Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3685

Search results for: CSS (Closed Space Sublimation)

3685 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique of CdS Used in Closed Space Sublimation of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Z. Mahmood, F. U. Babar, S. Naz, H. U. Rehman


Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Ellipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here). The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper-indium–gallium-selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %. The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD), cadmium sulphide (CdS), CdTe, CSS (Closed Space Sublimation)

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3684 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD) of Cds Used in Closed Space Sublimation (CSS) of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Fahimullah Babar, Surriyia Naz, Hafiz Ur Rehman


Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Elipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here).The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper- indium –gallium- selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %.The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: CBD, CdS, CdTe, CSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
3683 A Study of Closed Sets and Maps with Ideals

Authors: Asha Gupta, Ramandeep Kaur


The purpose of this paper is to study a class of closed sets, called generalized pre-closed sets with respect to an ideal (briefly Igp-closed sets), which is an extension of generalized pre-closed sets in general topology. Then, by using these sets, the concepts of Igp- compact spaces along with some classes of maps like continuous and closed maps via ideals have been introduced and analogues of some known results for compact spaces, continuous maps and closed maps in general topology have been obtained.

Keywords: ideal, gp-closed sets, gp-closed maps, gp-continuous maps

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3682 Algebras over an Integral Domain and Immediate Neighbors

Authors: Shai Sarussi


Let S be an integral domain with field of fractions F and let A be an F-algebra. An S-subalgebra R of A is called S-nice if R∩F = S and the localization of R with respect to S \{0} is A. Denoting by W the set of all S-nice subalgebras of A, and defining a notion of open sets on W, one can view W as a T0-Alexandroff space. A characterization of the property of immediate neighbors in an Alexandroff topological space is given, in terms of closed and open subsets of appropriate subspaces. Moreover, two special subspaces of W are introduced, and a way in which their closed and open subsets induce W is presented.

Keywords: integral domains, Alexandroff topology, immediate neighbors, valuation domains

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3681 Closed Will in Russian Civil Law: Specific Aspects

Authors: Farida Buniatova


Testamentary succession rules in the Russian Federation have been developing intensively since the collapse of the Soviet Union. The article analyses specific aspects of the closed will in Russian civil law. It discusses advantages and drawbacks of the closed will. In addition to that, the paper focuses on the will drafting and attestation procedures. The research provides ways to improve and enhance Russian legislation governing the closed will.

Keywords: closed will, testamentary succession, testator, will

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
3680 Self-Tuning Robot Control Based on Subspace Identification

Authors: Mathias Marquardt, Peter Dünow, Sandra Baßler


The paper describes the use of subspace based identification methods for auto tuning of a state space control system. The plant is an unstable but self balancing transport robot. Because of the unstable character of the process it has to be identified from closed loop input-output data. Based on the identified model a state space controller combined with an observer is calculated. The subspace identification algorithm and the controller design procedure is combined to a auto tuning method. The capability of the approach was verified in a simulation experiments under different process conditions.

Keywords: auto tuning, balanced robot, closed loop identification, subspace identification

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3679 [Keynote Talk]: Discovering Liouville-Type Problems for p-Energy Minimizing Maps in Closed Half-Ellipsoids by Calculus Variation Method

Authors: Lina Wu, Jia Liu, Ye Li


The goal of this project is to investigate constant properties (called the Liouville-type Problem) for a p-stable map as a local or global minimum of a p-energy functional where the domain is a Euclidean space and the target space is a closed half-ellipsoid. The First and Second Variation Formulas for a p-energy functional has been applied in the Calculus Variation Method as computation techniques. Stokes’ Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, Hardy-Sobolev type Inequalities, and the Bochner Formula as estimation techniques have been used to estimate the lower bound and the upper bound of the derived p-Harmonic Stability Inequality. One challenging point in this project is to construct a family of variation maps such that the images of variation maps must be guaranteed in a closed half-ellipsoid. The other challenging point is to find a contradiction between the lower bound and the upper bound in an analysis of p-Harmonic Stability Inequality when a p-energy minimizing map is not constant. Therefore, the possibility of a non-constant p-energy minimizing map has been ruled out and the constant property for a p-energy minimizing map has been obtained. Our research finding is to explore the constant property for a p-stable map from a Euclidean space into a closed half-ellipsoid in a certain range of p. The certain range of p is determined by the dimension values of a Euclidean space (the domain) and an ellipsoid (the target space). The certain range of p is also bounded by the curvature values on an ellipsoid (that is, the ratio of the longest axis to the shortest axis). Regarding Liouville-type results for a p-stable map, our research finding on an ellipsoid is a generalization of mathematicians’ results on a sphere. Our result is also an extension of mathematicians’ Liouville-type results from a special ellipsoid with only one parameter to any ellipsoid with (n+1) parameters in the general setting.

Keywords: Bochner formula, Calculus Stokes' Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, first and second variation formulas, Liouville-type problem, p-harmonic map

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3678 Integral Domains and Alexandroff Topology

Authors: Shai Sarussi


Let S be an integral domain which is not a field, let F be its field of fractions, and let A be an F-algebra. An S-subalgebra R of A is called S-nice if R ∩ F = S and F R = A. A topological space whose set of open sets is closed under arbitrary intersections is called an Alexandroff space. Inspired by the well-known Zariski-Riemann space and the Zariski topology on the set of prime ideals of a commutative ring, we define a topology on the set of all S-nice subalgebras of A. Consequently, we get an interplay between Algebra and topology, that gives us a better understanding of the S-nice subalgebras of A. It is shown that every irreducible subset of S-nice subalgebras of A has a supremum; and a characterization of the irreducible components is given, in terms of maximal S-nice subalgebras of A.

Keywords: Alexandroff topology, integral domains, Zariski-Riemann space, S-nice subalgebras

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3677 The Role of Semi Open Spaces on Exploitation of Wind-Driven Ventilation

Authors: Paria Saadatjoo


Given that HVAC systems are the main sources of carbon dioxide producers, developing ways to reduce dependence on these systems and making use of natural resources is too important to achieve environmentally friendly buildings. A major part of building potential in terms of using natural energy resources depends on its physical features. So architectural decisions at the first step of the design process can influence the building's energy efficiency significantly. Implementation of semi-open spaces into solid apartment blocks inspired by the concept of courtyard in ancient buildings as a passive cooling strategy is currently enjoying great popularity. However, the analysis of these features and their effect on wind behavior at initial design steps is a difficult task for architects. The main objective of this research was to investigate the influence of semi-open to closed space ratio on airflow patterns in and around midrise buildings and introduce the best ratio in terms of harnessing natural ventilation. The main strategy of this paper was semi-experimental, and the research methodology was descriptive statistics. At the first step, by changing the terrace area, 6 models with various open to closed space ratios were created. These forms were then transferred to CFD software to calculate the primary indicators of natural ventilation potentials such as wind force coefficient, air flow rate, age of air distribution, etc. Investigations indicated that modifying the terrace area and, in other words, the open to closed space ratio influenced the wind force coefficient, airflow rate, and age of air distribution.

Keywords: natural ventilation, wind, midrise, open space, energy

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3676 On the Solidness of the Polar of Recession Cones

Authors: Sima Hassankhali, Ildar Sadeqi


In the theory of Pareto efficient points, the existence of a bounded base for a cone K of a normed space X is so important. In this article, we study the geometric structure of a nonzero closed convex cone K with a bounded base. For this aim, we study the structure of the polar cone K# of K. Furthermore, we obtain a necessary and sufficient condition for a nonempty closed convex set C so that its recession cone C∞ has a bounded base.

Keywords: solid cones, recession cones, polar cones, bounded base

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3675 An Equivalence between a Harmonic Form and a Closed Co-Closed Differential Form in L^Q and Non-L^Q Spaces

Authors: Lina Wu, Ye Li


An equivalent relation between a harmonic form and a closed co-closed form is established on a complete non-compact manifold. This equivalence has been generalized for a differential k-form ω from Lq spaces to non-Lq spaces when q=2 in the context of p-balanced growth where p=2. Especially for a simple differential k-form on a complete non-compact manifold, the equivalent relation has been verified with the extended scope of q for from finite q-energy in Lq spaces to infinite q-energy in non-Lq spaces when with 2-balanced growth. Generalized Hadamard Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, and Calculus skills including Integration by Parts as well as Convergent Series have been applied as estimation techniques to evaluate growth rates for a differential form. In particular, energy growth rates as indicated by an appropriate power range in a selected test function lead to a balance between a harmonic differential form and a closed co-closed differential form. Research ideas and computational methods in this paper could provide an innovative way in the study of broadening Lq spaces to non-Lq spaces with a wide variety of infinite energy growth for a differential form.

Keywords: closed forms, co-closed forms, harmonic forms, L^q spaces, p-balanced growth, simple differential k-forms

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3674 Veering Pattern in Human Walking in Sighted and Blindfolded Conditions

Authors: Triloki Prasad, Subhankar Ghosh, Asis Goswami


The information received from visual organ plays an important role in human locomotion and human beings generally veer from the straight line in the absence of visual cue. Since in case of visually impaired persons this support is unavailable they are expected to have a different type of locomotion behaviour than the sighted persons. Higher degree of veering can result in accident or injury during indoor and outdoor activities. Hence, it is important to know the degree of veering that may happen in case of a sighted individual loosing the visual input. The present study was conducted on fifty three volunteers who walked with open and closed eyes, at their comfortable pace, in a grid marked area of 17m by 10m space. The volunteers had to walk in a straight line from a central starting point during three trials and their walking path was marked with a pair of sponge absorbed with three different colours. All volunteers had walked expectedly in straight line during open eye condition but had varied degree of veering during closed eye state. The correlation between the first step side and the side of deviation was not significant in closed eye condition. The number of steps taken in open eye and closed eye condition were significantly different while travelling similar distances. This study reveals that sighted persons become cautious during walking if the visual cue is not available and they reduce the step length so there is increase in step number.

Keywords: Closed eye, Open eye, Footprint, Veering

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3673 Aesthetic Modification with Combined Orthognathic Surgery and Closed Rhinoplasty

Authors: Alessandro Marano


Aim: The author describes the aesthetic modification using orthognathic surgery and closed rhinoplasty. Methods: Series of case study. After orthognathic surgery we can observe a dramatical change of aesthetic especially in the mid-face and nose projection. The advancement of maxillary bone through Le Fort I osteotomy will change the nasal tip projection and lips roundness; combining orthognathic surgery with closed approach rhinoplasty will manage both function and aesthetic of all mid face district. Results: Combining Le Fort I osteotomy with closed approach rhinoplasty resulted in good objective results with high patient satisfaction. Le Fort I osteotomy will increase projection of mid face and the closed approach rhinoplasty will modify the nasal shape to be more harmonic with the new maxillary district. The scars are not visible because hidden inside the mouth and nose. Conclusions: The orthognathic surgery combined with closed approach rhinoplasty are very effective for changing the aesthetic of the mid face. The results illustrate the difference between the use of orthognathic surgery only and to use it in association of closed approach rhinoplasty. Using both will allow to obtain a long lasting and pleasing results.

Keywords: orthognathic, rhinoplasty, aesthetic, face

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3672 Comparison of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels in the Human Gingival Sulcus during Canine Retraction Using Elastic Chain and Closed Coil Spring

Authors: Sri Suparwitri


When an orthodontic force is applied to a tooth, an inflammatory response is initiated then lead to bone remodeling process, and the process accommodates tooth movement. One of cytokine that plays a prominent role in bone remodeling process was transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1). The purpose of this study was to identify and compare changes of TGF-β1 in human gingival crevicular fluid during canine retraction using elastic chain and closed coil spring. Ten patients (mean age 20.7 ± 2.9 years) participated. The patients were entering the space closure phase of fixed orthodontic treatment. An upper canine of each patient was retracted using elastic chain, and the contralateral canine was retracted using closed coil spring. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from the canine teeth before and 7 days after the force was applied. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentrations of TGF-β1 at 7 days were significantly higher compared to before canine retraction in both groups. In the evaluation of between-group difference, before retraction, the difference was insignificant, whereas at 7 days significantly higher values were determined in the closed coil spring group compared to elastic chain group. The result suggests that TGF-β1 is associated with the bone remodeling that occurs during canine distalization movement. Closed coil spring gave higher TGF-β1 concentrations thus more bone remodeling occurred and may be considered the treatment of choice.

Keywords: closed coil spring, elastic chain, gingival crevicular fluid, TGF-β1

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3671 Strong Convergence of an Iterative Sequence in Real Banach Spaces with Kadec Klee Property

Authors: Umar Yusuf Batsari


Let E be a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex real Banach space and C be a nonempty, closed and convex subset of E. Let $V= \{S_i : C\to C, ~i=1, 2, 3\cdots N\}$ be a convex set of relatively nonexpansive mappings containing identity. In this paper, an iterative sequence obtained from CQ algorithm was shown to have strongly converge to a point $\hat{x}$ which is a common fixed point of relatively nonexpansive mappings in V and also solve the system of equilibrium problems in E. The result improve some existing results in the literature.

Keywords: relatively nonexpansive mappings, strong convergence, equilibrium problems, uniformly smooth space, uniformly convex space, convex set, kadec klee property

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3670 Sustainability in Space: Material Efficiency in Space Missions

Authors: Hamda M. Al-Ali


From addressing fundamental questions about the history of the solar system to exploring other planets for any signs of life have always been the core of human space exploration. This triggered humans to explore whether other planets such as Mars could support human life on them. Therefore, many planned space missions to other planets have been designed and conducted to examine the feasibility of human survival on them. However, space missions are expensive and consume a large number of various resources to be successful. To overcome these problems, material efficiency shall be maximized through the use of reusable launch vehicles (RLV) rather than disposable and expendable ones. Material efficiency is defined as a way to achieve service requirements using fewer materials to reduce CO2 emissions from industrial processes. Materials such as aluminum-lithium alloys, steel, Kevlar, and reinforced carbon-carbon composites used in the manufacturing of spacecrafts could be reused in closed-loop cycles directly or by adding a protective coat. Material efficiency is a fundamental principle of a circular economy. The circular economy aims to cutback waste and reduce pollution through maximizing material efficiency so that businesses can succeed and endure. Five strategies have been proposed to improve material efficiency in the space industry, which includes waste minimization, introduce Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) to measure material efficiency, and introduce policies and legislations to improve material efficiency in the space sector. Another strategy to boost material efficiency is through maximizing resource and energy efficiency through material reusability. Furthermore, the environmental effects associated with the rapid growth in the number of space missions include black carbon emissions that lead to climate change. The levels of emissions must be tracked and tackled to ensure the safe utilization of space in the future. The aim of this research paper is to examine and suggest effective methods used to improve material efficiency in space missions so that space and Earth become more environmentally and economically sustainable. The objectives used to fulfill this aim are to identify the materials used in space missions that are suitable to be reused in closed-loop cycles considering material efficiency indicators and circular economy concepts. An explanation of how spacecraft materials could be re-used as well as propose strategies to maximize material efficiency in order to make RLVs possible so that access to space becomes affordable and reliable is provided. Also, the economic viability of the RLVs is examined to show the extent to which the use of RLVs has on the reduction of space mission costs. The environmental and economic implications of the increase in the number of space missions as a result of the use of RLVs are also discussed. These research questions are studied through detailed critical analysis of the literature, such as published reports, books, scientific articles, and journals. A combination of keywords such as material efficiency, circular economy, RLVs, and spacecraft materials were used to search for appropriate literature.

Keywords: access to space, circular economy, material efficiency, reusable launch vehicles, spacecraft materials

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3669 T-S Fuzzy Modeling Based on Power Coefficient Limit Nonlinearity Applied to an Isolated Single Machine Load Frequency Deviation Control

Authors: R. S. Sheu, H. Usman, M. S. Lawal


Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model based control of a load frequency deviation in a single machine with limit nonlinearity on power coefficient is presented in the paper. Two T-S fuzzy rules with only rotor angle variable as input in the premise part, and linear state space models in the consequent part involving characteristic matrices determined from limits set on the power coefficient constant are formulated, state feedback control gains for closed loop control was determined from the formulated Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI) with eigenvalue optimization scheme for asymptotic and exponential stability (speed of esponse). Numerical evaluation of the closed loop object was carried out in Matlab. Simulation results generated of both the open and closed loop system showed the effectiveness of the control scheme in maintaining load frequency stability.

Keywords: T-S fuzzy model, state feedback control, linear matrix inequality (LMI), frequency deviation control

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3668 Information Society-Education Space

Authors: Monica Lia


This paper has set the objective of researching how education is influenced by the information society. The first step was to define more precisely the information space. Second step was to identify how information space intersects the family space and institutional space educational levels represented by pre-school / school and pre-university (kindergarten, at elementary / middle school / high school). Interrelationship between the above-mentioned areas was another objective of the research. All these elements have been investigated through the original intention to identify how the information space can become an educational tool to support for the family space, education and institutional space. In addition, the aim of this research is to offer some solutions in this regard. Often the educational efforts appear to be blocked by the existence of this space. However, this paper demonstrates that Informational space can be an enemy of the educational system or be support systems if we know the internal structure and mechanisms. We can make the Informational Space to work for accomplish the educational objectives.

Keywords: informational space, education, educational tool, social diagram, information, information structure, lessons

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
3667 Green Open Space in Sustainable Housing and Islamic Values Perspectives – Case Study Kampung Kauman Malang

Authors: Nunik Junara, Sugeng Triyadi


Sustainable Housing in Islamic perspective, can be defined as a multi-dimensional process that seeks to achieve a balance between economic and socio-cultural aspects on the side, and environmental aspect on the other. There are many quotes verses in the Quran and Hadith that leads to the belief that Islam as a Rahmatan lil Alamin, where men are encouraged to act wisely in treating nature and all living things in it. One aspect of the natural environment that closed to human is plants. In the settlement, the availability of plants or also called green open space is highly recommended. The availability of green open space in the neighborhood, both the public and private green open spaces is expected to reduce the effects of global warming that has engulfed various parts of the world. Green open space that can be viewed from the angle of eco-aestetic and eco-medical in sustainable architecture, is expected to increase the temperature and provide aesthetic impression to the surrounding environment. This paper attempts to discuss the principles of Islamic values related to the natural environment as a major resource for sustainability. This paper also aims to raise awareness of the importance of the theme of sustainability in settlements, especially in big cities. Analysis of the availability of green open space in kampung Kauman Malang is one example of the effort to apply the principles of sustainable housing.

Keywords: green open space, sustainable housing, Islamic values, Kampung Kauman Malang

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3666 Heat Transfer Characteristics on Blade Tip with Unsteady Wake

Authors: Minho Bang, Seok Min Choi, Jun Su Park, Hokyu Moon, Hyung Hee Cho


Present study investigates the effect of unsteady wakes on heat transfer in blade tip. Heat/mass transfer was measured in blade tip region depending on a variety of strouhal number by naphthalene sublimation technique. Naphthalene sublimation technique measures heat transfer using a heat/mass transfer analogy. Experiments are performed in linear cascade which is composed of five turbine blades and rotating rods. Strouhal number of inlet flow are changed ranging from 0 to 0.22. Reynolds number is 100,000 based on 11.4 m/s of outlet flow and axial chord length. Three different squealer tip geometries such as base squealer tip, vertical rib squealer tip, and camber line squealer tip are used to study how unsteady wakes affect heat transfer on a blade tip. Depending on squealer tip geometry, different flow patterns occur on a blade tip. Also, unsteady wakes cause reduced tip leakage flow and turbulent flow. As a result, as strouhal number increases, heat/mass transfer coefficients decrease due to the reduced leakage flow. As strouhal number increases, heat/ mass transfer coefficients on a blade tip increase in vertical rib squealer tip.

Keywords: gas turbine, blade tip, heat transfer, unsteady wakes

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3665 Differences Choosing Closed Approach or Open Approach in Rhinoplasty Outcomes

Authors: Alessandro Marano


Aim: The author describes a strategy for choosing between two different rhinoplasty approaches for outcomes treatment. Methods: Series of the case study. There are advantages and disadvantages on both approaches for rhinoplasty. On the side of the open approach, we are be able to better manage the techniques for shaping and restoring nasal structures in rhinoplasty outcomes; on the other side, the closed approach requires more practice and experience to achieve good results. Results: Author’s choice is the closed approach on rhinoplasty outcomes. Anyway, the open approach is most commonly preferred due to superior management and better vision on nasal structures. Conclusions: Both approaches are valid for the treatment of rhinoplasty outcomes, author's preferred approach is closed, with minimally invasive modification focused on restoring outcomes in nasal function and aesthetics.

Keywords: rhinoplasty, aesthetic, face, outcomes

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3664 Need of National Space Legislation for Space Faring Nations

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Yang Caixia


The need for national space legislation is pivotal, particularly in light of the fact that in recent years space activities have grown immensely both in volume and diversity. Countries are progressively developing capabilities in space exploration and scientific discoveries, market their capabilities to manufacture satellites, provide launch services from their facilities and are looking to privatize and commercialize their space resources. Today, nations are also seeking to comprehend the technological and financial potential of the private sector and are considering to share their financial burdens with them and to limit their exposures to risks, but they are lagging behind in legal framework in this regard. In the perspective of these emerging developments, it is therefore, felt that national space legislation should be enacted with the goal of building and implementing a vibrant and transparent legal framework at the national level to hasten investments and to ensure growth in this capital intensive - highly yield strategic sector. This study looks at (I) the international legal framework that governs space activities; (II) motivation behind making national space laws; and (III) the need for national space legislation. The paper concludes with some recommendations with regards to the conceivable future direction for national space legislation, in particular space empowered sub-areas for countries.

Keywords: international conventions, national legislation, space faring nations, space law

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3663 Crime against Women behind Closed Doors in Indian Society

Authors: Rasha Kumari Panda


The crime against women in closed door is an important burning issue in day to day life. Domestic violence has become daily part of women’s life. It affects the millions of the women throughout the India as it violates their human rights. Crime against women behind closed door is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, discrimination against women moreover, when the world is approaching towards modernization, worse the condition of women and girls in our society. This paper examines how the rights of women are being violated and suggests the remedial measures to empower women. Powerlessness of women is the root cause of violence has been specifically addressed.

Keywords: domestic violence, cruelty, dowry, statutes

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3662 The Effects of Ethnicity, Personality and Religiosity on Desire for Personal Space

Authors: Ioanna Skoura


Past research shows that personal space has been investigated since the 1950s. Also, personality traits have been found to have a significant relationship with personal space. However, some of these studies have been criticized for being ethically inappropriate. In an attempt to avoid ethical issues, a new scale measuring desire for personal space has been created. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of ethnicity on desire for personal space. Additionally, extraversion and neuroticism are expected to predict significantly desire for personal space. Furthermore, the study is looking for any impact of religiosity on desire for personal space. In order to test the previous hypotheses, 115 participants from three cultural groups (English, Greeks in Greece and Greeks in the UK) are recruited online. Results indicate that only extraversion and religiosity are significant predictors of desire for personal space. Implications of the findings are discussed and suggestions for future research are made.

Keywords: ethnicity, religiosity, personality, personal space

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3661 Performance Analysis of M-Ary Pulse Position Modulation in Multihop Multiple Input Multiple Output-Free Space Optical System over Uncorrelated Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi


The performance of Decode and Forward (DF) multihop Free Space Optical ( FSO) scheme deploying Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) configuration under Gamma-Gamma (GG) statistical distribution, that adopts M-ary Pulse Position Modulation (MPPM) coding, is investigated. We have extracted exact and estimated values of Symbol-Error Rates (SERs) respectively. A closed form formula related to the Probability Density Function (PDF) is expressed for our designed system. Thanks to the use of DF multihop MIMO FSO configuration and MPPM signaling, atmospheric turbulence is combatted; hence the transmitted signal quality is improved.

Keywords: free space optical, multiple input multiple output, M-ary pulse position modulation, multihop, decode and forward, symbol error rate, gamma-gamma channel

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3660 Method for Tuning Level Control Loops Based on Internal Model Control and Closed Loop Step Test Data

Authors: Arnaud Nougues


This paper describes a two-stage methodology derived from internal model control (IMC) for tuning a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller for levels or other integrating processes in an industrial environment. Focus is the ease of use and implementation speed which are critical for an industrial application. Tuning can be done with minimum effort and without the need for time-consuming open-loop step tests on the plant. The first stage of the method applies to levels only: the vessel residence time is calculated from equipment dimensions and used to derive a set of preliminary proportional-integral (PI) settings with IMC. The second stage, re-tuning in closed-loop, applies to levels as well as other integrating processes: a tuning correction mechanism has been developed based on a series of closed-loop simulations with model errors. The tuning correction is done from a simple closed-loop step test and the application of a generic correlation between observed overshoot and integral time correction. A spin-off of the method is that an estimate of the vessel residence time (levels) or open-loop process gain (other integrating process) is obtained from the closed-loop data.

Keywords: closed-loop model identification, IMC-PID tuning method, integrating process control, on-line PID tuning adaptation

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3659 The Optimum Aeration Time of Wastewater Treatment by Surface Aerators in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Anat Thanpinta


This research aimed to study on the efficiency of wastewater treatment by comparing the different aeration times of surface aerators in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. In doing so, the operation of surface aerators was divided into 2 groups which included the groups of 8 hours (8-0/opened-closed) and 4 hours (2-2/opened-closed) of aeration time per day. As a result of the study, it was found that the efficiency of wastewater treatment in the forms of DO, BOD, turbidity and NO2- by 8 hours (8-0/opened-closed) and 4 hours (2-2/opened-closed) of aeration time per day of surface aerators was not statistically different [Sig. = .644, .488, .716 and .054 > α (.05)] while the efficiency in the forms of NO3- and P was significantly different at the statistical level of .01 [Sig. = .001 and .000 < α (.01)].

Keywords: aeration time, surface aerator, wastewater treatment, efficiency

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3658 Research on Spatial Morphology and Protection of Traditional Rural Settlements Based on Space Syntax: Taking Xiazhuang Village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as Example

Authors: Shenpu Liu


Space syntax, a paradigm of the urban research, which manifests people’s intuitive and abstract perception of a material space with a solid mathematical way, explores how space represents its social characteristics. Taking Xiazhuang village and Shijia Village in Huzhou as an example and focusing on inward structure and street space, this article recognizes the connotative significance of the settlement with the aid of space syntax theory and quantitative analysis method from the perspective of spatial configuration to present relevant suggestions for its future planning and provides references for traditional rural settlement protection.

Keywords: Shijia village, space configuration, space syntax, traditional rural settlement, Xiazhuang village

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3657 Topological Quantum Diffeomorphisms in Field Theory and the Spectrum of the Space-Time

Authors: Francisco Bulnes


Through the Fukaya conjecture and the wrapped Floer cohomology, the correspondences between paths in a loop space and states of a wrapping space of states in a Hamiltonian space (the ramification of field in this case is the connection to the operator that goes from TM to T*M) are demonstrated where these last states are corresponding to bosonic extensions of a spectrum of the space-time or direct image of the functor Spec, on space-time. This establishes a distinguished diffeomorphism defined by the mapping from the corresponding loops space to wrapping category of the Floer cohomology complex which furthermore relates in certain proportion D-branes (certain D-modules) with strings. This also gives to place to certain conjecture that establishes equivalences between moduli spaces that can be consigned in a moduli identity taking as space-time the Hitchin moduli space on G, whose dual can be expressed by a factor of a bosonic moduli spaces.

Keywords: Floer cohomology, Fukaya conjecture, Lagrangian submanifolds, quantum topological diffeomorphism

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3656 Development and Efficacy Assessment of an Enteric Coated Porous Tablet Loaded with F4 Fimbriae for Oral Vaccination against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Infections

Authors: Atul Srivastava, D. V. Gowda


Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is one of the major causes contributing to the development of diarrhoea in adults and children in developing countries. To date, no preventive/treatment strategy showed promising results, which could be due to the lack of potent vaccines, and/or due to the development of resistance of ETEC to antibiotics. Therefore, in the present investigation, a novel porous Sodium Alginate (SA) tablet formulation loaded with F4 fimbriae antigen was developed and tested for efficacy against ETEC infections in piglet models. Pre-compression parameters of the powder mixes and post compression parameters of tablets have been evaluated and results were found to be satisfactory. Loading of F4 fimbrial antigens in to the tablets was achieved by inducing pores in the tablets via the sublimation of camphor followed by incubation with purified F4 fimbriae. The loaded tablets have been coated with Eudragit L100 to protect the F4 fimbriae from (a) highly acidic gastric environment; (b) proteolytic cleavage by pepsin; and (c) to promote subsequent release in the intestine. Evaluation of developed F4 fimbrial tablets in a Pig model demonstrated induction of mucosal immunity, and a significant reduction of F4+ E. coli in faeces. Therefore, F4 fimbriae loaded porous tablets could be a novel oral vaccination candidate to induce mucosal and systemic immunity against ETEC infections.

Keywords: porous tablets, sublimation, f4 fimbriae, eudragit l100, vaccination

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