Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 243

Search results for: cadmium selenide

243 Examination of Contaminations in Fabricated Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots Using Laser Induced Plasma Spectroscopy

Authors: Walid Tawfik, W. Askam Farooq, Sultan F. Alqhtani

Abstract:

Quantum dots (QDots) are nanometer-sized crystals, less than 10 nm, comprise a semiconductor or metallic materials and contain from 100 - 100,000 atoms in each crystal. QDots play an important role in many applications; light emitting devices (LEDs), solar cells, drug delivery, and optical computers. In the current research, a fundamental wavelength of Nd:YAG laser was applied to analyse the impurities in homemade cadmium selenide (CdSe) QDots through laser-induced plasma (LIPS) technique. The CdSe QDots were fabricated by using hot-solution decomposition method where a mixture of Cd precursor and trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) is prepared at concentrations of TOPO under controlled temperatures 200-350ºC. By applying laser energy of 15 mJ, at frequency 10 Hz, and delay time 500 ns, LIPS spectra of CdSe QDots samples were observed. The qualitative LIPS analysis for CdSe QDs revealed that the sample contains Cd, Te, Se, H, P, Ar, O, Ni, C, Al and He impurities. These observed results gave precise details of the impurities present in the QDs sample. These impurities are important for future work at which controlling the impurity contents in the QDs samples may improve the physical, optical and electrical properties of the QDs used for solar cell application.

Keywords: cadmium selenide, TOPO, LIPS spectroscopy, quantum dots

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
242 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique of CdS Used in Closed Space Sublimation of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Z. Mahmood, F. U. Babar, S. Naz, H. U. Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Ellipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here). The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper-indium–gallium-selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %. The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD), cadmium sulphide (CdS), CdTe, CSS (Closed Space Sublimation)

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
241 Protective Effect of Thymoquinone against Nephrotoxicity Induced by Cadmium in Rats

Authors: Amr A. Fouad, Hamed A. Alwadaani, Iyad Jresat

Abstract:

The present study investigated the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), against cadmium-induced kidney injury in rats. Cadmium chloride (1.2 mg Cd/kg/day, s.c.), was given for nine weeks. TQ treatment (40 mg/kg/day, p.o.) started on the same day of cadmium administration and continued for nine weeks. TQ significantly decreased serum creatinine, renal malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and significantly increased renal reduced glutathione in rats received cadmium. Histopathological examination showed that TQ markedly minimized renal tissue damage induced by cadmium. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TQ markedly decreased the cadmium-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2, and caspase-3 in renal tissue. It was concluded that TQ significantly protected against cadmium nephrotoxicity in rats, through its antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiapoptotic actions.

Keywords: thymoquinone, cadmium, kidney, rats

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
240 Changes in Some Biochemical Parameters and Body Weight of Chicken Exposed to Cadmium

Authors: Khaled Saeed Ali

Abstract:

This study was conducted with 3 week old domestic chicken to determine the effect of supplementation of cadmium to dietary. 10 mg/kg Cadmium chloride added to maize- sesame cake meal diet for 4 weeks. The additional cadmium to the diet induced a decreasing body weight and changes in biochemical parameters of chicken. Chicken were divided into two groups. The first group was given a diet containing the concentration of 10 mg cadmium /kg daily for a period of 30 days and the second group was given diet without cadmium and used as a control group. The result revealed decrease in the body weight of treated chicken by 12.7 % compared to control group, whose body weight increased. The plasma glucose concentration, creatinine, aspartate aminotranseferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were increased significantly (P<0.05) in Cd treated chicken in comparison to the control group. Cadmium accumulation was observed in the intestine, kidney, liver and bone. The accumulation of cadmium was markedly higher (3-4 times) in cadmium-treated animals compared to the control.

Keywords: cadmium, biochemical parameters, body weight, chicken

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
239 Chemical Bath Deposition Technique (CBD) of Cds Used in Closed Space Sublimation (CSS) of CdTe Solar Cell

Authors: Zafar Mahmood, Fahimullah Babar, Surriyia Naz, Hafiz Ur Rehman

Abstract:

Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) was deposited on a Tec 15 glass substrate with the help of CBD (chemical bath deposition process) and then cadmium telluride CdTe was deposited on CdS with the help of CSS (closed spaced sublimation technique) for the construction of a solar cell. The thicknesses of all the deposited materials were measured with the help of Elipsometry. The IV graphs were drawn in order to observe the current voltage output. The efficiency of the cell was graphed with the fill factor as well (graphs not given here).The efficiency came out to be approximately 16.5 % and the CIGS (copper- indium –gallium- selenide) maximum efficiency is 20 %.The efficiency of a solar cell can further be enhanced by adapting quality materials, good experimental devices and proper procedures. The grain size was analyzed with the help of scanning electron microscope using RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy).

Keywords: CBD, CdS, CdTe, CSS

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
238 Synthesis and Use of Thiourea Derivative (1-Phenyl-3- Benzoyl-2-Thiourea) for Extraction of Cadmium Ion

Authors: Abdulfattah M. Alkherraz, Zaineb I. Lusta, Ahmed E. Zubi

Abstract:

The environmental pollution by heavy metals became more problematic nowadays. To solve the problem of Cadmium accumulation in human organs which lead to dangerous effects on human health, and to determine its concentration, the organic legand 1-phenyl-3-benzoyl-2-thiourea was used to extract the cadmium ions from its solution. This legand as one of thiourea derivatives was successfully synthesized. The legand was characterized by NMR and CHN elemental analysis, and used to extract the cadmium from its solutions by formation of a stable complex at neutral pH. The complex was characterized by elemental analysis and melting point. The concentrations of cadmium ions before and after the extraction were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The data show the percentage of the extract was more than 98.7% of the concentration of cadmium used in the study.

Keywords: thiourea derivatives, cadmium extraction, water, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
237 Protective Approach of Mentha Piperita against Cadmium Induced Renotoxicity in Albino Rats

Authors: Baby Tabassum, Priya Bajaj

Abstract:

Cadmium is the second most hazardous heavy metal occurring in both elemental as well as compound forms. It is a highly toxic metal with a very high bio-concentration factor (BCF>100). WHO permitted groundwater cadmium concentration is 0.005 mg/L only, but reality is far away from this limit. A number of natural and anthropogenic industrial activities contribute to the spread of cadmium into the environment. The present study had been designated to find out the renal changes at functional level after cadmium intoxication and protection against these changes offered by Mentha piperata. For the purpose, albino rats were selected as the model organism. Cadmium significantly increases the serum level of serum proteins and nitrogenous wastes showing reduced filtration rate of kidneys. Pretreatment with Mentha piperata leaf extract causes significant retention of these levels to normalcy. These findings conclude that Cadmium exposure affects renal functioning but Mentha could prevent it, proving its nephro-protective potential against heavy metal toxicity.

Keywords: albino rat, cadmium, Mentha piperata, nephrotoxicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
236 Environmentally Realistic Doses of Cadmium Affects the Vascular Tonus in Wistar Testis: An Experimental Study Paralleling Human Environmental Exposure to Cadmium

Authors: R. P. Leite, M. A. S. Diamante, F. R. Gadelha, L. H. G. Ribeiro, H. Dolder

Abstract:

Although industrial processes are the major contributor to increase cadmium environmental concentration, phosphate fertilizers have significantly increased its percentage in soil, making food and tobacco the main source of cadmium exposure to humans. Worldwide population surveys have shown a consistent link between environmental exposure to cadmium and several idiopathic pathologies among non-occupationally exposed subjects. Epidemiological investigations and animal experiments paralleling human chronic exposure to environmental cadmium are, therefore of major importance for establishing a relationship between cadmium and several pathologies of unspecific etiology. In the present study, Wistar rats were randomly divided into three different groups and subjected to increasing cadmium doses ranging between low to moderate environmentally realistic doses. At the end of the treatment, the testis was dissected and subjected to biochemical and histological analyses. Our data show a significant disturbance in the cellular oxidative status for all cadmium-treated group, accompanied by morphological changes in blood vessel lumen.

Keywords: cadmium, blood vessel, environmental realistic doses, oxidative stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
235 Cadmium Contamination in Rice Cultivation in the City of Savadkooh in Iran

Authors: Ghazal Banitahmasb, Nazanin Khakipour

Abstract:

Potential contamination of rice by heavy metals such as Copper, Cobalt, Cadmium, Arsenic, Chromium, Mercury, Nickel, Lead and Magnesium in soil, water and pesticides affect the quality and nutritional properties of rice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination of rice cultivated in the city of Savadkooh to Cadmium and its comparison with international standards. With the study on different areas of Savadkooh(a city in Mazanaran Province) 7 samples of rice with the soil in which they were grown was taken for sampling. According to the results of all rice grown in Savadkooh city there are some Cadmium but the amount measured is less than specified in the national standard, and is safe for consumers to use.

Keywords: cadmium, heavy metals, rice, Savadkooh

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
234 Application of Liquid Emulsion Membrane Technique for the Removal of Cadmium(II) from Aqueous Solutions Using Aliquat 336 as a Carrier

Authors: B. Medjahed, M. A. Didi, B. Guezzen

Abstract:

In the present work, emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) technique was applied for the extraction of cadmium(II) present in aqueous samples. Aliquat 336 (Chloride tri-N-octylmethylammonium) was used as carrier to extract cadmium(II). The main objective of this work is to investigate the influence of various parameters affected the ELM formation and its stability and testing the performance of the prepared ELM on removal of cadmium by using synthetic solution with different concentrations. Experiments were conducted to optimize pH of the feed solution and it was found that cadmium(II) can be extracted at pH 6.5. The influence of the carrier concentration and treat ratio on the extraction process was investigated. The obtained results showed that the optimal values are respectively 3% (Aliquat 336) and a ratio (feed: emulsion) equal to 1:1.

Keywords: cadmium, carrier, emulsion liquid membrane, surfactant

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
233 Enhanced Ripening Behaviour of Manganese Doped Cadmium Selenide Quantum Dots (Mn-doped CdSe QDs)

Authors: N. A. Hamizi, M. R. Johan, Y. H. Hor, A. N. Sabri, Y. Y. A. Yong

Abstract:

In this research, Mn-doped CdSe QDs is synthesized by using paraffin liquid as the reacting solvent and oleic acid as the ligands for Cd in order to produce Mn-doped CdSe QDs in zinc-blende crystal structure. Characterization studies for synthesized Mn-doped CdSe QDs are carried out using UV-visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The absorption wavelengths in UV-vis test and emission wavelengths in PL test were increase with the increases in the ripening temperature and time respectively.

Keywords: semiconductor, chemical synthesis, optical properties, ripening

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
232 Recovery of Selenium from Scrubber Sludge in Copper Process

Authors: Lakshmikanth Reddy, Bhavin Desai, Chandrakala Kari, Sanjay Sarkar, Pradeep Binu

Abstract:

The sulphur dioxide gases generated as a by-product of smelting and converting operations of copper concentrate contain selenium apart from zinc, lead, copper, cadmium, bismuth, antimony, and arsenic. The gaseous stream is treated in waste heat boiler, electrostatic precipitator and scrubbers to remove coarse particulate matter in order to produce commercial grade sulfuric acid. The gas cleaning section of the acid plant uses water to scrub the smelting gases. After scrubbing, the sludge settled at the bottom of the scrubber, was analyzed in present investigation. It was found to contain 30 to 40 wt% copper and selenium up to 40 wt% selenium. The sludge collected during blow-down is directly recycled to the smelter for copper recovery. However, the selenium is expected to again vaporize due to high oxidation potential during smelting and converting, causing accumulation of selenium in sludge. In present investigation, a roasting process has been developed to recover the selenium before the copper recovery from the sludge at smelter. Selenium is associated with copper in sludge as copper selenide, as determined by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The thermodynamic and thermos-gravimetry study revealed that the copper selenide phase present in the sludge was amenable to oxidation at 600°C forming oxides of copper and selenium (Cu-Se-O). However, the dissociation of selenium from the copper oxide was made possible by sulfatation using sulfur dioxide between 450 to 600°C, resulting into the formation of CuSO₄ (s) and SeO₂ (g). Lab scale trials were carried out in vertical tubular furnace to determine the optimum roasting conditions with respect to roasting time, temperature and molar ratio of O₂:SO₂. Using these optimum conditions, selenium up to 90 wt% in the form of SeO₂ vapors could be recovered from the sludge in a large-scale commercial roaster. Roasted sludge free from the selenium and containing oxides and sulfates of copper could now be recycled in the smelter for copper recovery.

Keywords: copper, selenium, copper selenide, sludge, roasting, SeO₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
231 Assessment of Cadmium Levels in Soil and Vegetables Grown Along Kubanni Stream Channels, Zaria, Kaduna State

Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji

Abstract:

Quantitative determination of cadmium levels in soil and vegetables grown along Kubanni stream channels were seasonally analyzed for a period of two years using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Results revealed cadmium concentrations ranging from 1.00 – 3.50 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 1.31 – 7.15 mg/Kg in 2014 for the soil samples while the vegetables (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) had concentrations in the range of 0.20 – 6.10 mg/Kg in 2013 and 0.60 – 5.60 mg/Kg in 2014 respectively. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in cadmium levels across the locations and seasons for soil and vegetable analyzed. Pearson correlation results for cadmium concentrations between the year 2013 and 2014 revealed negligible (r = 0.002) relationship for soils while low (r = 0.395) relationship was obtained for vegetable and these were attributed to heavy application of fertilizers and nature of wastewater use for irrigation. Cadmium levels for both soil and vegetable exceeded the maximum allowable limit set by Standard Organization such as FAO and WHO.

Keywords: cadmium, level, soil, vegetables

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
230 The Structural and Electrical Properties of Cadmium Implanted Silicon Diodes at Room Temperature

Authors: J. O. Bodunrin, S. J. Moloi

Abstract:

This study reports on the x-ray crystallography (XRD) structure of cadmium-implanted p-type silicon, the current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of unimplanted and cadmium-implanted silicon-based diodes. Cadmium was implanted at the energy of 160 KeV to the fluence of 10¹⁵ ion/cm². The results obtained indicate that the diodes were well fabricated, and the introduction of cadmium results in a change in behavior of the diodes from normal exponential to ohmic I-V behavior. The C-V measurements, on the other hand, show that the measured capacitance increased after cadmium doping due to the injected charge carriers. The doping density of the p-Si material and the device's Schottky barrier height was extracted, and the doping density of the undoped p-Si material increased after cadmium doping while the Schottky barrier height reduced. In general, the results obtained here are similar to those obtained on the diodes fabricated on radiation-hard material, indicating that cadmium is a promising metal dopant to improve the radiation hardness of silicon. Thus, this study would assist in adding possible options to improve the radiation hardness of silicon to be used in high energy physics experiments.

Keywords: cadmium, capacitance-voltage, current-voltage, high energy physics experiment, x-ray crystallography, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
229 Cadmium Concentrations in Breast Milk and Factors of Exposition: Systematic Review

Authors: Abha Cherkani Hassani, Imane Ghanname, Nezha Mouane

Abstract:

Background: This is the first systematic review summarizing 43 years of research from 36 countries in the assessment of cadmium in breast milk; a suitable matrix in human biomonitoring. Objectives: To report from the published literature the levels of cadmium in breast milk and the affecting factors causing the increase of cadmium concentrations; also to gather several quantitative data which might be useful to evaluate the international degrees of maternal and infant exposure. Methods: We reviewed the literature for studies reporting quantitative data about cadmium levels in human breast milk in the world that have been published between 1971 and 2014 and that are available on Pubmed, Science direct and Google scholar. The aim of the study, country, period of samples collection, size of samples, sampling method, time of lactation, mother’s age, area of residence, cadmium concentration and other information were extracted. Results: 67 studies were selected and included in this systematic review. Some concentrations greatly exceed the limit of the WHO, However about 50% of the studies had less than 1 µg/l cadmium concentration (the recommendation of the WHO); as well many factors have shown their implication in breast milk contamination by Cadmium as lactation stage, smoking, diet, supplement intake, interaction with other mineral elements, age of mothers, parity and other parameters. Conclusion: Breast milk is a pathway of maternal excretion of cadmium. It is also a biological indicator of the degree of environmental pollution and cadmium exposure of the lactating women and the nourished infant. Therefore preventive measures and continuous monitoring are necessary.

Keywords: breast milk, cadmium level, factors, systematic review

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
228 Fabrication and Characterization of Cadmium Sulfide Nanowires on Aluminum Oxide Template

Authors: Malik Imran Afzal

Abstract:

Cadmium supplied nanowires have unique electrical and optical properties and applications. To obtain cadmium supplied nanowires with regular and good aspect ratio, they can be synthesized by template synthesis method. Porous anodized aluminum oxide is the most promising template with regular hexagonal shapes. Their aspect ratio can be controlled by controlling the pores’ depth and diameter which greatly depend on anodization voltage and temperature of the electrolyte. In this research, high purity aluminium was used to prepare nanotemplates at 5-6°C in 1M phosphoric acid and cadmium supplied was deposited electrochemically using a co-solution of thiourea, cadmium acetate and ammonium acetate. pH was maintained at 11 in a heat bath at 75°C with the help of aqueous ammonia solution. Both porous anodized alumina and cadmium supplied nanowires were characterized suing SEM. A good quality Nanowires were obtained in bunches with reasonably high aspect ratio.

Keywords: bunches, electrodeposition, hexagonal, thiourea

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
227 Effect of Cadmium on Oxidative Enzymes Activity in Persian Clover (Trifolium resupinatum L.)

Authors: Homayun Ghasemi, Mojtaba Yousefirad, Mozhgan Farzamisepehr

Abstract:

Heavy metals are among soil pollutant resources that in case of accumulation in the soil and absorption by the plant, enter into the food chain and poison the plants or the people who consume those plants. This research was performed in order to examine the role of cadmium as a heavy metal in the activity of catalase and peroxidase as well as protein concentration in Trifolium resupinatum L. based on a randomized block design with three repetitions. The used treatments included consumption of Cd (NO3)2 at four levels, namely, 0, 100, 200, and 300 ppm. The plants under study were treated for 10 days. The results of the study showed that catalase activity decreased by the increase of cadmium. Moreover, peroxidase activity increased by an increase inthe consumption of cadmium. The analysis of protein level showed that plantlet protein decreased in high cadmium concentrations. The findings also demonstrated that cadmium concentration in roots was higher than in shoots.

Keywords: catalase, heavy metal, peroxidase, protein

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
226 Predicting the Adsorptive Capacities of Biosolid as a Barrier in Soil to Remove Industrial Contaminants

Authors: H. Aguedal, H. Hentit, A. Aziz, D. R. Merouani, A. Iddou

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The major environmental risk of soil pollution is the contamination of groundwater by infiltration of organic and inorganic pollutants that can cause a serious pollution. To protect the groundwater, in this study, we proceeded to test the reliability of a bio solid as barrier to prevent the migration of a very dangerous pollutant ‘Cadmium’ through the different soil layers. The follow-up the influence of several parameters, such as: turbidity, pluviometry, initial concentration of cadmium and the nature of soil, allow us to find the most effective manner to integrate this barrier in the soil. From the results obtained, we noted the effective intervention of the barrier. Indeed, the recorded passing quantities are lowest for the highest rainfall; we noted that the barrier has a better affinity towards higher concentrations; the most retained amounts of cadmium has been in the top layer of the two types of soil, while the lowest amounts of cadmium are recorded in the inner layers of soils.

Keywords: adsorption of cadmium, barrier, groundwater pollution, protection

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
225 ANN Modeling for Cadmium Biosorption from Potable Water Using a Packed-Bed Column Process

Authors: Dariush Jafari, Seyed Ali Jafari

Abstract:

The recommended limit for cadmium concentration in potable water is less than 0.005 mg/L. A continuous biosorption process using indigenous red seaweed, Gracilaria corticata, was performed to remove cadmium from the potable water. The process was conducted under fixed conditions and the breakthrough curves were achieved for three consecutive sorption-desorption cycles. A modeling based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed to fit the experimental breakthrough data. In addition, a simplified semi empirical model, Thomas, was employed for this purpose. It was found that ANN well described the experimental data (R2>0.99) while the Thomas prediction were a bit less successful with R2>0.97. The adjusted design parameters using the nonlinear form of Thomas model was in a good agreement with the experimentally obtained ones. The results approve the capability of ANN to predict the cadmium concentration in potable water.

Keywords: ANN, biosorption, cadmium, packed-bed, potable water

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
224 Cadmium Filter Cake of a Hydrometallurgical Zinc Smelter as a New Source for the Biological Synthesis of CdS Quantum Dots

Authors: Mehran Bakhshi, Mohammad Raouf Hosseini, Mohammadhosein Rahimi

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The cadmium sulfide nanoparticles were synthesized from the nickel-cadmium cake of a hydrometallurgical zinc producing plant and sodium sulfide as Cd2+ and S-2 sources, respectively. Also, the synthesis process was performed by using the secretions of Bacillus licheniformis as bio-surfactant. Initially, in order to obtain a cadmium rich solution, two following steps were carried out: 1) Alkaline leaching for the removal of zinc oxide from the cake, and 2) acidic leaching to dissolve cadmium from the remained solid residue. Afterward, the obtained CdSO4 solution was used for the nanoparticle biosynthesis. Nanoparticles were characterized by the energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to confirm the formation of CdS crystals with cubic structure. Also, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was applied to determine the particle sizes which were in 2-10 nm range. Moreover, the presence of the protein containing bio-surfactants was approved by using infrared analysis (FTIR). In addition, the absorbance below 400 nm confirms quantum particles’ size. Finally, it was shown that valuable CdS quantum dots could be obtained from the industrial waste products via environment-friendly biological approaches.

Keywords: biosynthesis, cadmium cake, cadmium sulfide, nanoparticle, zinc smelter

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
223 Determination of Cadmium and Lead in Sewage Sludge from the Middle Region (Misrata, Msallata and Tarhünah Cities) of Libya

Authors: J. A. Mayouf, Q. A. Najim, H. S. Al-Bayati

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The concentrations of cadmium and lead in sewage sludge samples were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method. Samples of sewage sludge were obtained from three sewage treatment plants localised in Middle Region of Libya (Misrata, Msallata and Tarhünah cities). The results shows that, the mean levels of Cadmium for all regions are ranges from 81 to 123.4 ppm and these values are higher than the limitations for the international standard which are not registered more than 50 ppm (dry weight) in USA, Egypt and the EU countries. While, the lead concentrations are ranged from 8.0 to 189.2 ppm and all values are within the standard limits which graduated between (275–613) ppm.

Keywords: cadmium, lead, sewage, spectrometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
222 Gambusia an Excellent Indicator of Metals Stress

Authors: W. Khati, Y. Guasmi

Abstract:

The activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was studied in freshwater fish exposed to two heavy metals lead and cadmium. Measurements were made after short exposures (4 and 7 days) at concentrations of 1, 5, and 7μg/L cadmium and 1.25, 2.25, and 5 mg/L of lead. Cadmium induced no significant increases in activity of AChE in the gills for the lowest dose. Except significant inhibition on 7 days. In muscle of Gambusia, under stress of metallic lead, the activity increases compared to the control are noted at 4 days of treatment and inhibitions to 7 days of exposure. The analysis of variance (time, treatment) indicates only a very significant time effect (p<0.05), and as for cadmium, a significant body effect (p<0.01) is recorded. This small fish sedentary, colonizing particularly quiet environments, polluted, can only be the ideal bioindicator of contamination and bioaccumulation of metals. The presence of lead and cadmium in the bodies of fish is a risk factor not only for the lives of these aquatic species, but also for the man who is the top predator at the end of the food chain.

Keywords: biomarkers, bioindicator, environmenlal health, metals

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
221 Cadmium Separation from Aqueous Solutions by Natural Biosorbents

Authors: Z. V. P. Murthy, Preeti Arunachalam, Sangeeta Balram

Abstract:

Removal of metal ions from different wastewaters has become important due to their effects on living beings. Cadmium is one of the heavy metals found in different industrial wastewaters. There are many conventional methods available to remove heavy metals from wastewaters like adsorption, membrane separations, precipitation, electrolytic methods, etc. and all of them have their own advantages and disadvantages. The present work deals with the use of natural biosorbents (chitin and chitosan) to separate cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption data were fitted with different isotherms and kinetics models. Amongst different adsorption isotherms used to fit the adsorption data, the Freundlich isotherm showed better fits for both the biosorbents. The kinetics data of adsorption of cadmium showed better fit with pseudo-second order model for both the biosorbents. Chitosan, the derivative from chitin, showed better performance than chitin. The separation results are encouraging.

Keywords: chitin, chitosan, cadmium, isotherm, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
220 The Effects of Copper and Cadmium on Germination and Seedling Growth of Oriental Beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) Seeds

Authors: Handan Ucun Özel, Halil Barış Özel

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The toxic effects of copper and cadmium on seed germination, seedling, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) was evaluated under laboratory conditions compared to control values. Copper and cadmium treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l affect seed germination and seedling growth of oriental beech as compared to control. Copper treatments at 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/l concentrations produced significant (p < 0.01) effects on seed germination and seedling length of oriental beech while copper treatment at 150 mg/l significantly affected root growth and seedling dry biomass as compared to control. Similarly, cadmium treatments from 50 to 200 mg/l affected the seed germination, root, shoot length, and seedling dry biomass of oriental beech as compared to control. Cadmium treatments showed an adverse effect on seedlings of oriental beech as compared to copper, copper and cadmium treatments at 200mg/l exhibited the lowest percentage of tolerance in seedlings of oriental beech as compared to control.

Keywords: copper, cadmium, toxicity, oriental beech

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
219 Phytoremediation Potential of Tomato for Cd and Cr Removal from Polluted Soils

Authors: Jahanshah Saleh, Hossein Ghasemi, Ali Shahriari, Faezeh Alizadeh, Yaaghoob Hosseini

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Cadmium and chromium are toxic to most organisms and different mechanisms have been developed for overcoming with the toxic effects of these heavy metals. We studied the uptake and distribution of cadmium and chromium in different organs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) plants in nine heavy metal polluted soils in western Hormozgan province, Iran. The accumulation of chromium was in increasing pattern of fruit peel

Keywords: cadmium, chromium, phytoextraction, phytostabilization, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
218 Shape Evolution of CdSe Quantum Dots during the Synthesis in the Presence of Silver Halides

Authors: Pavel Kotin, Sergey Dotofeev, Daniil Kozlov, Alexey Garshev

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We propose the investigation of CdSe quantum dots which were synthesized in the presence of silver halides. To understand a process of nanoparticle formation in more detail, we varied the silver halide amount in the synthesis and proposed a sampling during colloidal growth. The attempts were focused on the investigation of shape, structure and optical properties of nanoparticles. We used the colloidal method of synthesis. Cadmium oleate, tri-n-octylphosphine selenide (TOPSe) and AgHal in TOP were precursors of cadmium, selenium and silver halides correspondingly. The molar Ag/Cd ratio in synthesis was varied from 1/16 to 1/1. The sampling was basically realized in 20 sec, 5 min, and 30 min after the beginning of quantum dots nucleation. To investigate nanoparticles we used transmission electron microscopy (including high resolution one), X-ray diffraction, and optical spectroscopy. It was established that silver halides lead to obtaining tetrapods with different leg length and large ellipsoidal nanoparticles possessing an intensive near IR photoluminescence. The change of the amount of silver halide in synthesis and the selection of an optimal growth time allows controlling the shape and the share of tetrapods or ellipsoidal nanoparticles in the product. Our main attempts were focused on a detailed investigation of the quantum dots structure and shape evolution and, finally, on mechanisms of such nanoparticle formation.

Keywords: colloidal quantum dots, shape evolution, silver doping, tetrapods

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
217 Characterization and Detection of Cadmium Ion Using Modification Calixarene with Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Amira Shakila Razali, Faridah Lisa Supian, Muhammad Mat Salleh, Suriani Abu Bakar

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Water contamination by toxic compound is one of the serious environmental problems today. These toxic compounds mostly originated from industrial effluents, agriculture, natural sources and human waste. These study are focused on modification of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) with nanoparticle of calixarene and explore the possibility of using this nanocomposites for the remediation of cadmium in water. The nanocomposites were prepared by dissolving calixarene in chloroform solution as solvent, followed by additional multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) then sonication process for 3 hour and fabricated the nanocomposites on substrate by spin coating method. Finally, the nanocomposites were tested on cadmium ion (10 mg/ml). The morphology of nanocomposites was investigated by FESEM showing the formation of calixarene on the outer walls of carbon nanotube and cadmium ion also clearly seen from the micrograph. This formation was supported by using energy dispersive x-ray (EDX). The presence of cadmium ions in the films, leads to some changes in the surface potential and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).This nanocomposites have potential for development of sensor for pollutant monitoring and nanoelectronics devices applications

Keywords: calixarene, multiwalled carbon nanotubes, cadmium, surface potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
216 Influence of the Low Frequency Ultrasound on the Cadmium (II) Biosorption by an Ecofriendly Biocomposite (Extraction Solid Waste of Ammi visnaga / Calcium Alginate): Kinetic Modeling

Authors: L. Nouri Taiba, Y. Bouhamidi, F. Kaouah, Z. Bendjama, M. Trari

Abstract:

In the present study, an ecofriendly biocomposite namely calcium alginate immobilized Ammi Visnaga (Khella) extraction waste (SWAV/CA) was prepared by electrostatic extrusion method and used on the cadmium biosorption from aqueous phase with and without the assistance of ultrasound in batch conditions. The influence of low frequency ultrasound (37 and 80 KHz) on the cadmium biosorption kinetics was studied. The obtained results show that the ultrasonic irradiation significantly enhances and improves the efficiency of the cadmium removal. The Pseudo first order, Pseudo-second-order, Intraparticle diffusion, and Elovich models were evaluated using the non-linear curve fitting analysis method. Modeling of kinetic results shows that biosorption process is best described by the pseudo-second order and Elovich, in both the absence and presence of ultrasound.

Keywords: biocomposite, biosorption, cadmium, non-linear analysis, ultrasound

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215 Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Cadmium Removal from Aqueous Solution

Authors: Ana M. Guzman, Claudia M. Rodriguez, Pedro F. B. Brandao, Elianna Castillo

Abstract:

Cadmium (Cd) is a carcinogenic metal to which humans are exposed mainly due to its presence in the food chain. Lactic acid bacteria have the capability to bind cadmium and thus the potential to be used as probiotics to treat this metal toxicity in the human body. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of native lactic acid bacteria, isolated from Colombian fermented cocoa, to remove cadmium from aqueous solutions. An initial screening was made with the Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1055 type strain, and Cd was quantified by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Lb. plantarum JCM 1055 was grown in ½ MRS medium to follow growth kinetics during 32 h at 37 °C, by measuring optical density at 600 nm. Washed cells, grown for 18 h, were adjusted to obtain dry biomass concentrations of 1.5 g/L and 0.5 g/L for removal assays in 10 mL of Cd(NO₃)₂ solution with final concentrations of 10 mg/Kg or 1.0 mg/Kg. The assays were performed at two different pH values (2.0 and 5.0), and results showed better adsorption abilities at higher pH. After incubation for 1 h at 37 °C and 150 rpm, the removal percentages for 10 mg/Kg Cd with 1.5 g/L and 0.5 g/L biomass concentration at pH 5.0 were, respectively, 71% and 50%, while the efficiency was 9.15 and 4.52 mg Cd/g dry biomass, respectively. For the assay with 1.0 mg/Kg Cd at pH 5.0, the removal was 100% and 98%, respectively for the same biomass concentrations, and the efficiency was 1.63 and 0.56 mg Cd/g dry biomass, respectively. These results suggest the efficiency of Lactobacillus strains to remove cadmium and their potential to be used as probiotics to treat cadmium toxicity and reduce its accumulation in the human body.

Keywords: cadmium removal, fermented cocoa, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics

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214 Cadmium Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Thasala Southern Thailand

Authors: Supabhorn Yimthiang, Wiyada Khanwian

Abstract:

Cadmium is a heavy metal that is important in the environment because it is highly toxic. The incidence and severity of type 2 diabetes mellitus are known to be associated with cadmium. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cadmium levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at diabetes mellitus clinic, Thasala hospital, Nakhon Si Thummarat, Thailand. The study population was composed of forty five subjects. Among them, twenty two were diabetic patients and twenty three were apparently healthy non-diabetic individual subjects. After an overnight fasting, blood and morning urine samples were collected from each subject to determine fasting blood sugar and cadmium levels in urine, respectively. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were measured by aneroid sphygmomanometer. Study approval was taken from the human subject ethics committee of Walailak University. Verbal and written informed consent was taken from all participants. In the study samples, there were 31.8% males and 68.2% females with mean age of 47+10.53 years. The geometric mean of urine cadmium was significantly higher in diabetic patients (1.015 + 0.79 µg/g creatinine) when compared with the healthy subjects (0.395 + 0.53 µg/g creatinine) (P<0.05). This result also showed that urine cadmium excretion in diabetic patients was higher than in healthy subjects by 2.6 times. Moreover, fasting blood sugar (153+47.86 μg/dl) and systolic blood pressure (183.26+17.15 mmHg) of diabetic patients was significantly different when compared with healthy subjects (79+5.38 μg/dl and 112.78+11.32 mmHg, respectively) (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the concentration of cadmium in urine showed positive correlation with fasting plasma glucose (r=0.616) and systolic blood pressure (r=0.487). This preliminary study showed that cadmium might play an important role in the development and pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus in general population. However, these findings require confirmation through additional epidemiological and biological research.

Keywords: blood pressure, cadmium, fasting blood sugar, type 2 diabetes mellitus

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