDs in Organic Semiconductor for Solar Cell Applications

Authors: Ganesh R. Bhand, N. B. Chaure

Abstract:

Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by solvothermal route. Subsequently a inorganic QDs-organic semiconductor (copper phthalocyanine) nanocomposite (i.e CuPc:CdSe nanocomposites) were produced by different concentration of QDs varied in CuPc. The nanocomposite thin films have been prepared by means of spin coating technique. The optical, structural and morphological properties of nanocomposite films have been investigated. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of QDs having average size of  4 nm. The X-ray diffraction pattern exhibits cubic crystal structure of CdSe with reflection to (111), (220) and (311) at 25.4ᵒ, 42.2ᵒ and 49.6ᵒ respectively. The additional peak observed at lower angle at 6.9ᵒ in nanocomposite thin films are associated to CuPc. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) observed that surface morphology varied in increasing concentration of CdSe QDs. The obtained nanocomposite show significant improvement in the thermal stability as compared to the pure CuPc indicated by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in thermograph. The effect in the Raman spectra of composites samples gives a confirm evidence of homogenous dispersion of CdSe in the CuPc matrix and their strong interaction between them to promotes charge transfer property. The success of reaction between composite was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The photo physical properties were studied using UV - visible spectroscopy. The enhancement of the optical absorption in visible region for nanocomposite layer was observed with increasing the concentration of CdSe in CuPc. This composite may obtain the maximized interface between QDs and polymer for efficient charge separation and enhance the charge transport. Such nanocomposite films for potential application in fabrication of hybrid solar cell with improved power conversion efficiency.

Keywords: CdSe QDs, cupper phthalocyanine, FTIR, optical absorption

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5 A Comparison of Biosorption of Radionuclides Tl-201 on Different Biosorbents and Their Empirical Modelling

Authors: Sinan Yapici, Hayrettin Eroglu

Abstract:

The discharge of the aqueous radionuclides wastes used for the diagnoses of diseases and treatments of patients in nuclear medicine can cause fatal health problems when the radionuclides and its stable daughter component mix with underground water. Tl-201, which is one of the radionuclides commonly used in the nuclear medicine, is a toxic substance and is converted to its stable daughter component Hg-201, which is also a poisonous heavy metal: Tl201 → Hg201 + Gamma Ray [135-167 Kev (12%)] + X Ray [69-83 Kev (88%)]; t1/2 = 73,1 h. The purpose of the present work was to remove Tl-201 radionuclides from aqueous solution by biosorption on the solid bio wastes of food and cosmetic industry as bio sorbents of prina from an olive oil plant, rose residue from a rose oil plant and tea residue from a tea plant, and to make a comparison of the biosorption efficiencies. The effects of the biosorption temperature, initial pH of the aqueous solution, bio sorbent dose, particle size and stirring speed on the biosorption yield were investigated in a batch process. It was observed that the biosorption is a rapid process with an equilibrium time less than 10 minutes for all the bio sorbents. The efficiencies were found to be close to each other and measured maximum efficiencies were 93,30 percent for rose residue, 94,1 for prina and 98,4 for tea residue. In a temperature range of 283 and 313 K, the adsorption decreased with increasing temperature almost in a similar way. In a pH range of 2-10, increasing pH enhanced biosorption efficiency up to pH=7 and then the efficiency remained constant in a similar path for all the biosorbents. Increasing stirring speed from 360 to 720 rpm enhanced slightly the biosorption efficiency almost at the same ratio for all bio sorbents. Increasing particle size decreased the efficiency for all biosorbent; however the most negatively effected biosorbent was prina with a decrease in biosorption efficiency from about 84 percent to 40 with an increase in the nominal particle size 0,181 mm to 1,05 while the least effected one, tea residue, went down from about 97 percent to 87,5. The biosorption efficiencies of all the bio sorbents increased with increasing biosorbent dose in the range of 1,5 to 15,0 g/L in a similar manner. The fit of the experimental results to the adsorption isotherms proved that the biosorption process for all the bio sorbents can be represented best by Freundlich model. The kinetic analysis showed that all the processes fit very well to pseudo second order rate model. The thermodynamics calculations gave ∆G values between -8636 J mol-1 and -5378 for tea residue, -5313 and -3343 for rose residue, and -5701 and -3642 for prina with a ∆H values of -39516 J mol-1, -23660 and -26190, and ∆S values of -108.8 J mol-1 K-1, -64,0, -72,0 respectively, showing spontaneous and exothermic character of the processes. An empirical biosorption model in the following form was derived for each biosorbent as function of the parameters and time, taking into account the form of kinetic model, with regression coefficients over 0.9990 where At is biosorbtion efficiency at any time and Ae is the equilibrium efficiency, t is adsorption period as s, ko a constant, pH the initial acidity of biosorption medium, w the stirring speed as s-1, S the biosorbent dose as g L-1, D the particle size as m, and a, b, c, and e are the powers of the parameters, respectively, E a constant containing activation energy and T the temperature as K.

Keywords: radiation, diosorption, thallium, empirical modelling

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4 Distinguishing between Bacterial and Viral Infections Based on Peripheral Human Blood Tests Using Infrared Microscopy and Multivariate Analysis

Authors: H. Agbaria, A. Salman, M. Huleihel, G. Beck, D. H. Rich, S. Mordechai, J. Kapelushnik

Abstract:

Viral and bacterial infections are responsible for variety of diseases. These infections have similar symptoms like fever, sneezing, inflammation, vomiting, diarrhea and fatigue. Thus, physicians may encounter difficulties in distinguishing between viral and bacterial infections based on these symptoms. Bacterial infections differ from viral infections in many other important respects regarding the response to various medications and the structure of the organisms. In many cases, it is difficult to know the origin of the infection. The physician orders a blood, urine test, or 'culture test' of tissue to diagnose the infection type when it is necessary. Using these methods, the time that elapses between the receipt of patient material and the presentation of the test results to the clinician is typically too long ( > 24 hours). This time is crucial in many cases for saving the life of the patient and for planning the right medical treatment. Thus, rapid identification of bacterial and viral infections in the lab is of great importance for effective treatment especially in cases of emergency. Blood was collected from 50 patients with confirmed viral infection and 50 with confirmed bacterial infection. White blood cells (WBCs) and plasma were isolated and deposited on a zinc selenide slide, dried and measured under a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope to obtain their infrared absorption spectra. The acquired spectra of WBCs and plasma were analyzed in order to differentiate between the two types of infections. In this study, the potential of FTIR microscopy in tandem with multivariate analysis was evaluated for the identification of the agent that causes the human infection. The method was used to identify the infectious agent type as either bacterial or viral, based on an analysis of the blood components [i.e., white blood cells (WBC) and plasma] using their infrared vibrational spectra. The time required for the analysis and evaluation after obtaining the blood sample was less than one hour. In the analysis, minute spectral differences in several bands of the FTIR spectra of WBCs were observed between groups of samples with viral and bacterial infections. By employing the techniques of feature extraction with linear discriminant analysis (LDA), a sensitivity of ~92 % and a specificity of ~86 % for an infection type diagnosis was achieved. The present preliminary study suggests that FTIR spectroscopy of WBCs is a potentially feasible and efficient tool for the diagnosis of the infection type.

Keywords: viral infection, bacterial infection, linear discriminant analysis, plasma, white blood cells, infrared spectroscopy

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3 Thermoluminescence Investigations of Tl2Ga2Se3S Layered Single Crystals

Authors: Serdar Delice, Mehmet Isik, Nizami Hasanli, Kadir Goksen

Abstract:

Researchers have donated great interest to ternary and quaternary semiconductor compounds especially with the improvement of the optoelectronic technology. The quaternary compound Tl2Ga2Se3S which was grown by Bridgman method carries the properties of ternary thallium chalcogenides group of semiconductors with layered structure. This compound can be formed from TlGaSe2 crystals replacing the one quarter of selenium atom by sulfur atom. Although Tl2Ga2Se3S crystals are not intentionally doped, some unintended defect types such as point defects, dislocations and stacking faults can occur during growth processes of crystals. These defects can cause undesirable problems in semiconductor materials especially produced for optoelectronic technology. Defects of various types in the semiconductor devices like LEDs and field effect transistor may act as a non-radiative or scattering center in electron transport. Also, quick recombination of holes with electrons without any energy transfer between charge carriers can occur due to the existence of defects. Therefore, the characterization of defects may help the researchers working in this field to produce high quality devices. Thermoluminescence (TL) is an effective experimental method to determine the kinetic parameters of trap centers due to defects in crystals. In this method, the sample is illuminated at low temperature by a light whose energy is bigger than the band gap of studied sample. Thus, charge carriers in the valence band are excited to delocalized band. Then, the charge carriers excited into conduction band are trapped. The trapped charge carriers are released by heating the sample gradually and these carriers then recombine with the opposite carriers at the recombination center. By this way, some luminescence is emitted from the samples. The emitted luminescence is converted to pulses by using an experimental setup controlled by computer program and TL spectrum is obtained. Defect characterization of Tl2Ga2Se3S single crystals has been performed by TL measurements at low temperatures between 10 and 300 K with various heating rate ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 K/s. The TL signal due to the luminescence from trap centers revealed one glow peak having maximum temperature of 36 K. Curve fitting and various heating rate methods were used for the analysis of the glow curve. The activation energy of 13 meV was found by the application of curve fitting method. This practical method established also that the trap center exhibits the characteristics of mixed (general) kinetic order. In addition, various heating rate analysis gave a compatible result (13 meV) with curve fitting as the temperature lag effect was taken into consideration. Since the studied crystals were not intentionally doped, these centers are thought to originate from stacking faults, which are quite possible in Tl2Ga2Se3S due to the weakness of the van der Waals forces between the layers. Distribution of traps was also investigated using an experimental method. A quasi-continuous distribution was attributed to the determined trap centers.

Keywords: chalcogenides, defects, thermoluminescence, trap centers

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2 Real-Space Mapping of Surface Trap States in Cigse Nanocrystals Using 4D Electron Microscopy

Authors: Riya Bose, Ashok Bera, Manas R. Parida, Anirudhha Adhikari, Basamat S. Shaheen, Erkki Alarousu, Jingya Sun, Tom Wu, Osman M. Bakr, Omar F. Mohammed

Abstract:

This work reports visualization of charge carrier dynamics on the surface of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGSe) nanocrystals in real space and time using four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (4D S-UEM) and correlates it with the optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals. The surface of the nanocrystals plays a key role in controlling their applicability for light emitting and light harvesting purposes. Typically for quaternary systems like CIGSe, which have many desirable attributes to be used for optoelectronic applications, relative abundance of surface trap states acting as non-radiative recombination centre for charge carriers remains as a major bottleneck preventing further advancements and commercial exploitation of these nanocrystals devices. Though ultrafast spectroscopic techniques allow determining the presence of picosecond carrier trapping channels, because of relative larger penetration depth of the laser beam, only information mainly from the bulk of the nanocrystals is obtained. Selective mapping of such ultrafast dynamical processes on the surfaces of nanocrystals remains as a key challenge, so far out of reach of purely optical probing time-resolved laser techniques. In S-UEM, the optical pulse generated from a femtosecond (fs) laser system is used to generate electron packets from the tip of the scanning electron microscope, instead of the continuous electron beam used in the conventional setup. This pulse is synchronized with another optical excitation pulse that initiates carrier dynamics in the sample. The principle of S-UEM is to detect the secondary electrons (SEs) generated in the sample, which is emitted from the first few nanometers of the top surface. Constructed at different time delays between the optical and electron pulses, these SE images give direct and precise information about the carrier dynamics on the surface of the material of interest. In this work, we report selective mapping of surface dynamics in real space and time of CIGSe nanocrystals applying 4D S-UEM. We show that the trap states can be considerably passivated by ZnS shelling of the nanocrystals, and the carrier dynamics can be significantly slowed down. We also compared and discussed the S-UEM kinetics with the carrier dynamics obtained from conventional ultrafast time-resolved techniques. Additionally, a direct effect of the state trap removal can be observed in the enhanced photoresponse of the nanocrystals after shelling. Direct observation of surface dynamics will not only provide a profound understanding of the photo-physical mechanisms on nanocrystals’ surfaces but also enable to unlock their full potential for light emitting and harvesting applications.

Keywords: 4D scanning ultrafast microscopy, charge carrier dynamics, nanocrystals, optoelectronics, surface passivation, trap states

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1 Quantum Dots Incorporated in Biomembrane Models for Cancer Marker

Authors: Thiago E. Goto, Carla C. Lopes, Helena B. Nader, Anielle C. A. Silva, Noelio O. Dantas, José R. Siqueira Jr., Luciano Caseli

Abstract:

Quantum dots (QD) are semiconductor nanocrystals that can be employed in biological research as a tool for fluorescence imagings, having the potential to expand in vivo and in vitro analysis as cancerous cell biomarkers. Particularly, cadmium selenide (CdSe) magic-sized quantum dots (MSQDs) exhibit stable luminescence that is feasible for biological applications, especially for imaging of tumor cells. For these facts, it is interesting to know the mechanisms of action of how such QDs mark biological cells. For that, simplified models are a suitable strategy. Among these models, Langmuir films of lipids formed at the air-water interface seem to be adequate since they can mimic half a membrane. They are monomolecular films formed at liquid-gas interfaces that can spontaneously form when organic solutions of amphiphilic compounds are spread on the liquid-gas interface. After solvent evaporation, the monomolecular film is formed, and a variety of techniques, including tensiometric, spectroscopic and optic can be applied. When the monolayer is formed by membrane lipids at the air-water interface, a model for half a membrane can be inferred where the aqueous subphase serve as a model for external or internal compartment of the cell. These films can be transferred to solid supports forming the so-called Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and an ampler variety of techniques can be additionally used to characterize the film, allowing for the formation of devices and sensors. With these ideas in mind, the objective of this work was to investigate the specific interactions of CdSe MSQDs with tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells using Langmuir monolayers and LB films of lipids and specific cell extracts as membrane models for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Surface pressure-area isotherms and polarization modulation reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) showed an intrinsic interaction between the quantum dots, inserted in the aqueous subphase, and Langmuir monolayers, constructed either of selected lipids or of non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic cells extracts. The quantum dots expanded the monolayers and changed the PM-IRRAS spectra for the lipid monolayers. The mixed films were then compressed to high surface pressures and transferred from the floating monolayer to solid supports by using the LB technique. Images of the films were then obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal microscopy, which provided information about the morphology of the films. Similarities and differences between films with different composition representing cell membranes, with or without CdSe MSQDs, was analyzed. The results indicated that the interaction of quantum dots with the bioinspired films is modulated by the lipid composition. The properties of the normal cell monolayer were not significantly altered, whereas for the tumorigenic cell monolayer models, the films presented significant alteration. The images therefore exhibited a stronger effect of CdSe MSQDs on the models representing cancerous cells. As important implication of these findings, one may envisage for new bioinspired surfaces based on molecular recognition for biomedical applications.

Keywords: biomembrane, langmuir monolayers, quantum dots, surfaces

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