Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: CdSe QDs

17 Enhanced Ripening Behaviour of Manganese Doped Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (Mn-doped CdSe QDs)

Authors: N. A. Hamizi, M. R. Johan, Y. H. Hor, A. N. Sabri, Y. Y. A. Yong

Abstract:

In this research, Mn-doped CdSe QDs is synthesized by using paraffin liquid as the reacting solvent and oleic acid as the ligands for Cd in order to produce Mn-doped CdSe QDs in zinc-blende crystal structure. Characterization studies for synthesized Mn-doped CdSe QDs are carried out using UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The absorption wavelengths in UV-vis test and emission wavelengths in PL test were increase with the increases in the ripening temperature and time respectively.

Keywords: semiconductor, chemical synthesis, optical properties, ripening

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16 Controlled Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots via Microwave-Enhanced Process: A Green Approach for Mass Production

Authors: Delele Worku Ayele, Bing-Joe Hwang

Abstract:

A method that does not employ hot injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses relatively less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and, thus, their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. The possible application of the as-prepared CdSe QDs has been also assessed using deposition on TiO2 films.

Keywords: average life time, CdSe QDs, microwave (MW), mass production oleic acid, Na2SeSO3

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15 Rapid Microwave-Enhanced Process for Synthesis of CdSe Quantum Dots for Large Scale Production and Manipulation of Optical Properties

Authors: Delele Worku Ayele, Bing-Joe Hwang

Abstract:

A method that does not employ hot injection techniques has been developed for the size-tunable synthesis of high-quality CdSe quantum dots (QDs) with a zinc blende structure. In this environmentally benign synthetic route, which uses relatively less toxic precursors, solvents, and capping ligands, CdSe QDs that absorb visible light are obtained. The size of the as-prepared CdSe QDs and, thus, their optical properties can be manipulated by changing the microwave reaction conditions. The QDs are characterized by XRD, TEM, UV-vis, FTIR, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectrophotometry. In this approach, the reaction is conducted in open air and at a much lower temperature than in hot injection techniques. The use of microwaves in this process allows for a highly reproducible and effective synthesis protocol that is fully adaptable for mass production and can be easily employed to synthesize a variety of semiconductor QDs with the desired properties. The possible application of the as-prepared CdSe QDs has been also assessed using deposition on TiO2 films.

Keywords: CdSe QDs, Na2SeSO3, microwave (MW), oleic acid, mass production, average life time

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14 A Ratiometric Inorganic Phosphate Sensor Based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Rhodamine 6G-Doped Nanofibers

Authors: Hong Dinh Duong, Jong Il Rhee

Abstract:

In this study, a ratiometric inorganic phosphate sensor was fabricated by a double layer of the rhodamine 6G-doped nanofibers and the CdSe/ZnS QDs-captured polymer. In which, CdSe/ZnS QDs with emission wavelengths of 595nm were synthesized and ligands on their surface were exchanged with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The synthesized MPA-QDs were combined with the mixture of sol-gel of 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyurethane (PU) to build a layer for sensing inorganic phosphate. Another sensing layer was of nanofibers doped R6G which were produced from poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) by electrospining. The ratio of fluorescence intensities between rhodamin 6G (R6G) and CdSe/ZnS QDs exposed at different phosphate concentrations was used for calculating a linear phosphate concentration range of 0-10mM.

Keywords: nanofiber, QDs, ratiometric phosphate sensor, rhodamine 6G, sol-gel

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13 Biocompatibility and Sensing Ability of Highly Luminescent Synthesized Core-Shell Quantum Dots

Authors: Mohan Singh Mehata, R. K. Ratnesh

Abstract:

CdSe, CdSe/ZnS, and CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) of 3-4 nm were developed by using chemical route and following successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) methods. The prepared QDs have been examined by using X-ray diffraction, high-resolution electron microscopy and optical spectroscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) of core-shell QDs increases with respect to the core, indicating that the radiative rate increases by the formation of shell around core, as evident by the measurement of PL lifetime. Further, the PL of bovine serum albumin is quenched strongly by the presence of core-shall QDs and follow the Stern-Volmer (S-V) relation, whereas the lifetime does not follow the S-V relation, demonstrating that the observed quenching is predominantly static in nature. Among all the QDs, the CdSe/ZnS QDs shows the least cytotoxicity hence most biocompatibility.

Keywords: biocompatibility, core-shell quantum dots, photoluminescence and lifetime, sensing ability

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12 The Effect of Career Decision Self Efficacy on Coping with Career Indecision among Young Adults

Authors: Yuliya Lipshits-Braziler

Abstract:

For many young adults, career decision making is a difficult and complex process that may lead to indecision. Indecision is frequently associated with great psychological distress and low levels of well-being. One important resource for dealing with indecision is career decision self-efficacy (CDSE), which refers to people’s beliefs about their ability to successfully accomplish certain tasks involved in career choice. Drawing from Social Cognitive Theory, it has been hypothesized that CDSE correlates with (a) people’s likelihood to engage in or avoid career decision making tasks, (b) the amount of effort put into the decision making process, (c) the people’s persistence in decision making efforts when faced with difficulties, and (d) the eventual success in arriving at career decisions. Based on these assumptions, the present study examines the associations between the CDSE and 14 strategies for coping with career indecision among young adults. Using the structural equation modeling (SEM), the results showed that CDSE is positively associated with the use of productive coping strategies, such as information-seeking, problem-solving, positive thinking, and self-regulation. In addition, CDSE was negatively associated with nonproductive coping strategies, such as avoidance, isolation, ruminative thinking, and blaming others. Contrary to our expectations, CDSE was not significantly correlated with instrumental help-seeking, while it was negatively correlated with emotional help-seeking. The results of this study can be used to facilitate the development of interventions aiming to reinforce young adults’ career decision making self-efficacy, which may provide them with a basis for overcoming career indecision more effectively.

Keywords: career decision self-efficacy, career indecision, coping strategies, career counseling

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11 Investigation of Doping of CdSe QDs in Organic Semiconductor for Solar Cell Applications

Authors: Ganesh R. Bhand, N. B. Chaure

Abstract:

Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by solvothermal route. Subsequently a inorganic QDs-organic semiconductor (copper phthalocyanine) nanocomposite (i.e CuPc:CdSe nanocomposites) were produced by different concentration of QDs varied in CuPc. The nanocomposite thin films have been prepared by means of spin coating technique. The optical, structural and morphological properties of nanocomposite films have been investigated. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed the formation of QDs having average size of  4 nm. The X-ray diffraction pattern exhibits cubic crystal structure of CdSe with reflection to (111), (220) and (311) at 25.4ᵒ, 42.2ᵒ and 49.6ᵒ respectively. The additional peak observed at lower angle at 6.9ᵒ in nanocomposite thin films are associated to CuPc. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) observed that surface morphology varied in increasing concentration of CdSe QDs. The obtained nanocomposite show significant improvement in the thermal stability as compared to the pure CuPc indicated by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in thermograph. The effect in the Raman spectra of composites samples gives a confirm evidence of homogenous dispersion of CdSe in the CuPc matrix and their strong interaction between them to promotes charge transfer property. The success of reaction between composite was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The photo physical properties were studied using UV - visible spectroscopy. The enhancement of the optical absorption in visible region for nanocomposite layer was observed with increasing the concentration of CdSe in CuPc. This composite may obtain the maximized interface between QDs and polymer for efficient charge separation and enhance the charge transport. Such nanocomposite films for potential application in fabrication of hybrid solar cell with improved power conversion efficiency.

Keywords: CdSe QDs, cupper phthalocyanine, FTIR, optical absorption

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10 Examination of Contaminations in Fabricated Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots Using Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy

Authors: Walid Tawfik, W. Askam Farooq, Sultan F. Alqhtani

Abstract:

Quantum dots (QDots) are nanometer-sized crystals, less than 10 nm, comprise a semiconductor or metallic materials and contain from 100 - 100,000 atoms in each crystal. QDots play an important role in many applications; light emitting devices (LEDs), solar cells, drug delivery, and optical computers. In the current research, a fundamental wavelength of Nd:YAG laser was applied to analyse the impurities in homemade cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDots through laser-induced plasma (LIPS) technique. The CdSe QDots were fabricated by using hot-solution decomposition method where a mixture of Cd precursor and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) is prepared at concentrations of TOPO under controlled temperatures 200-350ºC. By applying laser energy of 15 mJ, at frequency 10 Hz, and delay time 500 ns, LIPS spectra of CdSe QDots samples were observed. The qualitative LIPS analysis for CdSe QDs revealed that the sample contains Cd, Te, Se, H, P, Ar, O, Ni, C, Al and He impurities. These observed results gave precise details of the impurities present in the QDs sample. These impurities are important for future work at which controlling the impurity contents in the QDs samples may improve the physical, optical and electrical properties of the QDs used for solar cell application.

Keywords: cadmium selenide, TOPO, LIPS spectroscopy, quantum dots

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9 Shape Evolution of CdSe Quantum Dots during the Synthesis in the Presence of Silver Halides

Authors: Pavel Kotin, Sergey Dotofeev, Daniil Kozlov, Alexey Garshev

Abstract:

We propose the investigation of CdSe quantum dots which were synthesized in the presence of silver halides. To understand a process of nanoparticle formation in more detail, we varied the silver halide amount in the synthesis and proposed a sampling during colloidal growth. The attempts were focused on the investigation of shape, structure and optical properties of nanoparticles. We used the colloidal method of synthesis. Cadmium oleate, tri-n-octylphosphine selenide (TOPSe) and AgHal in TOP were precursors of cadmium, selenium and silver halides correspondingly. The molar Ag/Cd ratio in synthesis was varied from 1/16 to 1/1. The sampling was basically realized in 20 sec, 5 min, and 30 min after the beginning of quantum dots nucleation. To investigate nanoparticles we used transmission electron microscopy (including high resolution one), X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy. It was established that silver halides lead to obtaining tetrapods with different leg length and large ellipsoidal nanoparticles possessing an intensive near IR photoluminescence. The change of the amount of silver halide in synthesis and the selection of an optimal growth time allows controlling the shape and the share of tetrapods or ellipsoidal nanoparticles in the product. Our main attempts were focused on a detailed investigation of the quantum dots structure and shape evolution and, finally, on mechanisms of such nanoparticle formation.

Keywords: colloidal quantum dots, shape evolution, silver doping, tetrapods

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8 Comparison of Methods for the Synthesis of Eu+++, Tb+++, and Tm+++ Doped Y2O3 Nanophosphors by Sol-Gel and Hydrothermal Methods for Bioconjugation

Authors: Ravindra P. Singh, Drupad Ram, Dinesh K. Gupta

Abstract:

Rare earth ions doped metal oxides are a class of luminescent materials which have been proved to be excellent for applications in field emission displays and cathode ray tubes, plasma display panels. Under UV irradiation Eu+++ doped Y2O3 is a red phosphor and Tb+++ doped Y 2O3 is a green phosphor. It is possible that, due to their high quantum efficiency, they might serve as improved luminescent markers for identification of biomolecules, as already reported for CdSe and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals. However, for any biological applications these particle powders must be suspended in water while retaining their phosphorescence. We hereby report synthesis and characterization of Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped yttrium oxide nanoparticles by sol-gel and hydrothermal processes. Eu+++ and Tb+++ doped Y2O3 nanoparticles have been synthesized by hydrothermal process using yttrium oxo isopropoxide [Y5O(OPri)13] (crystallized twice) and it’s acetyl acetone modified product [Y(O)(acac)] as precursors. Generally the sol-gel derived metal oxides are required to be annealed to the temperature ranging from 400°C-800°C in order to develop crystalline phases. However, this annealing also results in the development of aggregates which are undesirable for bio-conjugation experiments. In the hydrothermal process, we have achieved crystallinity of the nanoparticles at 300°C and the development of crystalline phases has been found to be proportional to the time of heating of the reactor. The average particle sizes as calculated from XRD were found to be 28 nm, 32 nm, and 34 nm by hydrothermal process. The particles were successfully suspended in chloroform in the presence of trioctyl phosphene oxide and TEM investigations showed the presence of single particles along with agglomerates.

Keywords: nanophosphors, Y2O3:Eu+3, Y2O3:Tb+3, sol-gel, hydrothermal method, TEM, XRD

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7 Quantum Dots Incorporated in Biomembrane Models for Cancer Marker

Authors: Thiago E. Goto, Carla C. Lopes, Helena B. Nader, Anielle C. A. Silva, Noelio O. Dantas, José R. Siqueira Jr., Luciano Caseli

Abstract:

Quantum dots (QD) are semiconductor nanocrystals that can be employed in biological research as a tool for fluorescence imagings, having the potential to expand in vivo and in vitro analysis as cancerous cell biomarkers. Particularly, cadmium selenide (CdSe) magic-sized quantum dots (MSQDs) exhibit stable luminescence that is feasible for biological applications, especially for imaging of tumor cells. For these facts, it is interesting to know the mechanisms of action of how such QDs mark biological cells. For that, simplified models are a suitable strategy. Among these models, Langmuir films of lipids formed at the air-water interface seem to be adequate since they can mimic half a membrane. They are monomolecular films formed at liquid-gas interfaces that can spontaneously form when organic solutions of amphiphilic compounds are spread on the liquid-gas interface. After solvent evaporation, the monomolecular film is formed, and a variety of techniques, including tensiometric, spectroscopic and optic can be applied. When the monolayer is formed by membrane lipids at the air-water interface, a model for half a membrane can be inferred where the aqueous subphase serve as a model for external or internal compartment of the cell. These films can be transferred to solid supports forming the so-called Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and an ampler variety of techniques can be additionally used to characterize the film, allowing for the formation of devices and sensors. With these ideas in mind, the objective of this work was to investigate the specific interactions of CdSe MSQDs with tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells using Langmuir monolayers and LB films of lipids and specific cell extracts as membrane models for diagnosis of cancerous cells. Surface pressure-area isotherms and polarization modulation reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) showed an intrinsic interaction between the quantum dots, inserted in the aqueous subphase, and Langmuir monolayers, constructed either of selected lipids or of non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic cells extracts. The quantum dots expanded the monolayers and changed the PM-IRRAS spectra for the lipid monolayers. The mixed films were then compressed to high surface pressures and transferred from the floating monolayer to solid supports by using the LB technique. Images of the films were then obtained with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal microscopy, which provided information about the morphology of the films. Similarities and differences between films with different composition representing cell membranes, with or without CdSe MSQDs, was analyzed. The results indicated that the interaction of quantum dots with the bioinspired films is modulated by the lipid composition. The properties of the normal cell monolayer were not significantly altered, whereas for the tumorigenic cell monolayer models, the films presented significant alteration. The images therefore exhibited a stronger effect of CdSe MSQDs on the models representing cancerous cells. As important implication of these findings, one may envisage for new bioinspired surfaces based on molecular recognition for biomedical applications.

Keywords: biomembrane, langmuir monolayers, quantum dots, surfaces

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6 Spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy for the Characterization of CdSxSe1-x Quantum Dots in a Glass Matrix

Authors: C. Fornacelli, P. Colomban, E. Mugnaioli, I. Memmi Turbanti

Abstract:

When semiconductor particles are reduced in scale to nanometer dimension, their optical and electro-optical properties strongly differ from those of bulk crystals of the same composition. Since sampling is often not allowed concerning cultural heritage artefacts, the potentialities of two non-invasive techniques, such as Raman and Fiber Optic Reflectance Spectroscopy (FORS), have been investigated and the results of the analysis on some original glasses of different colours (from yellow to orange and deep red) and periods (from the second decade of the 20th century to present days) are reported in the present study. In order to evaluate the potentialities of the application of non-invasive techniques to the investigation of the structure and distribution of nanoparticles dispersed in a glass matrix, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and energy-disperse spectroscopy (EDS) mapping, together with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Electron Diffraction Tomography (EDT) have also been used. Raman spectroscopy allows a fast and non-destructive measure of the quantum dots composition and size, thanks to the evaluation of the frequencies and the broadening/asymmetry of the LO phonons bands, respectively, though the important role of the compressive strain arising from the glass matrix and the possible diffusion of zinc from the matrix to the nanocrystals should be taken into account when considering the optical-phonons frequency values. The incorporation of Zn has been assumed by an upward shifting of the LO band related to the most abundant anion (S or Se), while the role of the surface phonons as well as the confinement-induced scattering by phonons with a non-zero wavevectors on the Raman peaks broadening has been verified. The optical band gap varies from 2.42 eV (pure CdS) to 1.70 eV (CdSe). For the compositional range between 0.5≤x≤0.2, the presence of two absorption edges has been related to the contribution of both pure CdS and the CdSxSe1-x solid solution; this particular feature is probably due to the presence of unaltered cubic zinc blende structures of CdS that is not taking part to the formation of the solid solution occurring only between hexagonal CdS and CdSe. Moreover, the band edge tailing originating from the disorder due to the formation of weak bonds and characterized by the Urbach edge energy has been studied and, together with the FWHM of the Raman signal, has been assumed as a good parameter to evaluate the degree of topological disorder. SEM-EDS mapping showed a peculiar distribution of the major constituents of the glass matrix (fluxes and stabilizers), especially concerning those samples where a layered structure has been assumed thanks to the spectroscopic study. Finally, TEM-EDS and EDT were used to get high-resolution information about nanocrystals (NCs) and heterogeneous glass layers. The presence of ZnO NCs (< 4 nm) dispersed in the matrix has been verified for most of the samples, while, for those samples where a disorder due to a more complex distribution of the size and/or composition of the NCs has been assumed, the TEM clearly verified most of the assumption made by the spectroscopic techniques.

Keywords: CdSxSe1-x, EDT, glass, spectroscopy, TEM-EDS

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5 Practical Evaluation of High-Efficiency Si-based Tandem Solar Cells

Authors: Sue-Yi Chen, Wei-Chun Hsu, Jon-Yiew Gan

Abstract:

Si-based double-junction tandem solar cells have become a popular research topic because of the advantages of low manufacturing cost and high energy conversion efficiency. However, there is no set of calculations to select the appropriate top cell materials. Therefore, this paper will propose a simple but practical selection method. First of all, we calculate the S-Q limit and explain the reasons for developing tandem solar cells. Secondly, we calculate the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the double-junction tandem solar cells while combining the commercial monocrystalline Si and materials' practical efficiency to consider the actual situation. Finally, we conservatively conclude that if considering 75% performance of the theoretical energy conversion efficiency of the top cell, the suitable bandgap energy range will fall between 1.38eV to 2.5eV. Besides, we also briefly describe some improvements of several proper materials, CZTS, CdSe, Cu2O, ZnTe, and CdS, hoping that future research can select and manufacture high-efficiency Si-based tandem solar cells based on this paper successfully. Most importantly, our calculation method is not limited to silicon solely. If other materials’ performances match or surpass silicon's ability in the future, researchers can also apply this set of deduction processes.

Keywords: high-efficiency solar cells, material selection, Si-based double-junction solar cells, Tandem solar cells, photovoltaics.

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4 Highly Efficient Ca-Doped CuS Counter Electrodes for Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Mohammed Panthakkal Abdul Muthalif, Shanmugasundaram Kanagaraj, Jumi Park, Hangyu Park, Youngson Choe

Abstract:

The present study reports the incorporation of calcium ions into the CuS counter electrodes (CEs) in order to modify the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Metal ion-doped CuS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on FTO substrate and used directly as counter electrodes for TiO₂/CdS/CdSe/ZnS photoanodes based QDSSCs. For the Ca-doped CuS thin films, copper nitrate and thioacetamide were used as anionic and cationic precursors. Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate was used as doping material. The surface morphology of Ca-doped CuS CEs indicates that the fragments are uniformly distributed, and the structure is densely packed with high crystallinity. The changes observed in the diffraction patterns suggest that Ca dopant can introduce increased disorder into CuS material structure. EDX analysis was employed to determine the elemental identification, and the results confirmed the presence of Cu, S, and Ca on the FTO glass substrate. The photovoltaic current density – voltage characteristics of Ca-doped CuS CEs shows the specific improvements in open circuit voltage decay (Voc) and short-circuit current density (Jsc). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results display that Ca-doped CuS CEs have greater electrocatalytic activity and charge transport capacity than bare CuS. All the experimental results indicate that 20% Ca-doped CuS CE based QDSSCs exhibit high power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.92%, short circuit current density of 15.47 mA cm⁻², open circuit photovoltage of 0.611 V, and fill factor (FF) of 0.521 under illumination of one sun.

Keywords: Ca-doped CuS counter electrodes, surface morphology, chemical bath deposition method, electrocatalytic activity

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3 Photoinduced Energy and Charge Transfer in InP Quantum Dots-Polymer/Metal Composites for Optoelectronic Devices

Authors: Akanksha Singh, Mahesh Kumar, Shailesh N. Sharma

Abstract:

Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) such as CdSe, CdS, InP, etc. have gained significant interest in the recent years due to its application in various fields such as LEDs, solar cells, lasers, biological markers, etc. The interesting feature of the QDs is their tunable band gap. The size of the QDs can be easily varied by varying the synthesis parameters which change the band gap. One of the limitations with II-VI semiconductor QDs is their biological application. The use of cadmium makes them unsuitable for biological applications. III-V QD such as InP overcomes this problem as they are structurally robust because of the covalent bonds which do not allow the ions to leak. Also, InP QDs has large Bohr radii which increase the window for the quantum confinement effect. The synthesis of InP QDs is difficult and time consuming. Authors have synthesized InP using a novel, quick synthesis method which utilizes trioctylphosphine as a source of phosphorus. In this work, authors have made InP composites with P3HT(Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl))polymer(organic-inorganic hybrid material) and gold nanoparticles(metal-semiconductor composites). InP-P3HT shows FRET phenomenon whereas InP-Au shows charge transfer mechanism. The synthesized InP QDs has an absorption band at 397 nm and PL peak position at 491 nm. The band gap of the InP QDs is 2.46 eV as compared to the bulk band gap of InP i.e. 1.35 eV. The average size of the QDs is around 3-4 nm. In order to protect the InP core, a shell of wide band gap material i.e. ZnS is coated on the top of InP core. InP-P3HT composites were made in order to study the charge transfer/energy transfer phenomenon between them. On adding aliquots of P3HT to InP QDs solution, the P3HT PL increases which can be attributed to the dominance of Förster energy transfer between InP QDs (donor) P3HT polymer (acceptor). There is a significant spectral overlap between the PL spectra of InP QDs and absorbance spectra of P3HT. But in the case of InP-Au nanocomposites, significant charge transfer was seen from InP QDs to Au NPs. When aliquots of Au NPs were added to InP QDs, a decrease in the PL of the InP QDs was observed. This is due to the charge transfer from the InP QDs to the Au NPs. In the case of metal semiconductor composites, the enhancement and quenching of QDs depend on the size of the QD and the distance between the QD and the metal NP. These two composites have different phenomenon between donor and acceptor and hence can be utilized for two different applications. The InP-P3HT composite can be utilized for LED devices due to enhancement in the PL emission (FRET). The InP-Au can be utilized efficiently for photovoltaic application owing to the successful charge transfer between InP-Au NPs.

Keywords: charge transfer, FRET, gold nanoparticles, InP quantum dots

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2 Preparation, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activity of a New Noble Metal Modified [email protected] and SrTiO3 Photocatalysts

Authors: Ewelina Grabowska, Martyna Marchelek

Abstract:

Among the various semiconductors, nanosized TiO2 has been widely studied due to its high photosensitivity, low cost, low toxicity, and good chemical and thermal stability. However, there are two main drawbacks to the practical application of pure TiO2 films. One is that TiO2 can be induced only by ultraviolet (UV) light due to its intrinsic wide bandgap (3.2 eV for anatase and 3.0 eV for rutile), which limits its practical efficiency for solar energy utilization since UV light makes up only 4-5% of the solar spectrum. The other is that a high electron-hole recombination rate will reduce the photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2. In order to overcome the above drawbacks and modify the electronic structure of TiO2, some semiconductors (eg. CdS, ZnO, PbS, Cu2O, Bi2S3, and CdSe) have been used to prepare coupled TiO2 composites, for improving their charge separation efficiency and extending the photoresponse into the visible region. It has been proved that the fabrication of p-n heterostructures by combining n-type TiO2 with p-type semiconductors is an effective way to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO2. SrTiO3 is a good candidate for coupling TiO2 and improving the photocatalytic performance of the photocatalyst because its conduction band edge is more negative than TiO2. Due to the potential differences between the band edges of these two semiconductors, the photogenerated electrons transfer from the conduction band of SrTiO3 to that of TiO2. Conversely, the photogenerated electrons transfer from the conduction band of SrTiO3 to that of TiO2. Then the photogenerated charge carriers can be efficiently separated by these processes, resulting in the enhancement of the photocatalytic property in the photocatalyst. Additionally, one of the methods for improving photocatalyst performance is addition of nanoparticles containing one or two noble metals (Pt, Au, Ag and Pd) deposited on semiconductor surface. The mechanisms were proposed as (1) the surface plasmon resonance of noble metal particles is excited by visible light, facilitating the excitation of the surface electron and interfacial electron transfer (2) some energy levels can be produced in the band gap of TiO2 by the dispersion of noble metal nanoparticles in the TiO2 matrix; (3) noble metal nanoparticles deposited on TiO2 act as electron traps, enhancing the electron–hole separation. In view of this, we recently obtained series of [email protected] and SrTiO3 photocatalysts loaded with noble metal NPs. using photodeposition method. The M- [email protected] and M-SrTiO3 photocatalysts (M= Rh, Rt, Pt) were studied for photodegradation of phenol in aqueous phase under UV-Vis and visible irradiation. Moreover, in the second part of our research hydroxyl radical formations were investigated. Fluorescence of irradiated coumarin solution was used as a method of ˙OH radical detection. Coumarin readily reacts with generated hydroxyl radicals forming hydroxycoumarins. Although the major hydroxylation product is 5-hydroxycoumarin, only 7-hydroxyproduct of coumarin hydroxylation emits fluorescent light. Thus, this method was used only for hydroxyl radical detection, but not for determining concentration of hydroxyl radicals.

Keywords: composites TiO2, SrTiO3, photocatalysis, phenol degradation

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1 Impact of Electric Field on the Optical Properties of Hydrophilic Quantum Dots

Authors: Valentina V. Goftman, Vladislav A. Pankratov, Alexey V. Markin, Tangi Aubert, Zeger Hens, Sarah De Saeger, Irina Yu. Goryacheva

Abstract:

The most important requirements for biochemical applicability of quantum dots (QDs) are: 1) the surface cap should render intact or improved optical properties; 2) mono-dispersion and good stability in aqueous phase in a wide range of pH and ionic strength values; 3) presence of functional groups, available for bioconjugation; 4) minimal impact from the environment on the QDs’ properties and, vice versa, minimal influence of the QDs’ components on the environment; and 5) stability against chemical/biochemical/physical influence. The latter is especially important for in vitro and in vivo applications. For example, some physical intracellular delivery strategies (e.g., electroporation) imply a rapid high-voltage electric field impulse in order to temporarily generate hydrophilic pores in the cell plasma membrane, necessary for the passive transportation of QDs into the cell. In this regard, it is interesting to investigate how different capping layers, which can provide high stability and sufficient fluorescent properties of QDs in a water solution, behave under these abnormal conditions. In this contribution, hydrophobic core-shell CdSe/CdS/CdZnS/ZnS QDs (λem=600 nm), produced by means of the Successive Ion Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) technique, were transferred to a water solution using two of the most commonly used methods: (i) encapsulation in an amphiphilic brush polymer based on poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAO) modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains and (ii) silica covering. Polymer encapsulation preserves the initial ligands on the QDs’ surface owing to the hydrophobic attraction between the hydrophobic groups of the amphiphilic molecules and the surface hydrophobic groups of the QDs. This covering process allows maintaining the initial fluorescent properties, but it leads to a considerable increase of the QDs’ size. However, covering with a silica shell, by means of the reverse microemulsion method, allows maintaining both size and fluorescent properties of the initial QDs. The obtained water solutions of polymer covered and silica-coated QDs in three different concentrations were exposed to a low-voltage electric field for a short time and the fluorescent properties were investigated. It is shown that the PMAO-PEG polymer acquires some additional charges in the presence of the electric field, which causes repulsion between the polymer and the QDs’ surface. This process destroys the homogeneity of the whole amphiphilic shell and it dramatically decreases the fluorescent properties (dropping to 10% from its initial value) because of the direct contact of the QDs with the strongly oxidative environment (water). In contrast, a silica shell possesses dielectric properties which allow retaining 90% of its initial fluorescence intensity, even after a longer electric impact. Thus, silica shells are clearly a preferable covering for bio-application of QDs, because – besides the high uniform morphology, controlled size and biocompatibility – it allows protecting QDs from oxidation, even under the influence of an electric field.

Keywords: electric field, polymer coating, quantum dots, silica covering, stability

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