Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 627

Search results for: hierarchical structuring

627 Building a Hierarchical, Granular Knowledge Cube

Authors: Alexander Denzler, Marcel Wehrle, Andreas Meier

Abstract:

A knowledge base stores facts and rules about the world that applications can use for the purpose of reasoning. By applying the concept of granular computing to a knowledge base, several advantages emerge. These can be harnessed by applications to improve their capabilities and performance. In this paper, the concept behind such a construct, called a granular knowledge cube, is defined, and its intended use as an instrument that manages to cope with different data types and detect knowledge domains is elaborated. Furthermore, the underlying architecture, consisting of the three layers of the storing, representing, and structuring of knowledge, is described. Finally, benefits as well as challenges of deploying it are listed alongside application types that could profit from having such an enhanced knowledge base.

Keywords: granular computing, granular knowledge, hierarchical structuring, knowledge bases

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
626 Meta-Learning for Hierarchical Classification and Applications in Bioinformatics

Authors: Fabio Fabris, Alex A. Freitas

Abstract:

Hierarchical classification is a special type of classification task where the class labels are organised into a hierarchy, with more generic class labels being ancestors of more specific ones. Meta-learning for classification-algorithm recommendation consists of recommending to the user a classification algorithm, from a pool of candidate algorithms, for a dataset, based on the past performance of the candidate algorithms in other datasets. Meta-learning is normally used in conventional, non-hierarchical classification. By contrast, this paper proposes a meta-learning approach for more challenging task of hierarchical classification, and evaluates it in a large number of bioinformatics datasets. Hierarchical classification is especially relevant for bioinformatics problems, as protein and gene functions tend to be organised into a hierarchy of class labels. This work proposes meta-learning approach for recommending the best hierarchical classification algorithm to a hierarchical classification dataset. This work’s contributions are: 1) proposing an algorithm for splitting hierarchical datasets into new datasets to increase the number of meta-instances, 2) proposing meta-features for hierarchical classification, and 3) interpreting decision-tree meta-models for hierarchical classification algorithm recommendation.

Keywords: algorithm recommendation, meta-learning, bioinformatics, hierarchical classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
625 Hybrid Hierarchical Clustering Approach for Community Detection in Social Network

Authors: Radhia Toujani, Jalel Akaichi

Abstract:

Social Networks generally present a hierarchy of communities. To determine these communities and the relationship between them, detection algorithms should be applied. Most of the existing algorithms, proposed for hierarchical communities identification, are based on either agglomerative clustering or divisive clustering. In this paper, we present a hybrid hierarchical clustering approach for community detection based on both bottom-up and bottom-down clustering. Obviously, our approach provides more relevant community structure than hierarchical method which considers only divisive or agglomerative clustering to identify communities. Moreover, we performed some comparative experiments to enhance the quality of the clustering results and to show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

Keywords: agglomerative hierarchical clustering, community structure, divisive hierarchical clustering, hybrid hierarchical clustering, opinion mining, social network, social network analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
624 Hierarchical Clustering Algorithms in Data Mining

Authors: Z. Abdullah, A. R. Hamdan

Abstract:

Clustering is a process of grouping objects and data into groups of clusters to ensure that data objects from the same cluster are identical to each other. Clustering algorithms in one of the areas in data mining and it can be classified into partition, hierarchical, density based, and grid-based. Therefore, in this paper, we do a survey and review for four major hierarchical clustering algorithms called CURE, ROCK, CHAMELEON, and BIRCH. The obtained state of the art of these algorithms will help in eliminating the current problems, as well as deriving more robust and scalable algorithms for clustering.

Keywords: clustering, unsupervised learning, algorithms, hierarchical

Procedia PDF Downloads 556
623 Knowledge Discovery from Production Databases for Hierarchical Process Control

Authors: Pavol Tanuska, Pavel Vazan, Michal Kebisek, Dominika Jurovata

Abstract:

The paper gives the results of the project that was oriented on the usage of knowledge discoveries from production systems for needs of the hierarchical process control. One of the main project goals was the proposal of knowledge discovery model for process control. Specifics data mining methods and techniques was used for defined problems of the process control. The gained knowledge was used on the real production system, thus, the proposed solution has been verified. The paper documents how it is possible to apply new discovery knowledge to be used in the real hierarchical process control. There are specified the opportunities for application of the proposed knowledge discovery model for hierarchical process control.

Keywords: hierarchical process control, knowledge discovery from databases, neural network, process control

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
622 Why Do We Need Hierachical Linear Models?

Authors: Mustafa Aydın, Ali Murat Sunbul

Abstract:

Hierarchical or nested data structures usually are seen in many research areas. Especially, in the field of education, if we examine most of the studies, we can see the nested structures. Students in classes, classes in schools, schools in cities and cities in regions are similar nested structures. In a hierarchical structure, students being in the same class, sharing the same physical conditions and similar experiences and learning from the same teachers, they demonstrate similar behaviors between them rather than the students in other classes.

Keywords: hierarchical linear modeling, nested data, hierarchical structure, data structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 529
621 Hydrothermally Fabricated 3-D Nanostructure Metal Oxide Sensors

Authors: Mohammad Alenezi

Abstract:

Hierarchical nanostructures with higher dimensionality, consisting of nanostructure building blocks such as nanowires, nanotubes, or nanosheets are very attractive. They hold great properties like the high surface-to-volume ratio and well-ordered porous structures, which can be very challenging to attain for other mono-morphological nanostructures. Well-ordered hierarchical nanostructures with high surface-to-volume ratios facilitate gas diffusion into their surfaces as well as scattering of light. Therefore, hierarchical nanostructures are expected to perform highly as gas sensors. A multistage controlled hydrothermal synthesis method to fabricate high-performance single ZnO brushlike hierarchical nanostructure gas sensor from initial nanowires is reported. The performance of the sensor based on brush-like hierarchical nanostructure is analyzed and compared to that of a nanowire gas sensor. The hierarchical gas sensor demonstrated high sensitivity toward low concentration of acetone at high speed of response. The enhancement in the hierarchical sensor performance is attributed to the increased surface to volume ratio, reduction in dimensionality of the nanowire building blocks, formation of junctions between the initial nanowire and the secondary nanowires, and enhanced gas diffusion into the surfaces of the hierarchical nanostructures.

Keywords: metal oxide, nanostructure, hydrothermal, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
620 A Model Based Metaheuristic for Hybrid Hierarchical Community Structure in Social Networks

Authors: Radhia Toujani, Jalel Akaichi

Abstract:

In recent years, the study of community detection in social networks has received great attention. The hierarchical structure of the network leads to the emergence of the convergence to a locally optimal community structure. In this paper, we aim to avoid this local optimum in the introduced hybrid hierarchical method. To achieve this purpose, we present an objective function where we incorporate the value of structural and semantic similarity based modularity and a metaheuristic namely bees colonies algorithm to optimize our objective function on both hierarchical level divisive and agglomerative. In order to assess the efficiency and the accuracy of the introduced hybrid bee colony model, we perform an extensive experimental evaluation on both synthetic and real networks.

Keywords: social network, community detection, agglomerative hierarchical clustering, divisive hierarchical clustering, similarity, modularity, metaheuristic, bee colony

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
619 An E-Assessment Website to Implement Hierarchical Aggregate Assessment

Authors: M. Lesage, G. Raîche, M. Riopel, F. Fortin, D. Sebkhi

Abstract:

This paper describes a Web server implementation of the hierarchical aggregate assessment process in the field of education. This process describes itself as a field of teamwork assessment where teams can have multiple levels of hierarchy and supervision. This process is applied everywhere and is part of the management, education, assessment and computer science fields. The E-Assessment website named “Cluster” records in its database the students, the course material, the teams and the hierarchical relationships between the students. For the present research, the hierarchical relationships are team member, team leader and group administrator appointments. The group administrators have the responsibility to supervise team leaders. The experimentation of the application has been performed by high school students in geology courses and Canadian army cadets for navigation patrols in teams. This research extends the work of Nance that uses a hierarchical aggregation process similar as the one implemented in the “Cluster” application.

Keywords: e-learning, e-assessment, teamwork assessment, hierarchical aggregate assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
618 Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Using the Tθ Family of Similarity Measures

Authors: Salima Kouici, Abdelkader Khelladi

Abstract:

In this work, we begin with the presentation of the Tθ family of usual similarity measures concerning multidimensional binary data. Subsequently, some properties of these measures are proposed. Finally, the impact of the use of different inter-elements measures on the results of the Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering Methods is studied.

Keywords: binary data, similarity measure, Tθ measures, agglomerative hierarchical clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
617 Digital Geography and Geographic Information System in Schools: Towards a Hierarchical Geospatial Approach

Authors: Mary Fargher

Abstract:

This paper examines the opportunities of using a more hierarchical approach to geospatial enquiry in using GIS in school geography. A case is made that it is not just the lack of teacher technological knowledge that is stopping some teachers from using GIS in the classroom but that there is a gap in their understanding of how to link GIS use more specifically to the pedagogy of teaching geography with GIS. Using a hierarchical approach to geospatial enquiry as a theoretical framework, the analysis shows clearly how concepts of spatial distribution, interaction, relation, comparison, and temporal relationships can be used by teachers more explicitly to capitalise on the analytical power of GIS and to construct what can be interpreted as powerful geographical knowledge. An exemplar illustrating this approach on the topic of geo-hazards is then presented for critical analysis and discussion. Recommendations are then made for a model of progression for geography teacher education with GIS through hierarchical geospatial enquiry that takes into account beginner, intermediate, and more advanced users.

Keywords: digital geography, GIS, education, hierarchical geospatial enquiry, powerful geographical knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
616 A New Graph Theoretic Problem with Ample Practical Applications

Authors: Mehmet Hakan Karaata

Abstract:

In this paper, we first coin a new graph theocratic problem with numerous applications. Second, we provide two algorithms for the problem. The first solution is using a brute-force techniques, whereas the second solution is based on an initial identification of the cycles in the given graph. We then provide a correctness proof of the algorithm. The applications of the problem include graph analysis, graph drawing and network structuring.

Keywords: algorithm, cycle, graph algorithm, graph theory, network structuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
615 Semi-Supervised Hierarchical Clustering Given a Reference Tree of Labeled Documents

Authors: Ying Zhao, Xingyan Bin

Abstract:

Semi-supervised clustering algorithms have been shown effective to improve clustering process with even limited supervision. However, semi-supervised hierarchical clustering remains challenging due to the complexities of expressing constraints for agglomerative clustering algorithms. This paper proposes novel semi-supervised agglomerative clustering algorithms to build a hierarchy based on a known reference tree. We prove that by enforcing distance constraints defined by a reference tree during the process of hierarchical clustering, the resultant tree is guaranteed to be consistent with the reference tree. We also propose a framework that allows the hierarchical tree generation be aware of levels of levels of the agglomerative tree under creation, so that metric weights can be learned and adopted at each level in a recursive fashion. The experimental evaluation shows that the additional cost of our contraint-based semi-supervised hierarchical clustering algorithm (HAC) is negligible, and our combined semi-supervised HAC algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms on real-world datasets. The experiments also show that our proposed methods can improve clustering performance even with a small number of unevenly distributed labeled data.

Keywords: semi-supervised clustering, hierarchical agglomerative clustering, reference trees, distance constraints

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
614 Performance Analysis of Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering in a Wireless Sensor Network Using Quantitative Data

Authors: Tapan Jain, Davender Singh Saini

Abstract:

Clustering is a useful mechanism in wireless sensor networks which helps to cope with scalability and data transmission problems. The basic aim of our research work is to provide efficient clustering using Hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC). If the distance between the sensing nodes is calculated using their location then it’s quantitative HAC. This paper compares the various agglomerative clustering techniques applied in a wireless sensor network using the quantitative data. The simulations are done in MATLAB and the comparisons are made between the different protocols using dendrograms.

Keywords: routing, hierarchical clustering, agglomerative, quantitative, wireless sensor network

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
613 Electrochemical Performance Enhancement in Hierarchical NiO/ZnCo₂O₄ Nanocomposite for Supercapacitor Applications

Authors: Fayssal Ynineb, Toufik Hadjersi, Fatsah Moulai, Wafa Achour

Abstract:

Currently, tremendous attention has been paid to the rational design and synthesis of core/shell heterostructures for high-performance supercapacitors. In this study, the hierarchical NiO/ZnCo₂O₄ Core-Shell Nanorods Arrays on ITO substrate were successfully prepared via a two-step hydrothermal and electrodeposition methods. The effect of the thin carbon layer between NiO and ZnCo₂O₄ in this multi-scale hierarchical structure was investigated in detail. The choice of this last was based on: (a) a high specific area of pseudo-capacitive NiO to maximize specific capacitance; (b) an effective NiO-electrolyte interface to facilitate fast charging/discharging; and (c) conducting carbon layer between ZnCo₂O₄ and NiO to enhance the electric conductivity which reduces energy loss, and also protect the corrosion of ZnCo₂O₄ in alkaline solution. Electrochemical results indicate that hierarchical NiO/ZnCo₂O₄ possessed a high specific capacitance of 61.8 mF.cm⁻² at a current density of 0.1 mA.cm⁻², which is higher than that of pristine ZnCo₂O₄ and NiO (3.5 and 5.5 mF.cm⁻² respectively). In the hierarchical NiO/C/ZnCo₂O₄ where the carbon layer improves the electrical conductivity between NiO and ZnCo₂O₄ also increases the specific capacitance to high as 94.8 mF.cm⁻² at a current density of 0.1 mA.cm⁻². Moreover, this multi-scale hierarchical structure exhibits superior cycling stability with ~100% capacitance retention at the scan rate of 100 mV.s⁻¹ after 10000 cycles. These results indicate that the NiO/C/ZnCo₂O₄ nanocomposite material is an outstanding electrode material for supercapacitors.

Keywords: NiO/ZnCo₂O₄, specific capacitance, hydrothermal, supercapacitors

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
612 Progressive Multimedia Collection Structuring via Scene Linking

Authors: Aman Berhe, Camille Guinaudeau, Claude Barras

Abstract:

In order to facilitate information seeking in large collections of multimedia documents with long and progressive content (such as broadcast news or TV series), one can extract the semantic links that exist between semantically coherent parts of documents, i.e., scenes. The links can then create a coherent collection of scenes from which it is easier to perform content analysis, topic extraction, or information retrieval. In this paper, we focus on TV series structuring and propose two approaches for scene linking at different levels of granularity (episode and season): a fuzzy online clustering technique and a graph-based community detection algorithm. When evaluated on the two first seasons of the TV series Game of Thrones, we found that the fuzzy online clustering approach performed better compared to graph-based community detection at the episode level, while graph-based approaches show better performance at the season level.

Keywords: multimedia collection structuring, progressive content, scene linking, fuzzy clustering, community detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 8
611 Spatial Econometric Approaches for Count Data: An Overview and New Directions

Authors: Paula Simões, Isabel Natário

Abstract:

This paper reviews a number of theoretical aspects for implementing an explicit spatial perspective in econometrics for modelling non-continuous data, in general, and count data, in particular. It provides an overview of the several spatial econometric approaches that are available to model data that are collected with reference to location in space, from the classical spatial econometrics approaches to the recent developments on spatial econometrics to model count data, in a Bayesian hierarchical setting. Considerable attention is paid to the inferential framework, necessary for structural consistent spatial econometric count models, incorporating spatial lag autocorrelation, to the corresponding estimation and testing procedures for different assumptions, to the constrains and implications embedded in the various specifications in the literature. This review combines insights from the classical spatial econometrics literature as well as from hierarchical modeling and analysis of spatial data, in order to look for new possible directions on the processing of count data, in a spatial hierarchical Bayesian econometric context.

Keywords: spatial data analysis, spatial econometrics, Bayesian hierarchical models, count data

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
610 The Use of Layered Neural Networks for Classifying Hierarchical Scientific Fields of Study

Authors: Colin Smith, Linsey S Passarella

Abstract:

Due to the proliferation and decentralized nature of academic publication, no widely accepted scheme exists for organizing papers by their scientific field of study (FoS) to the author’s best knowledge. While many academic journals require author provided keywords for papers, these keywords range wildly in scope and are not consistent across papers, journals, or field domains, necessitating alternative approaches to paper classification. Past attempts to perform field-of-study (FoS) classification on scientific texts have largely used a-hierarchical FoS schemas or ignored the schema’s inherently hierarchical structure, e.g. by compressing the structure into a single layer for multi-label classification. In this paper, we introduce an application of a Layered Neural Network (LNN) to the problem of performing supervised hierarchical classification of scientific fields of study (FoS) on research papers. In this approach, paper embeddings from a pretrained language model are fed into a top-down LNN. Beginning with a single neural network (NN) for the highest layer of the class hierarchy, each node uses a separate local NN to classify the subsequent subfield child node(s) for an input embedding of concatenated paper titles and abstracts. We compare our LNN-FOS method to other recent machine learning methods using the Microsoft Academic Graph (MAG) FoS hierarchy and find that the LNN-FOS offers increased classification accuracy at each FoS hierarchical level.

Keywords: hierarchical classification, layer neural network, scientific field of study, scientific taxonomy

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
609 Good Practices for Model Structure Development and Managing Structural Uncertainty in Decision Making

Authors: Hossein Afzali

Abstract:

Increasingly, decision analytic models are used to inform decisions about whether or not to publicly fund new health technologies. It is well noted that the accuracy of model predictions is strongly influenced by the appropriateness of model structuring. However, there is relatively inadequate methodological guidance surrounding this issue in guidelines developed by national funding bodies such as the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC) and The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK. This presentation aims to discuss issues around model structuring within decision making with a focus on (1) the need for a transparent and evidence-based model structuring process to inform the most appropriate set of structural aspects as the base case analysis; (2) the need to characterise structural uncertainty (If there exist alternative plausible structural assumptions (or judgements), there is a need to appropriately characterise the related structural uncertainty). The presentation will provide an opportunity to share ideas and experiences on how the guidelines developed by national funding bodies address the above issues and identify areas for further improvements. First, a review and analysis of the literature and guidelines developed by PBAC and NICE will be provided. Then, it will be discussed how the issues around model structuring (including structural uncertainty) are not handled and justified in a systematic way within the decision-making process, its potential impact on the quality of public funding decisions, and how it should be presented in submissions to national funding bodies. This presentation represents a contribution to the good modelling practice within the decision-making process. Although the presentation focuses on the PBAC and NICE guidelines, the discussion can be applied more widely to many other national funding bodies that use economic evaluation to inform funding decisions but do not transparently address model structuring issues e.g. the Medical Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) in Australia or the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Keywords: decision-making process, economic evaluation, good modelling practice, structural uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
608 Effects of Hierarchy on Poisson’s Ratio and Phononic Bandgaps of Two-Dimensional Honeycomb Structures

Authors: Davood Mousanezhad, Ashkan Vaziri

Abstract:

As a traditional cellular structure, hexagonal honeycombs are known for their high strength-to-weight ratio. Here, we introduce a class of fractal-appearing hierarchical metamaterials by replacing the vertices of the original non-hierarchical hexagonal grid with smaller hexagons and iterating this process to achieve higher levels of hierarchy. It has been recently shown that the isotropic in-plane Young's modulus of this hierarchical structure at small deformations becomes 25 times greater than its regular counterpart with the same mass. At large deformations, we find that hierarchy-dependent elastic buckling introduced at relatively early stages of deformation decreases the value of Poisson's ratio as the structure is compressed uniaxially leading to auxeticity (i.e., negative Poisson's ratio) in subsequent stages of deformation. We also show that the topological hierarchical architecture and instability-induced pattern transformations of the structure under compression can be effectively used to tune the propagation of elastic waves within the structure. We find that the hierarchy tends to shift the existing phononic bandgaps (defined as frequency ranges of strong wave attenuation) to lower frequencies while opening up new bandgaps. Deformation is also demonstrated as another mechanism for opening more bandgaps in hierarchical structures. The results provide new insights into the role of structural organization and hierarchy in regulating mechanical properties of materials at both the static and dynamic regimes.

Keywords: cellular structures, honeycombs, hierarchical structures, metamaterials, multifunctional structures, phononic crystals, auxetic structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
607 A Probabilistic View of the Spatial Pooler in Hierarchical Temporal Memory

Authors: Mackenzie Leake, Liyu Xia, Kamil Rocki, Wayne Imaino

Abstract:

In the Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) paradigm the effect of overlap between inputs on the activation of columns in the spatial pooler is studied. Numerical results suggest that similar inputs are represented by similar sets of columns and dissimilar inputs are represented by dissimilar sets of columns. It is shown that the spatial pooler produces these results under certain conditions for the connectivity and proximal thresholds. Following the discussion of the initialization of parameters for the thresholds, corresponding qualitative arguments about the learning dynamics of the spatial pooler are discussed.

Keywords: hierarchical temporal memory, HTM, learning algorithms, machine learning, spatial pooler

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
606 Hierarchical Tree Long Short-Term Memory for Sentence Representations

Authors: Xiuying Wang, Changliang Li, Bo Xu

Abstract:

A fixed-length feature vector is required for many machine learning algorithms in NLP field. Word embeddings have been very successful at learning lexical information. However, they cannot capture the compositional meaning of sentences, which prevents them from a deeper understanding of language. In this paper, we introduce a novel hierarchical tree long short-term memory (HTLSTM) model that learns vector representations for sentences of arbitrary syntactic type and length. We propose to split one sentence into three hierarchies: short phrase, long phrase and full sentence level. The HTLSTM model gives our algorithm the potential to fully consider the hierarchical information and long-term dependencies of language. We design the experiments on both English and Chinese corpus to evaluate our model on sentiment analysis task. And the results show that our model outperforms several existing state of the art approaches significantly.

Keywords: deep learning, hierarchical tree long short-term memory, sentence representation, sentiment analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
605 Cooperative CDD Scheme Based On Hierarchical Modulation in OFDM System

Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yeong-Seop Ahn, Young-Min Ko, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In order to achieve high data rate and increase the spectral efficiency, multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system has been proposed. However, multiple antennas are limited by size and cost. Therefore, recently developed cooperative diversity scheme, which profits the transmit diversity only with the existing hardware by constituting a virtual antenna array, can be a solution. However, most of the introduced cooperative techniques have a common fault of decreased transmission rate because the destination should receive the decodable compositions of symbols from the source and the relay. In this paper, we propose a cooperative cyclic delay diversity (CDD) scheme that uses hierarchical modulation. This scheme is free from the rate loss and allows seamless cooperative communication.

Keywords: MIMO, cooperative communication, CDD, hierarchical modulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
604 The Problems of Current Earth Coordinate System for Earthquake Forecasting Using Single Layer Hierarchical Graph Neuron

Authors: Benny Benyamin Nasution, Rahmat Widia Sembiring, Abdul Rahman Dalimunthe, Nursiah Mustari, Nisfan Bahri, Berta br Ginting, Riadil Akhir Lubis, Rita Tavip Megawati, Indri Dithisari

Abstract:

The earth coordinate system is an important part of an attempt for earthquake forecasting, such as the one using Single Layer Hierarchical Graph Neuron (SLHGN). However, there are a number of problems that need to be worked out before the coordinate system can be utilized for the forecaster. One example of those is that SLHGN requires that the focused area of an earthquake must be constructed in a grid-like form. In fact, within the current earth coordinate system, the same longitude-difference would produce different distances. This can be observed at the distance on the Equator compared to distance at both poles. To deal with such a problem, a coordinate system has been developed, so that it can be used to support the ongoing earthquake forecasting using SLHGN. Two important issues have been developed in this system: 1) each location is not represented through two-value (longitude and latitude), but only a single value, 2) the conversion of the earth coordinate system to the x-y cartesian system requires no angular formulas, which is therefore fast. The accuracy and the performance have not been measured yet, since earthquake data is difficult to obtain. However, the characteristics of the SLHGN results show a very promising answer.

Keywords: hierarchical graph neuron, multidimensional hierarchical graph neuron, single layer hierarchical graph neuron, natural disaster forecasting, earthquake forecasting, earth coordinate system

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
603 Applying Tourist Gaze in Structuring of Global Tourism in Solo City

Authors: Eko Nursanty, Joesron Alie Syahbana, Atik Suprapti

Abstract:

Tourist gaze is a set of experiences that experienced by a tourist in attempt to familiarize himself with the certain local tourism site’s condition. It is started from looking for information prior arriving at the location, then during the visit and gaining unique experience with the local inhabitant, and then experiencing the ingenuity of the location, finally to bring impression that keeps on attaching despite leaving from it. This research attempted to grab the message of tourist gaze in the process of structuring which is conducted in the global tourism in the cities in Indonesia, particularly Solo as the study case of the research. The method employed is the field observation of qualitative research. The expected result is to relate the tourist gaze theory with the development of ongoing global tourism.

Keywords: tourist gaze, tourism, city branding, Solo

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
602 An Improved Approach to Solve Two-Level Hierarchical Time Minimization Transportation Problem

Authors: Kalpana Dahiya

Abstract:

This paper discusses a two-level hierarchical time minimization transportation problem, which is an important class of transportation problems arising in industries. This problem has been studied by various researchers, and a number of polynomial time iterative algorithms are available to find its solution. All the existing algorithms, though efficient, have some shortcomings. The current study proposes an alternate solution algorithm for the problem that is more efficient in terms of computational time than the existing algorithms. The results justifying the underlying theory of the proposed algorithm are given. Further, a detailed comparison of the computational behaviour of all the algorithms for randomly generated instances of this problem of different sizes validates the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: global optimization, hierarchical optimization, transportation problem, concave minimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
601 Identification of Spam Keywords Using Hierarchical Category in C2C E-Commerce

Authors: Shao Bo Cheng, Yong-Jin Han, Se Young Park, Seong-Bae Park

Abstract:

Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) E-commerce has been growing at a very high speed in recent years. Since identical or nearly-same kinds of products compete one another by relying on keyword search in C2C E-commerce, some sellers describe their products with spam keywords that are popular but are not related to their products. Though such products get more chances to be retrieved and selected by consumers than those without spam keywords, the spam keywords mislead the consumers and waste their time. This problem has been reported in many commercial services like e-bay and taobao, but there have been little research to solve this problem. As a solution to this problem, this paper proposes a method to classify whether keywords of a product are spam or not. The proposed method assumes that a keyword for a given product is more reliable if the keyword is observed commonly in specifications of products which are the same or the same kind as the given product. This is because that a hierarchical category of a product in general determined precisely by a seller of the product and so is the specification of the product. Since higher layers of the hierarchical category represent more general kinds of products, a reliable degree is differently determined according to the layers. Hence, reliable degrees from different layers of a hierarchical category become features for keywords and they are used together with features only from specifications for classification of the keywords. Support Vector Machines are adopted as a basic classifier using the features, since it is powerful, and widely used in many classification tasks. In the experiments, the proposed method is evaluated with a golden standard dataset from Yi-han-wang, a Chinese C2C e-commerce, and is compared with a baseline method that does not consider the hierarchical category. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the baseline in F1-measure, which proves that spam keywords are effectively identified by a hierarchical category in C2C e-commerce.

Keywords: spam keyword, e-commerce, keyword features, spam filtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
600 Comparative Analysis of Effecting Factors on Fertility by Birth Order: A Hierarchical Approach

Authors: Ali Hesari, Arezoo Esmaeeli

Abstract:

Regarding to dramatic changes of fertility and higher order births during recent decades in Iran, access to knowledge about affecting factors on different birth orders has crucial importance. In this study, According to hierarchical structure of many of social sciences data and the effect of variables of different levels of social phenomena that determine different birth orders in 365 days ending to 1390 census have been explored by multilevel approach. In this paper, 2% individual row data for 1390 census is analyzed by HLM software. Three different hierarchical linear regression models are estimated for data analysis of the first and second, third, fourth and more birth order. Research results displays different outcomes for three models. Individual level variables entered in equation are; region of residence (rural/urban), age, educational level and labor participation status and province level variable is GDP per capita. Results show that individual level variables have different effects in these three models and in second level we have different random and fixed effects in these models.

Keywords: fertility, birth order, hierarchical approach, fixe effects, random effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
599 Role of Natural Language Processing in Information Retrieval; Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti

Abstract:

This paper aims to analyze the role of natural language processing (NLP). The paper will discuss the role in the context of automated data retrieval, automated question answer, and text structuring. NLP techniques are gaining wider acceptance in real life applications and industrial concerns. There are various complexities involved in processing the text of natural language that could satisfy the need of decision makers. This paper begins with the description of the qualities of NLP practices. The paper then focuses on the challenges in natural language processing. The paper also discusses major techniques of NLP. The last section describes opportunities and challenges for future research.

Keywords: data retrieval, information retrieval, natural language processing, text structuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
598 Direct Electrophoretic Deposition of Hierarchical Structured Electrode Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Jhen-Ting Huang, Chia-Chia Chang, Hu-Cheng Weng, An-Ya Lo

Abstract:

In this study, Co3O4-CNT-Graphene composite electrode was deposited by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method, where micro polystyrene spheres (PSs) were added for co-deposition. Applied with heat treatment, a hierarchical porosity is left in the electrode which is beneficial for supercapacitor application. In terms of charge and discharge performance, we discussed the optimal CNT/Graphene ratio, macroporous ratio, and the effect of Co3O4 addition on electrode capacitance. For materials characterization, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and BET were applied, while cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) measurements, and Ragone plot were applied as in-situ analyses. Based on this, the effects of PS amount on the structure, porosity and their effect on capacitance of the electrodes were investigated. Finally, the full device performance was examined with charge-discharge and electron impedance spectrum (EIS) methods. The results show that the EPD coating with hierarchical porosity was successfully demonstrated in this study. As a result, the capacitance was greatly enhanced by 2.6 times with the hierarchical structure.

Keywords: supercapacitor, nanocarbon tub, graphene, metal oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 69