Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2426

Search results for: scene text recognition

2426 Small Text Extraction From Documents and Chart Images

Authors: Rominkumar Busa, Shahira K. C., Lijiya A.


Text recognition is an important area in computer vision which deals with detecting and recognising text from an image. The Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is a saturated area these days and with very good text recognition accuracy. However the same OCR methods when applied on text with small font sizes like the text data of chart images, the recognition rate is less than 30\%. In this work, aims to extract small text in images using the deep learning model, CRNN with CTC loss. The text recognition accuracy is found to improve by applying image enhancement by super resolution prior to CRNN model. We also observe the text recognition rate further increases by 18\% by applying the proposed method, which involves super resolution and character segmentation followed by CRNN with CTC loss. The efficiency of the proposed method shows that further pre-processing on chart image text and other small text images will improve the accuracy further, thereby helping text extraction from chart images.

Keywords: small text extraction, OCR, scene text recognition, CRNN

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2425 OCR/ICR Text Recognition Using ABBYY FineReader as an Example Text

Authors: A. R. Bagirzade, A. Sh. Najafova, S. M. Yessirkepova, E. S. Albert


This article describes a text recognition method based on Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The features of the OCR method were examined using the ABBYY FineReader program. It describes automatic text recognition in images. OCR is necessary because optical input devices can only transmit raster graphics as a result. Text recognition describes the task of recognizing letters shown as such, to identify and assign them an assigned numerical value in accordance with the usual text encoding (ASCII, Unicode). The peculiarity of this study conducted by the authors using the example of the ABBYY FineReader, was confirmed and shown in practice, the improvement of digital text recognition platforms developed by Electronic Publication.

Keywords: ABBYY FineReader system, algorithm symbol recognition, OCR/ICR techniques, recognition technologies

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2424 The Study on How Social Cues in a Scene Modulate Basic Object Recognition Proces

Authors: Shih-Yu Lo


Stereotypes exist in almost every society, affecting how people interact with each other. However, to our knowledge, the influence of stereotypes was rarely explored in the context of basic perceptual processes. This study aims to explore how the gender stereotype affects object recognition. Participants were presented with a series of scene pictures, followed by a target display with a man or a woman, holding a weapon or a non-weapon object. The task was to identify whether the object in the target display was a weapon or not. Although the gender of the object holder could not predict whether he or she held a weapon, and was irrelevant to the task goal, the participant nevertheless tended to identify the object as a weapon when the object holder was a man than a woman. The analysis based on the signal detection theory showed that the stereotype effect on object recognition mainly resulted from the participant’s bias to make a 'weapon' response when a man was in the scene instead of a woman in the scene. In addition, there was a trend that the participant’s sensitivity to differentiate a weapon from a non-threating object was higher when a woman was in the scene than a man was in the scene. The results of this study suggest that the irrelevant social cues implied in the visual scene can be very powerful that they can modulate the basic object recognition process.

Keywords: gender stereotype, object recognition, signal detection theory, weapon

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2423 Exploratory Analysis of A Review of Nonexistence Polarity in Native Speech

Authors: Deawan Rakin Ahamed Remal, Sinthia Chowdhury, Sharun Akter Khushbu, Sheak Rashed Haider Noori


Native Speech to text synthesis has its own leverage for the purpose of mankind. The extensive nature of art to speaking different accents is common but the purpose of communication between two different accent types of people is quite difficult. This problem will be motivated by the extraction of the wrong perception of language meaning. Thus, many existing automatic speech recognition has been placed to detect text. Overall study of this paper mentions a review of NSTTR (Native Speech Text to Text Recognition) synthesis compared with Text to Text recognition. Review has exposed many text to text recognition systems that are at a very early stage to comply with the system by native speech recognition. Many discussions started about the progression of chatbots, linguistic theory another is rule based approach. In the Recent years Deep learning is an overwhelming chapter for text to text learning to detect language nature. To the best of our knowledge, In the sub continent a huge number of people speak in Bangla language but they have different accents in different regions therefore study has been elaborate contradictory discussion achievement of existing works and findings of future needs in Bangla language acoustic accent.

Keywords: TTR, NSTTR, text to text recognition, deep learning, natural language processing

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2422 Deep Learning Based Unsupervised Sport Scene Recognition and Highlights Generation

Authors: Ksenia Meshkova


With increasing amount of multimedia data, it is very important to automate and speed up the process of obtaining meta. This process means not just recognition of some object or its movement, but recognition of the entire scene versus separate frames and having timeline segmentation as a final result. Labeling datasets is time consuming, besides, attributing characteristics to particular scenes is clearly difficult due to their nature. In this article, we will consider autoencoders application to unsupervised scene recognition and clusterization based on interpretable features. Further, we will focus on particular types of auto encoders that relevant to our study. We will take a look at the specificity of deep learning related to information theory and rate-distortion theory and describe the solutions empowering poor interpretability of deep learning in media content processing. As a conclusion, we will present the results of the work of custom framework, based on autoencoders, capable of scene recognition as was deeply studied above, with highlights generation resulted out of this recognition. We will not describe in detail the mathematical description of neural networks work but will clarify the necessary concepts and pay attention to important nuances.

Keywords: neural networks, computer vision, representation learning, autoencoders

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2421 Distorted Document Images Dataset for Text Detection and Recognition

Authors: Ilia Zharikov, Philipp Nikitin, Ilia Vasiliev, Vladimir Dokholyan


With the increasing popularity of document analysis and recognition systems, text detection (TD) and optical character recognition (OCR) in document images become challenging tasks. However, according to our best knowledge, no publicly available datasets for these particular problems exist. In this paper, we introduce a Distorted Document Images dataset (DDI-100) and provide a detailed analysis of the DDI-100 in its current state. To create the dataset we collected 7000 unique document pages, and extend it by applying different types of distortions and geometric transformations. In total, DDI-100 contains more than 100,000 document images together with binary text masks, text and character locations in terms of bounding boxes. We also present an analysis of several state-of-the-art TD and OCR approaches on the presented dataset. Lastly, we demonstrate the usefulness of DDI-100 to improve accuracy and stability of the considered TD and OCR models.

Keywords: document analysis, open dataset, optical character recognition, text detection

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2420 Recognition of Cursive Arabic Handwritten Text Using Embedded Training Based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs)

Authors: Rabi Mouhcine, Amrouch Mustapha, Mahani Zouhir, Mammass Driss


In this paper, we present a system for offline recognition cursive Arabic handwritten text based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). The system is analytical without explicit segmentation used embedded training to perform and enhance the character models. Extraction features preceded by baseline estimation are statistical and geometric to integrate both the peculiarities of the text and the pixel distribution characteristics in the word image. These features are modelled using hidden Markov models and trained by embedded training. The experiments on images of the benchmark IFN/ENIT database show that the proposed system improves recognition.

Keywords: recognition, handwriting, Arabic text, HMMs, embedded training

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2419 Recognition of Grocery Products in Images Captured by Cellular Phones

Authors: Farshideh Einsele, Hassan Foroosh


In this paper, we present a robust algorithm to recognize extracted text from grocery product images captured by mobile phone cameras. Recognition of such text is challenging since text in grocery product images varies in its size, orientation, style, illumination, and can suffer from perspective distortion. Pre-processing is performed to make the characters scale and rotation invariant. Since text degradations can not be appropriately defined using wellknown geometric transformations such as translation, rotation, affine transformation and shearing, we use the whole character black pixels as our feature vector. Classification is performed with minimum distance classifier using the maximum likelihood criterion, which delivers very promising Character Recognition Rate (CRR) of 89%. We achieve considerably higher Word Recognition Rate (WRR) of 99% when using lower level linguistic knowledge about product words during the recognition process.

Keywords: camera-based OCR, feature extraction, document, image processing, grocery products

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2418 “Octopub”: Geographical Sentiment Analysis Using Named Entity Recognition from Social Networks for Geo-Targeted Billboard Advertising

Authors: Oussama Hafferssas, Hiba Benyahia, Amina Madani, Nassima Zeriri


Although data nowadays has multiple forms; from text to images, and from audio to videos, yet text is still the most used one at a public level. At an academical and research level, and unlike other forms, text can be considered as the easiest form to process. Therefore, a brunch of Data Mining researches has been always under its shadow, called "Text Mining". Its concept is just like data mining’s, finding valuable patterns in data, from large collections and tremendous volumes of data, in this case: Text. Named entity recognition (NER) is one of Text Mining’s disciplines, it aims to extract and classify references such as proper names, locations, expressions of time and dates, organizations and more in a given text. Our approach "Octopub" does not aim to find new ways to improve named entity recognition process, rather than that it’s about finding a new, and yet smart way, to use NER in a way that we can extract sentiments of millions of people using Social Networks as a limitless information source, and Marketing for product promotion as the main domain of application.

Keywords: textmining, named entity recognition(NER), sentiment analysis, social media networks (SN, SMN), business intelligence(BI), marketing

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2417 Extraction of Text Subtitles in Multimedia Systems

Authors: Amarjit Singh


In this paper, a method for extraction of text subtitles in large video is proposed. The video data needs to be annotated for many multimedia applications. Text is incorporated in digital video for the motive of providing useful information about that video. So need arises to detect text present in video to understanding and video indexing. This is achieved in two steps. First step is text localization and the second step is text verification. The method of text detection can be extended to text recognition which finds applications in automatic video indexing; video annotation and content based video retrieval. The method has been tested on various types of videos.

Keywords: video, subtitles, extraction, annotation, frames

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2416 The Application of a Hybrid Neural Network for Recognition of a Handwritten Kazakh Text

Authors: Almagul Assainova , Dariya Abykenova, Liudmila Goncharenko, Sergey Sybachin, Saule Rakhimova, Abay Aman


The recognition of a handwritten Kazakh text is a relevant objective today for the digitization of materials. The study presents a model of a hybrid neural network for handwriting recognition, which includes a convolutional neural network and a multi-layer perceptron. Each network includes 1024 input neurons and 42 output neurons. The model is implemented in the program, written in the Python programming language using the EMNIST database, NumPy, Keras, and Tensorflow modules. The neural network training of such specific letters of the Kazakh alphabet as ә, ғ, қ, ң, ө, ұ, ү, h, і was conducted. The neural network model and the program created on its basis can be used in electronic document management systems to digitize the Kazakh text.

Keywords: handwriting recognition system, image recognition, Kazakh font, machine learning, neural networks

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2415 End-to-End Multilingual Text Recognition Based on Byte Modeling

Authors: Jiajia Wu, Kun Zhao, Zhengyan Yang, Bing Yin, Cong Liu, Lirong Dai


Nowadays, multilingual text recognition is more and more widely used in computer vision. However, in practical applications, the independent modeling of each language cannot make full use of the information between different languages and consumes hardware resources very much, which makes the unified modeling of multiple languages very necessary. A natural approach to unified multilingual modeling is to combine modeling units (characters, subwords, or words) from all languages into a large vocabulary, and then use a sequence-to-sequence approach to modeling. However, this vocabulary is often very large making modeling difficult. In this paper, we propose a byte-based multilingual text recognition method, which makes the vocabulary size only 256, which effectively solves the problem of unified modeling. The experiments show that our method effectively utilizes the information between different languages and outperforms the baseline of independent modeling by a large margin.

Keywords: multilingual, end-to-end text recognition, unified modeling, byte modeling

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2414 A Conglomerate of Multiple Optical Character Recognition Table Detection and Extraction

Authors: Smita Pallavi, Raj Ratn Pranesh, Sumit Kumar


Information representation as tables is compact and concise method that eases searching, indexing, and storage requirements. Extracting and cloning tables from parsable documents is easier and widely used; however, industry still faces challenges in detecting and extracting tables from OCR (Optical Character Recognition) documents or images. This paper proposes an algorithm that detects and extracts multiple tables from OCR document. The algorithm uses a combination of image processing techniques, text recognition, and procedural coding to identify distinct tables in the same image and map the text to appropriate the corresponding cell in dataframe, which can be stored as comma-separated values, database, excel, and multiple other usable formats.

Keywords: table extraction, optical character recognition, image processing, text extraction, morphological transformation

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2413 Improving Topic Quality of Scripts by Using Scene Similarity Based Word Co-Occurrence

Authors: Yunseok Noh, Chang-Uk Kwak, Sun-Joong Kim, Seong-Bae Park


Scripts are one of the basic text resources to understand broadcasting contents. Since broadcast media wields lots of influence over the public, tools for understanding broadcasting contents are more required. Topic modeling is the method to get the summary of the broadcasting contents from its scripts. Generally, scripts represent contents descriptively with directions and speeches. Scripts also provide scene segments that can be seen as semantic units. Therefore, a script can be topic modeled by treating a scene segment as a document. Because scripts consist of speeches mainly, however, relatively small co-occurrences among words in the scene segments are observed. This causes inevitably the bad quality of topics based on statistical learning method. To tackle this problem, we propose a method of learning with additional word co-occurrence information obtained using scene similarities. The main idea of improving topic quality is that the information that two or more texts are topically related can be useful to learn high quality of topics. In addition, by using high quality of topics, we can get information more accurate whether two texts are related or not. In this paper, we regard two scene segments are related if their topical similarity is high enough. We also consider that words are co-occurred if they are in topically related scene segments together. In the experiments, we showed the proposed method generates a higher quality of topics from Korean drama scripts than the baselines.

Keywords: broadcasting contents, scripts, text similarity, topic model

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2412 Switching to the Latin Alphabet in Kazakhstan: A Brief Overview of Character Recognition Methods

Authors: Ainagul Yermekova, Liudmila Goncharenko, Ali Baghirzade, Sergey Sybachin


In this article, we address the problem of Kazakhstan's transition to the Latin alphabet. The transition process started in 2017 and is scheduled to be completed in 2025. In connection with these events, the problem of recognizing the characters of the new alphabet is raised. Well-known character recognition programs such as ABBYY FineReader, FormReader, MyScript Stylus did not recognize specific Kazakh letters that were used in Cyrillic. The author tries to give an assessment of the well-known method of character recognition that could be in demand as part of the country's transition to the Latin alphabet. Three methods of character recognition: template, structured, and feature-based, are considered through the algorithms of operation. At the end of the article, a general conclusion is made about the possibility of applying a certain method to a particular recognition process: for example, in the process of population census, recognition of typographic text in Latin, or recognition of photos of car numbers, store signs, etc.

Keywords: text detection, template method, recognition algorithm, structured method, feature method

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2411 Structure Analysis of Text-Image Connection in Jalayrid Period Illustrated Manuscripts

Authors: Mahsa Khani Oushani


Text and image are two important elements in the field of Iranian art, the text component and the image component have always been manifested together. The image narrates the text and the text is the factor in the formation of the image and they are closely related to each other. The connection between text and image is an interactive and two-way connection in the tradition of Iranian manuscript arrangement. The interaction between the narrative description and the image scene is the result of a direct and close connection between the text and the image, which in addition to the decorative aspect, also has a descriptive aspect. In this article the connection between the text element and the image element and its adaptation to the theory of Roland Barthes, the structuralism theorist, in this regard will be discussed. This study tends to investigate the question of how the connection between text and image in illustrated manuscripts of the Jalayrid period is defined according to Barthes’ theory. And what kind of proportion has the artist created in the composition between text and image. Based on the results of reviewing the data of this study, it can be inferred that in the Jalayrid period, the image has a reference connection and although it is of major importance on the page, it also maintains a close connection with the text and is placed in a special proportion. It is not necessarily balanced and symmetrical and sometimes uses imbalance for composition. This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method, which has been done by library collection method.

Keywords: structure, text, image, Jalayrid, painter

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2410 Police and Crime Scene Management Model

Authors: Najaf Hamadzadeh Arbabi


Crime scene management is the first and most critical step in criminal investigations and all the criminal investigations are based on the ability of the crime scene investigation officers for diagnosing the importance and the role of physical evidence at the crime scene. According to the role of available physical evidence at the scene to prove the crime and identify the perpetrator and prove the innocence of those accused have been unduly and also impossible due to the rejection of these reasons, the maintenance and investigation of crime scene and collect evidence are very important in the crime scene. This research, by identifying the factors affecting the management of the crime scene, looking for presenting the effective and efficient indigenous pattern for managing of the crime scene in Iran. Method: This study is an applied and development research. Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Friedman test for ranking, were used for analyzing the data and all hypotheses were tested at 95% confidence level. The target population is 50 judges and experts in Tehran.

Keywords: crime scene, identification, designation, individualization, reconstruction

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2409 ViraPart: A Text Refinement Framework for Automatic Speech Recognition and Natural Language Processing Tasks in Persian

Authors: Narges Farokhshad, Milad Molazadeh, Saman Jamalabbasi, Hamed Babaei Giglou, Saeed Bibak


The Persian language is an inflectional subject-object-verb language. This fact makes Persian a more uncertain language. However, using techniques such as Zero-Width Non-Joiner (ZWNJ) recognition, punctuation restoration, and Persian Ezafe construction will lead us to a more understandable and precise language. In most of the works in Persian, these techniques are addressed individually. Despite that, we believe that for text refinement in Persian, all of these tasks are necessary. In this work, we proposed a ViraPart framework that uses embedded ParsBERT in its core for text clarifications. First, used the BERT variant for Persian followed by a classifier layer for classification procedures. Next, we combined models outputs to output cleartext. In the end, the proposed model for ZWNJ recognition, punctuation restoration, and Persian Ezafe construction performs the averaged F1 macro scores of 96.90%, 92.13%, and 98.50%, respectively. Experimental results show that our proposed approach is very effective in text refinement for the Persian language.

Keywords: Persian Ezafe, punctuation, ZWNJ, NLP, ParsBERT, transformers

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2408 Binarization and Recognition of Characters from Historical Degraded Documents

Authors: Bency Jacob, S.B. Waykar


Degradations in historical document images appear due to aging of the documents. It is very difficult to understand and retrieve text from badly degraded documents as there is variation between the document foreground and background. Thresholding of such document images either result in broken characters or detection of false texts. Numerous algorithms exist that can separate text and background efficiently in the textual regions of the document; but portions of background are mistaken as text in areas that hardly contain any text. This paper presents a way to overcome these problems by a robust binarization technique that recovers the text from a severely degraded document images and thereby increases the accuracy of optical character recognition systems. The proposed document recovery algorithm efficiently removes degradations from document images. Here we are using the ostus method ,local thresholding and global thresholding and after the binarization training and recognizing the characters in the degraded documents.

Keywords: binarization, denoising, global thresholding, local thresholding, thresholding

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2407 Hindi Speech Synthesis by Concatenation of Recognized Hand Written Devnagri Script Using Support Vector Machines Classifier

Authors: Saurabh Farkya, Govinda Surampudi


Optical Character Recognition is one of the current major research areas. This paper is focussed on recognition of Devanagari script and its sound generation. This Paper consists of two parts. First, Optical Character Recognition of Devnagari handwritten Script. Second, speech synthesis of the recognized text. This paper shows an implementation of support vector machines for the purpose of Devnagari Script recognition. The Support Vector Machines was trained with Multi Domain features; Transform Domain and Spatial Domain or Structural Domain feature. Transform Domain includes the wavelet feature of the character. Structural Domain consists of Distance Profile feature and Gradient feature. The Segmentation of the text document has been done in 3 levels-Line Segmentation, Word Segmentation, and Character Segmentation. The pre-processing of the characters has been done with the help of various Morphological operations-Otsu's Algorithm, Erosion, Dilation, Filtration and Thinning techniques. The Algorithm was tested on the self-prepared database, a collection of various handwriting. Further, Unicode was used to convert recognized Devnagari text into understandable computer document. The document so obtained is an array of codes which was used to generate digitized text and to synthesize Hindi speech. Phonemes from the self-prepared database were used to generate the speech of the scanned document using concatenation technique.

Keywords: Character Recognition (OCR), Text to Speech (TTS), Support Vector Machines (SVM), Library of Support Vector Machines (LIBSVM)

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2406 Kannada HandWritten Character Recognition by Edge Hinge and Edge Distribution Techniques Using Manhatan and Minimum Distance Classifiers

Authors: C. V. Aravinda, H. N. Prakash


In this paper, we tried to convey fusion and state of art pertaining to SIL character recognition systems. In the first step, the text is preprocessed and normalized to perform the text identification correctly. The second step involves extracting relevant and informative features. The third step implements the classification decision. The three stages which involved are Data acquisition and preprocessing, Feature extraction, and Classification. Here we concentrated on two techniques to obtain features, Feature Extraction & Feature Selection. Edge-hinge distribution is a feature that characterizes the changes in direction of a script stroke in handwritten text. The edge-hinge distribution is extracted by means of a windowpane that is slid over an edge-detected binary handwriting image. Whenever the mid pixel of the window is on, the two edge fragments (i.e. connected sequences of pixels) emerging from this mid pixel are measured. Their directions are measured and stored as pairs. A joint probability distribution is obtained from a large sample of such pairs. Despite continuous effort, handwriting identification remains a challenging issue, due to different approaches use different varieties of features, having different. Therefore, our study will focus on handwriting recognition based on feature selection to simplify features extracting task, optimize classification system complexity, reduce running time and improve the classification accuracy.

Keywords: word segmentation and recognition, character recognition, optical character recognition, hand written character recognition, South Indian languages

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2405 Recognition of Objects in a Maritime Environment Using a Combination of Pre- and Post-Processing of the Polynomial Fit Method

Authors: R. R. Hordijk, O. J. G. Somsen


Traditionally, radar systems are the eyes and ears of a ship. However, these systems have their drawbacks and nowadays they are extended with systems that work with video and photos. Processing of data from these videos and photos is however very labour-intensive and efforts are being made to automate this process. A major problem when trying to recognize objects in water is that the 'background' is not homogeneous so that traditional image recognition technics do not work well. Main question is, can a method be developed which automate this recognition process. There are a large number of parameters involved to facilitate the identification of objects on such images. One is varying the resolution. In this research, the resolution of some images has been reduced to the extreme value of 1% of the original to reduce clutter before the polynomial fit (pre-processing). It turned out that the searched object was clearly recognizable as its grey value was well above the average. Another approach is to take two images of the same scene shortly after each other and compare the result. Because the water (waves) fluctuates much faster than an object floating in the water one can expect that the object is the only stable item in the two images. Both these methods (pre-processing and comparing two images of the same scene) delivered useful results. Though it is too early to conclude that with these methods all image problems can be solved they are certainly worthwhile for further research.

Keywords: image processing, image recognition, polynomial fit, water

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2404 An End-to-end Piping and Instrumentation Diagram Information Recognition System

Authors: Taekyong Lee, Joon-Young Kim, Jae-Min Cha


Piping and instrumentation diagram (P&ID) is an essential design drawing describing the interconnection of process equipment and the instrumentation installed to control the process. P&IDs are modified and managed throughout a whole life cycle of a process plant. For the ease of data transfer, P&IDs are generally handed over from a design company to an engineering company as portable document format (PDF) which is hard to be modified. Therefore, engineering companies have to deploy a great deal of time and human resources only for manually converting P&ID images into a computer aided design (CAD) file format. To reduce the inefficiency of the P&ID conversion, various symbols and texts in P&ID images should be automatically recognized. However, recognizing information in P&ID images is not an easy task. A P&ID image usually contains hundreds of symbol and text objects. Most objects are pretty small compared to the size of a whole image and are densely packed together. Traditional recognition methods based on geometrical features are not capable enough to recognize every elements of a P&ID image. To overcome these difficulties, state-of-the-art deep learning models, RetinaNet and connectionist text proposal network (CTPN) were used to build a system for recognizing symbols and texts in a P&ID image. Using the RetinaNet and the CTPN model carefully modified and tuned for P&ID image dataset, the developed system recognizes texts, equipment symbols, piping symbols and instrumentation symbols from an input P&ID image and save the recognition results as the pre-defined extensible markup language format. In the test using a commercial P&ID image, the P&ID information recognition system correctly recognized 97% of the symbols and 81.4% of the texts.

Keywords: object recognition system, P&ID, symbol recognition, text recognition

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2403 Myanmar Character Recognition Using Eight Direction Chain Code Frequency Features

Authors: Kyi Pyar Zaw, Zin Mar Kyu


Character recognition is the process of converting a text image file into editable and searchable text file. Feature Extraction is the heart of any character recognition system. The character recognition rate may be low or high depending on the extracted features. In the proposed paper, 25 features for one character are used in character recognition. Basically, there are three steps of character recognition such as character segmentation, feature extraction and classification. In segmentation step, horizontal cropping method is used for line segmentation and vertical cropping method is used for character segmentation. In the Feature extraction step, features are extracted in two ways. The first way is that the 8 features are extracted from the entire input character using eight direction chain code frequency extraction. The second way is that the input character is divided into 16 blocks. For each block, although 8 feature values are obtained through eight-direction chain code frequency extraction method, we define the sum of these 8 feature values as a feature for one block. Therefore, 16 features are extracted from that 16 blocks in the second way. We use the number of holes feature to cluster the similar characters. We can recognize the almost Myanmar common characters with various font sizes by using these features. All these 25 features are used in both training part and testing part. In the classification step, the characters are classified by matching the all features of input character with already trained features of characters.

Keywords: chain code frequency, character recognition, feature extraction, features matching, segmentation

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2402 Understanding Europe’s Role in the Area of Liberty, Security, and Justice as an International Actor

Authors: Barrere Sarah


The area of liberty, security, and justice within the European Union is still a work in progress. No one can deny that the EU struggles between a monistic and a dualist approach. The aim of our essay is to first review how the European law is perceived by the rest of the international scene. It will then discuss two main mechanisms at play: the interpretation of larger international treaties and the penal mechanisms of European law. Finally, it will help us understand the role of a penal Europe on the international scene with concrete examples. Special attention will be paid to cases that deal with fundamental rights as they represent an interesting case study in Europe and in the rest of the World. It could illustrate the aforementioned duality currently present in the Union’s interpretation of international public law. On the other hand, it will explore some specific European penal mechanism through mutual recognition and the European arrest warrant in the transnational criminality frame. Concerning the interpretation of the treaties, it will first, underline the ambiguity and the general nature of some treaties that leave the EU exposed to tension and misunderstanding then it will review the validity of an EU act (whether or not it is compatible with the rules of International law). Finally, it will focus on the most complete manifestation of liberty, security and justice through the principle of mutual recognition. Used initially in commercial matters, it has become “the cornerstone” of European construction. It will see how it is applied in judicial decisions (its main event and achieving success is via the European arrest warrant) and how European member states have managed to develop this cooperation.

Keywords: European penal law, international scene, liberty security and justice area, mutual recognition

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2401 A Character Detection Method for Ancient Yi Books Based on Connected Components and Regressive Character Segmentation

Authors: Xu Han, Shanxiong Chen, Shiyu Zhu, Xiaoyu Lin, Fujia Zhao, Dingwang Wang


Character detection is an important issue for character recognition of ancient Yi books. The accuracy of detection directly affects the recognition effect of ancient Yi books. Considering the complex layout, the lack of standard typesetting and the mixed arrangement between images and texts, we propose a character detection method for ancient Yi books based on connected components and regressive character segmentation. First, the scanned images of ancient Yi books are preprocessed with nonlocal mean filtering, and then a modified local adaptive threshold binarization algorithm is used to obtain the binary images to segment the foreground and background for the images. Second, the non-text areas are removed by the method based on connected components. Finally, the single character in the ancient Yi books is segmented by our method. The experimental results show that the method can effectively separate the text areas and non-text areas for ancient Yi books and achieve higher accuracy and recall rate in the experiment of character detection, and effectively solve the problem of character detection and segmentation in character recognition of ancient books.

Keywords: CCS concepts, computing methodologies, interest point, salient region detections, image segmentation

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2400 Using Scale Invariant Feature Transform Features to Recognize Characters in Natural Scene Images

Authors: Belaynesh Chekol, Numan Çelebi


The main purpose of this work is to recognize individual characters extracted from natural scene images using scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) features as an input to K-nearest neighbor (KNN); a classification learner algorithm. For this task, 1,068 and 78 images of English alphabet characters taken from Chars74k data set is used to train and test the classifier respectively. For each character image, We have generated describing features by using SIFT algorithm. This set of features is fed to the learner so that it can recognize and label new images of English characters. Two types of KNN (fine KNN and weighted KNN) were trained and the resulted classification accuracy is 56.9% and 56.5% respectively. The training time taken was the same for both fine and weighted KNN.

Keywords: character recognition, KNN, natural scene image, SIFT

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2399 Urdu Text Extraction Method from Images

Authors: Samabia Tehsin, Sumaira Kausar


Due to the vast increase in the multimedia data in recent years, efficient and robust retrieval techniques are needed to retrieve and index images/ videos. Text embedded in the images can serve as the strong retrieval tool for images. This is the reason that text extraction is an area of research with increasing attention. English text extraction is the focus of many researchers but very less work has been done on other languages like Urdu. This paper is focusing on Urdu text extraction from video frames. This paper presents a text detection feature set, which has the ability to deal up with most of the problems connected with the text extraction process. To test the validity of the method, it is tested on Urdu news dataset, which gives promising results.

Keywords: caption text, content-based image retrieval, document analysis, text extraction

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2398 Text Localization in Fixed-Layout Documents Using Convolutional Networks in a Coarse-to-Fine Manner

Authors: Beier Zhu, Rui Zhang, Qi Song


Text contained within fixed-layout documents can be of great semantic value and so requires a high localization accuracy, such as ID cards, invoices, cheques, and passports. Recently, algorithms based on deep convolutional networks achieve high performance on text detection tasks. However, for text localization in fixed-layout documents, such algorithms detect word bounding boxes individually, which ignores the layout information. This paper presents a novel architecture built on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). A global text localization network and a regional bounding-box regression network are introduced to tackle the problem in a coarse-to-fine manner. The text localization network simultaneously locates word bounding points, which takes the layout information into account. The bounding-box regression network inputs the features pooled from arbitrarily sized RoIs and refine the localizations. These two networks share their convolutional features and are trained jointly. A typical type of fixed-layout documents: ID cards, is selected to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed system. These networks are trained on data cropped from nature scene images, and synthetic data produced by a synthetic text generation engine. Experiments show that our approach locates high accuracy word bounding boxes and achieves state-of-the-art performance.

Keywords: bounding box regression, convolutional networks, fixed-layout documents, text localization

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2397 Boosting Crime Scene Investigations Capabilities through Crime Script Analysis

Authors: Benoit Leclerc


The concept of scripts and the role that crime scripts has been playing in criminology during the last decade is reviewed. Particularly illuminating is the potential use of scripts not only to understand and disrupt offender scripts (e.g., commonly referred as crime scripts) but to capture victim and guardian scripts to increase the likelihood of preventing crime. Similarly, the concept of scripts is applied to forensic science – another field that can benefit from script analysis. First, similar to guardian scripts, script analysis can illuminate the process of completing crime scene investigations for those who investigate (crime scene investigators or other professionals involved in crime scene investigations), and as a result, provide a range of intervention-points to improve the success of these investigations. Second, script analysis can also provide valuable information on offenders’ crime-commission processes for crime scene investigators and highlight a number of ‘contact points’ that could be targeted during investigations.

Keywords: crime scripts, crime scene investigation, script analysis, situational crime prevention

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