Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3750

Search results for: recognition technologies

3750 OCR/ICR Text Recognition Using ABBYY FineReader as an Example Text

Authors: A. R. Bagirzade, A. Sh. Najafova, S. M. Yessirkepova, E. S. Albert


This article describes a text recognition method based on Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The features of the OCR method were examined using the ABBYY FineReader program. It describes automatic text recognition in images. OCR is necessary because optical input devices can only transmit raster graphics as a result. Text recognition describes the task of recognizing letters shown as such, to identify and assign them an assigned numerical value in accordance with the usual text encoding (ASCII, Unicode). The peculiarity of this study conducted by the authors using the example of the ABBYY FineReader, was confirmed and shown in practice, the improvement of digital text recognition platforms developed by Electronic Publication.

Keywords: ABBYY FineReader system, algorithm symbol recognition, OCR/ICR techniques, recognition technologies

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3749 Possibilities, Challenges and the State of the Art of Automatic Speech Recognition in Air Traffic Control

Authors: Van Nhan Nguyen, Harald Holone


Over the past few years, a lot of research has been conducted to bring Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) into various areas of Air Traffic Control (ATC), such as air traffic control simulation and training, monitoring live operators for with the aim of safety improvements, air traffic controller workload measurement and conducting analysis on large quantities controller-pilot speech. Due to the high accuracy requirements of the ATC context and its unique challenges, automatic speech recognition has not been widely adopted in this field. With the aim of providing a good starting point for researchers who are interested bringing automatic speech recognition into ATC, this paper gives an overview of possibilities and challenges of applying automatic speech recognition in air traffic control. To provide this overview, we present an updated literature review of speech recognition technologies in general, as well as specific approaches relevant to the ATC context. Based on this literature review, criteria for selecting speech recognition approaches for the ATC domain are presented, and remaining challenges and possible solutions are discussed.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, asr, air traffic control, atc

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
3748 Handwriting Recognition of Gurmukhi Script: A Survey of Online and Offline Techniques

Authors: Ravneet Kaur


Character recognition is a very interesting area of pattern recognition. From past few decades, an intensive research on character recognition for Roman, Chinese, and Japanese and Indian scripts have been reported. In this paper, a review of Handwritten Character Recognition work on Indian Script Gurmukhi is being highlighted. Most of the published papers were summarized, various methodologies were analysed and their results are reported.

Keywords: Gurmukhi character recognition, online, offline, HCR survey

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3747 An Improved OCR Algorithm on Appearance Recognition of Electronic Components Based on Self-adaptation of Multifont Template

Authors: Zhu-Qing Jia, Tao Lin, Tong Zhou


The recognition method of Optical Character Recognition has been expensively utilized, while it is rare to be employed specifically in recognition of electronic components. This paper suggests a high-effective algorithm on appearance identification of integrated circuit components based on the existing methods of character recognition, and analyze the pros and cons.

Keywords: optical character recognition, fuzzy page identification, mutual correlation matrix, confidence self-adaptation

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3746 Advances in Artificial intelligence Using Speech Recognition

Authors: Khaled M. Alhawiti


This research study aims to present a retrospective study about speech recognition systems and artificial intelligence. Speech recognition has become one of the widely used technologies, as it offers great opportunity to interact and communicate with automated machines. Precisely, it can be affirmed that speech recognition facilitates its users and helps them to perform their daily routine tasks, in a more convenient and effective manner. This research intends to present the illustration of recent technological advancements, which are associated with artificial intelligence. Recent researches have revealed the fact that speech recognition is found to be the utmost issue, which affects the decoding of speech. In order to overcome these issues, different statistical models were developed by the researchers. Some of the most prominent statistical models include acoustic model (AM), language model (LM), lexicon model, and hidden Markov models (HMM). The research will help in understanding all of these statistical models of speech recognition. Researchers have also formulated different decoding methods, which are being utilized for realistic decoding tasks and constrained artificial languages. These decoding methods include pattern recognition, acoustic phonetic, and artificial intelligence. It has been recognized that artificial intelligence is the most efficient and reliable methods, which are being used in speech recognition.

Keywords: speech recognition, acoustic phonetic, artificial intelligence, hidden markov models (HMM), statistical models of speech recognition, human machine performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
3745 Video Based Automatic License Plate Recognition System

Authors: Ali Ganoun, Wesam Algablawi, Wasim BenAnaif


Video based traffic surveillance based on License Plate Recognition (LPR) system is an essential part for any intelligent traffic management system. The LPR system utilizes computer vision and pattern recognition technologies to obtain traffic and road information by detecting and recognizing vehicles based on their license plates. Generally, the video based LPR system is a challenging area of research due to the variety of environmental conditions. The LPR systems used in a wide range of commercial applications such as collision warning systems, finding stolen cars, controlling access to car parks and automatic congestion charge systems. This paper presents an automatic LPR system of Libyan license plate. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated with three video sequences.

Keywords: license plate recognition, localization, segmentation, recognition

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3744 Facial Recognition on the Basis of Facial Fragments

Authors: Tetyana Baydyk, Ernst Kussul, Sandra Bonilla Meza


There are many articles that attempt to establish the role of different facial fragments in face recognition. Various approaches are used to estimate this role. Frequently, authors calculate the entropy corresponding to the fragment. This approach can only give approximate estimation. In this paper, we propose to use a more direct measure of the importance of different fragments for face recognition. We propose to select a recognition method and a face database and experimentally investigate the recognition rate using different fragments of faces. We present two such experiments in the paper. We selected the PCNC neural classifier as a method for face recognition and parts of the LFW (Labeled Faces in the Wild) face database as training and testing sets. The recognition rate of the best experiment is comparable with the recognition rate obtained using the whole face.

Keywords: face recognition, labeled faces in the wild (LFW) database, random local descriptor (RLD), random features

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3743 DBN-Based Face Recognition System Using Light Field

Authors: Bing Gu


Abstract—Most of Conventional facial recognition systems are based on image features, such as LBP, SIFT. Recently some DBN-based 2D facial recognition systems have been proposed. However, we find there are few DBN-based 3D facial recognition system and relative researches. 3D facial images include all the individual biometric information. We can use these information to build more accurate features, So we present our DBN-based face recognition system using Light Field. We can see Light Field as another presentation of 3D image, and Light Field Camera show us a way to receive a Light Field. We use the commercially available Light Field Camera to act as the collector of our face recognition system, and the system receive a state-of-art performance as convenient as conventional 2D face recognition system.

Keywords: DBN, face recognition, light field, Lytro

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3742 Specified Human Motion Recognition and Unknown Hand-Held Object Tracking

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Pik-Hoe Chen


This paper aims to integrate human recognition, motion recognition, and object tracking technologies without requiring a pre-training database model for motion recognition or the unknown object itself. Furthermore, it can simultaneously track multiple users and multiple objects. Unlike other existing human motion recognition methods, our approach employs a rule-based condition method to determine if a user hand is approaching or departing an object. It uses a background subtraction method to separate the human and object from the background, and employs behavior features to effectively interpret human object-grabbing actions. With an object’s histogram characteristics, we are able to isolate and track it using back projection. Hence, a moving object trajectory can be recorded and the object itself can be located. This particular technique can be used in a camera surveillance system in a shopping area to perform real-time intelligent surveillance, thus preventing theft. Experimental results verify the validity of the developed surveillance algorithm with an accuracy of 83% for shoplifting detection.

Keywords: Automatic Tracking, Back Projection, Motion Recognition, Shoplifting

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3741 Comparing Emotion Recognition from Voice and Facial Data Using Time Invariant Features

Authors: Vesna Kirandziska, Nevena Ackovska, Ana Madevska Bogdanova


The problem of emotion recognition is a challenging problem. It is still an open problem from the aspect of both intelligent systems and psychology. In this paper, both voice features and facial features are used for building an emotion recognition system. A Support Vector Machine classifiers are built by using raw data from video recordings. In this paper, the results obtained for the emotion recognition are given, and a discussion about the validity and the expressiveness of different emotions is presented. A comparison between the classifiers build from facial data only, voice data only and from the combination of both data is made here. The need for a better combination of the information from facial expression and voice data is argued.

Keywords: emotion recognition, facial recognition, signal processing, machine learning

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3740 Switching to the Latin Alphabet in Kazakhstan: A Brief Overview of Character Recognition Methods

Authors: Ainagul Yermekova, Liudmila Goncharenko, Ali Baghirzade, Sergey Sybachin


In this article, we address the problem of Kazakhstan's transition to the Latin alphabet. The transition process started in 2017 and is scheduled to be completed in 2025. In connection with these events, the problem of recognizing the characters of the new alphabet is raised. Well-known character recognition programs such as ABBYY FineReader, FormReader, MyScript Stylus did not recognize specific Kazakh letters that were used in Cyrillic. The author tries to give an assessment of the well-known method of character recognition that could be in demand as part of the country's transition to the Latin alphabet. Three methods of character recognition: template, structured, and feature-based, are considered through the algorithms of operation. At the end of the article, a general conclusion is made about the possibility of applying a certain method to a particular recognition process: for example, in the process of population census, recognition of typographic text in Latin, or recognition of photos of car numbers, store signs, etc.

Keywords: text detection, template method, recognition algorithm, structured method, feature method

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3739 Recognizing an Individual, Their Topic of Conversation and Cultural Background from 3D Body Movement

Authors: Gheida J. Shahrour, Martin J. Russell


The 3D body movement signals captured during human-human conversation include clues not only to the content of people’s communication but also to their culture and personality. This paper is concerned with automatic extraction of this information from body movement signals. For the purpose of this research, we collected a novel corpus from 27 subjects, arranged them into groups according to their culture. We arranged each group into pairs and each pair communicated with each other about different topics. A state-of-art recognition system is applied to the problems of person, culture, and topic recognition. We borrowed modeling, classification, and normalization techniques from speech recognition. We used Gaussian Mixture Modeling (GMM) as the main technique for building our three systems, obtaining 77.78%, 55.47%, and 39.06% from the person, culture, and topic recognition systems respectively. In addition, we combined the above GMM systems with Support Vector Machines (SVM) to obtain 85.42%, 62.50%, and 40.63% accuracy for person, culture, and topic recognition respectively. Although direct comparison among these three recognition systems is difficult, it seems that our person recognition system performs best for both GMM and GMM-SVM, suggesting that inter-subject differences (i.e. subject’s personality traits) are a major source of variation. When removing these traits from culture and topic recognition systems using the Nuisance Attribute Projection (NAP) and the Intersession Variability Compensation (ISVC) techniques, we obtained 73.44% and 46.09% accuracy from culture and topic recognition systems respectively.

Keywords: person recognition, topic recognition, culture recognition, 3D body movement signals, variability compensation

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3738 Enhanced Face Recognition with Daisy Descriptors Using 1BT Based Registration

Authors: Sevil Igit, Merve Meric, Sarp Erturk


In this paper, it is proposed to improve Daisy descriptor based face recognition using a novel One-Bit Transform (1BT) based pre-registration approach. The 1BT based pre-registration procedure is fast and has low computational complexity. It is shown that the face recognition accuracy is improved with the proposed approach. The proposed approach can facilitate highly accurate face recognition using DAISY descriptor with simple matching and thereby facilitate a low-complexity approach.

Keywords: face recognition, Daisy descriptor, One-Bit Transform, image registration

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3737 Modern Machine Learning Conniptions for Automatic Speech Recognition

Authors: S. Jagadeesh Kumar


This expose presents a luculent of recent machine learning practices as employed in the modern and as pertinent to prospective automatic speech recognition schemes. The aspiration is to promote additional traverse ablution among the machine learning and automatic speech recognition factions that have transpired in the precedent. The manuscript is structured according to the chief machine learning archetypes that are furthermore trendy by now or have latency for building momentous hand-outs to automatic speech recognition expertise. The standards offered and convoluted in this article embraces adaptive and multi-task learning, active learning, Bayesian learning, discriminative learning, generative learning, supervised and unsupervised learning. These learning archetypes are aggravated and conferred in the perspective of automatic speech recognition tools and functions. This manuscript bequeaths and surveys topical advances of deep learning and learning with sparse depictions; further limelight is on their incessant significance in the evolution of automatic speech recognition.

Keywords: automatic speech recognition, deep learning methods, machine learning archetypes, Bayesian learning, supervised and unsupervised learning

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3736 The Artificial Intelligence Technologies Used in PhotoMath Application

Authors: Tala Toonsi, Marah Alagha, Lina Alnowaiser, Hala Rajab


This report is about the Photomath app, which is an AI application that uses image recognition technology, specifically optical character recognition (OCR) algorithms. The (OCR) algorithm translates the images into a mathematical equation, and the app automatically provides a step-by-step solution. The application supports decimals, basic arithmetic, fractions, linear equations, and multiple functions such as logarithms. Testing was conducted to examine the usage of this app, and results were collected by surveying ten participants. Later, the results were analyzed. This paper seeks to answer the question: To what level the artificial intelligence features are accurate and the speed of process in this app. It is hoped this study will inform about the efficiency of AI in Photomath to the users.

Keywords: photomath, image recognition, app, OCR, artificial intelligence, mathematical equations.

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3735 Biometric Recognition Techniques: A Survey

Authors: Shabir Ahmad Sofi, Shubham Aggarwal, Sanyam Singhal, Roohie Naaz


Biometric recognition refers to an automatic recognition of individuals based on a feature vector(s) derived from their physiological and/or behavioral characteristic. Biometric recognition systems should provide a reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual. These features are used to provide an authentication for computer based security systems. Applications of such a system include computer systems security, secure electronic banking, mobile phones, credit cards, secure access to buildings, health and social services. By using biometrics a person could be identified based on 'who she/he is' rather than 'what she/he has' (card, token, key) or 'what she/he knows' (password, PIN). In this paper, a brief overview of biometric methods, both unimodal and multimodal and their advantages and disadvantages, will be presented.

Keywords: biometric, DNA, fingerprint, ear, face, retina scan, gait, iris, voice recognition, unimodal biometric, multimodal biometric

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3734 Printed Thai Character Recognition Using Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Phawin Sangsuvan, Chutimet Srinilta


This Paper presents the applications of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Method for Thai optical character recognition (OCR). OCR consists of the pre-processing, character recognition and post-processing. Before enter into recognition process. The Character must be “Prepped” by pre-processing process. The PSO is an optimization method that belongs to the swarm intelligence family based on the imitation of social behavior patterns of animals. Route of each particle is determined by an individual data among neighborhood particles. The interaction of the particles with neighbors is the advantage of Particle Swarm to determine the best solution. So PSO is interested by a lot of researchers in many difficult problems including character recognition. As the previous this research used a Projection Histogram to extract printed digits features and defined the simple Fitness Function for PSO. The results reveal that PSO gives 67.73% for testing dataset. So in the future there can be explored enhancement the better performance of PSO with improve the Fitness Function.

Keywords: character recognition, histogram projection, particle swarm optimization, pattern recognition techniques

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3733 Enhanced Thai Character Recognition with Histogram Projection Feature Extraction

Authors: Benjawan Rangsikamol, Chutimet Srinilta


This research paper deals with extraction of Thai character features using the proposed histogram projection so as to improve the recognition performance. The process starts with transformation of image files into binary files before thinning. After character thinning, the skeletons are entered into the proposed extraction using histogram projection (horizontal and vertical) to extract unique features which are inputs of the subsequent recognition step. The recognition rate with the proposed extraction technique is as high as 97 percent since the technique works very well with the idiosyncrasies of Thai characters.

Keywords: character recognition, histogram projection, multilayer perceptron, Thai character features extraction

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3732 Speaker Recognition Using LIRA Neural Networks

Authors: Nestor A. Garcia Fragoso, Tetyana Baydyk, Ernst Kussul


This article contains information from our investigation in the field of voice recognition. For this purpose, we created a voice database that contains different phrases in two languages, English and Spanish, for men and women. As a classifier, the LIRA (Limited Receptive Area) grayscale neural classifier was selected. The LIRA grayscale neural classifier was developed for image recognition tasks and demonstrated good results. Therefore, we decided to develop a recognition system using this classifier for voice recognition. From a specific set of speakers, we can recognize the speaker’s voice. For this purpose, the system uses spectrograms of the voice signals as input to the system, extracts the characteristics and identifies the speaker. The results are described and analyzed in this article. The classifier can be used for speaker identification in security system or smart buildings for different types of intelligent devices.

Keywords: extreme learning, LIRA neural classifier, speaker identification, voice recognition

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3731 New Approaches for the Handwritten Digit Image Features Extraction for Recognition

Authors: U. Ravi Babu, Mohd Mastan


The present paper proposes a novel approach for handwritten digit recognition system. The present paper extract digit image features based on distance measure and derives an algorithm to classify the digit images. The distance measure can be performing on the thinned image. Thinning is the one of the preprocessing technique in image processing. The present paper mainly concentrated on an extraction of features from digit image for effective recognition of the numeral. To find the effectiveness of the proposed method tested on MNIST database, CENPARMI, CEDAR, and newly collected data. The proposed method is implemented on more than one lakh digit images and it gets good comparative recognition results. The percentage of the recognition is achieved about 97.32%.

Keywords: handwritten digit recognition, distance measure, MNIST database, image features

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3730 Using Optical Character Recognition to Manage the Unstructured Disaster Data into Smart Disaster Management System

Authors: Dong Seop Lee, Byung Sik Kim


In the 4th Industrial Revolution, various intelligent technologies have been developed in many fields. These artificial intelligence technologies are applied in various services, including disaster management. Disaster information management does not just support disaster work, but it is also the foundation of smart disaster management. Furthermore, it gets historical disaster information using artificial intelligence technology. Disaster information is one of important elements of entire disaster cycle. Disaster information management refers to the act of managing and processing electronic data about disaster cycle from its’ occurrence to progress, response, and plan. However, information about status control, response, recovery from natural and social disaster events, etc. is mainly managed in the structured and unstructured form of reports. Those exist as handouts or hard-copies of reports. Such unstructured form of data is often lost or destroyed due to inefficient management. It is necessary to manage unstructured data for disaster information. In this paper, the Optical Character Recognition approach is used to convert handout, hard-copies, images or reports, which is printed or generated by scanners, etc. into electronic documents. Following that, the converted disaster data is organized into the disaster code system as disaster information. Those data are stored in the disaster database system. Gathering and creating disaster information based on Optical Character Recognition for unstructured data is important element as realm of the smart disaster management. In this paper, Korean characters were improved to over 90% character recognition rate by using upgraded OCR. In the case of character recognition, the recognition rate depends on the fonts, size, and special symbols of character. We improved it through the machine learning algorithm. These converted structured data is managed in a standardized disaster information form connected with the disaster code system. The disaster code system is covered that the structured information is stored and retrieve on entire disaster cycle such as historical disaster progress, damages, response, and recovery. The expected effect of this research will be able to apply it to smart disaster management and decision making by combining artificial intelligence technologies and historical big data.

Keywords: disaster information management, unstructured data, optical character recognition, machine learning

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3729 An Improved Face Recognition Algorithm Using Histogram-Based Features in Spatial and Frequency Domains

Authors: Qiu Chen, Koji Kotani, Feifei Lee, Tadahiro Ohmi


In this paper, we propose an improved face recognition algorithm using histogram-based features in spatial and frequency domains. For adding spatial information of the face to improve recognition performance, a region-division (RD) method is utilized. The facial area is firstly divided into several regions, then feature vectors of each facial part are generated by Binary Vector Quantization (BVQ) histogram using DCT coefficients in low frequency domains, as well as Local Binary Pattern (LBP) histogram in spatial domain. Recognition results with different regions are first obtained separately and then fused by weighted averaging. Publicly available ORL database is used for the evaluation of our proposed algorithm, which is consisted of 40 subjects with 10 images per subject containing variations in lighting, posing, and expressions. It is demonstrated that face recognition using RD method can achieve much higher recognition rate.

Keywords: binary vector quantization (BVQ), DCT coefficients, face recognition, local binary patterns (LBP)

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3728 The Capacity of Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients for Speech Recognition

Authors: Fawaz S. Al-Anzi, Dia AbuZeina


Speech recognition is of an important contribution in promoting new technologies in human computer interaction. Today, there is a growing need to employ speech technology in daily life and business activities. However, speech recognition is a challenging task that requires different stages before obtaining the desired output. Among automatic speech recognition (ASR) components is the feature extraction process, which parameterizes the speech signal to produce the corresponding feature vectors. Feature extraction process aims at approximating the linguistic content that is conveyed by the input speech signal. In speech processing field, there are several methods to extract speech features, however, Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) is the popular technique. It has been long observed that the MFCC is dominantly used in the well-known recognizers such as the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Sphinx and the Markov Model Toolkit (HTK). Hence, this paper focuses on the MFCC method as the standard choice to identify the different speech segments in order to obtain the language phonemes for further training and decoding steps. Due to MFCC good performance, the previous studies show that the MFCC dominates the Arabic ASR research. In this paper, we demonstrate MFCC as well as the intermediate steps that are performed to get these coefficients using the HTK toolkit.

Keywords: speech recognition, acoustic features, mel frequency, cepstral coefficients

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3727 A Comparative Study of Techniques Applied for Offline Recognition of Electric Circuit Schematic Diagrams

Authors: W. Uzair, D. Chai, A. Rassau


Electric circuit schematic diagrams are a symbolic representation of electric circuits. Due to their ease of use, it is common practice for students and professionals to use circuit diagrams to construct an idea or an initial design on paper. Computer recognition of circuit diagrams would be very useful to enable the translation of paper-based circuit diagrams to digital form for simulation of the circuits using computer tools. The accuracy of classification techniques applied to circuit diagrams plays is a dominant factor in the overall accuracy of the process. This paper presents a review and analysis of different techniques and their combinations that have been applied for the recognition of circuit diagrams. Several works relating to the recognition of circuit diagrams are analysed for their limitations and practicality based on defined criteria. Object-detection models proved to be highly accurate, and these models eliminated the need for pre-classification stages. There is still much work needed to completely understand a hand-drawn circuit.

Keywords: image recognition, document understanding, support vector machine, schematic diagrams, electric circuit recognition, offline recognition

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3726 Facial Emotion Recognition Using Deep Learning

Authors: Ashutosh Mishra, Nikhil Goyal


A 3D facial emotion recognition model based on deep learning is proposed in this paper. Two convolution layers and a pooling layer are employed in the deep learning architecture. After the convolution process, the pooling is finished. The probabilities for various classes of human faces are calculated using the sigmoid activation function. To verify the efficiency of deep learning-based systems, a set of faces. The Kaggle dataset is used to verify the accuracy of a deep learning-based face recognition model. The model's accuracy is about 65 percent, which is lower than that of other facial expression recognition techniques. Despite significant gains in representation precision due to the nonlinearity of profound image representations.

Keywords: facial recognition, computational intelligence, convolutional neural network, depth map

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3725 A Communication Signal Recognition Algorithm Based on Holder Coefficient Characteristics

Authors: Hui Zhang, Ye Tian, Fang Ye, Ziming Guo


Communication signal modulation recognition technology is one of the key technologies in the field of modern information warfare. At present, communication signal automatic modulation recognition methods are mainly divided into two major categories. One is the maximum likelihood hypothesis testing method based on decision theory, the other is a statistical pattern recognition method based on feature extraction. Now, the most commonly used is a statistical pattern recognition method, which includes feature extraction and classifier design. With the increasingly complex electromagnetic environment of communications, how to effectively extract the features of various signals at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a hot topic for scholars in various countries. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a feature extraction algorithm for the communication signal based on the improved Holder cloud feature. And the extreme learning machine (ELM) is used which aims at the problem of the real-time in the modern warfare to classify the extracted features. The algorithm extracts the digital features of the improved cloud model without deterministic information in a low SNR environment, and uses the improved cloud model to obtain more stable Holder cloud features and the performance of the algorithm is improved. This algorithm addresses the problem that a simple feature extraction algorithm based on Holder coefficient feature is difficult to recognize at low SNR, and it also has a better recognition accuracy. The results of simulations show that the approach in this paper still has a good classification result at low SNR, even when the SNR is -15dB, the recognition accuracy still reaches 76%.

Keywords: communication signal, feature extraction, Holder coefficient, improved cloud model

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3724 Hand Detection and Recognition for Malay Sign Language

Authors: Mohd Noah A. Rahman, Afzaal H. Seyal, Norhafilah Bara


Developing a software application using an interface with computers and peripheral devices using gestures of human body such as hand movements keeps growing in interest. A review on this hand gesture detection and recognition based on computer vision technique remains a very challenging task. This is to provide more natural, innovative and sophisticated way of non-verbal communication, such as sign language, in human computer interaction. Nevertheless, this paper explores hand detection and hand gesture recognition applying a vision based approach. The hand detection and recognition used skin color spaces such as HSV and YCrCb are applied. However, there are limitations that are needed to be considered. Almost all of skin color space models are sensitive to quickly changing or mixed lighting circumstances. There are certain restrictions in order for the hand recognition to give better results such as the distance of user’s hand to the webcam and the posture and size of the hand.

Keywords: hand detection, hand gesture, hand recognition, sign language

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3723 Pre-Analysis of Printed Circuit Boards Based on Multispectral Imaging for Vision Based Recognition of Electronics Waste

Authors: Florian Kleber, Martin Kampel


The increasing demand of gallium, indium and rare-earth elements for the production of electronics, e.g. solid state-lighting, photovoltaics, integrated circuits, and liquid crystal displays, will exceed the world-wide supply according to current forecasts. Recycling systems to reclaim these materials are not yet in place, which challenges the sustainability of these technologies. This paper proposes a multispectral imaging system as a basis for a vision based recognition system for valuable components of electronics waste. Multispectral images intend to enhance the contrast of images of printed circuit boards (single components, as well as labels) for further analysis, such as optical character recognition and entire printed circuit board recognition. The results show that a higher contrast is achieved in the near infrared compared to ultraviolet and visible light.

Keywords: electronics waste, multispectral imaging, printed circuit boards, rare-earth elements

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3722 Small Text Extraction From Documents and Chart Images

Authors: Rominkumar Busa, Shahira K. C., Lijiya A.


Text recognition is an important area in computer vision which deals with detecting and recognising text from an image. The Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is a saturated area these days and with very good text recognition accuracy. However the same OCR methods when applied on text with small font sizes like the text data of chart images, the recognition rate is less than 30\%. In this work, aims to extract small text in images using the deep learning model, CRNN with CTC loss. The text recognition accuracy is found to improve by applying image enhancement by super resolution prior to CRNN model. We also observe the text recognition rate further increases by 18\% by applying the proposed method, which involves super resolution and character segmentation followed by CRNN with CTC loss. The efficiency of the proposed method shows that further pre-processing on chart image text and other small text images will improve the accuracy further, thereby helping text extraction from chart images.

Keywords: small text extraction, OCR, scene text recognition, CRNN

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3721 Recognition and Protection of Indigenous Society in Indonesia

Authors: Triyanto, Rima Vien Permata Hartanto


Indonesia is a legal state. The consequence of this status is the recognition and protection of the existence of indigenous peoples. This paper aims to describe the dynamics of legal recognition and protection for indigenous peoples within the framework of Indonesian law. This paper is library research based on literature. The result states that although the constitution has normatively recognized the existence of indigenous peoples and their traditional rights, in reality, not all rights were recognized and protected. The protection and recognition for indigenous people need to be strengthened.

Keywords: indigenous peoples, customary law, state law, state of law

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