Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 932

Search results for: text

932 Extraction of Text Subtitles in Multimedia Systems

Authors: Amarjit Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, a method for extraction of text subtitles in large video is proposed. The video data needs to be annotated for many multimedia applications. Text is incorporated in digital video for the motive of providing useful information about that video. So need arises to detect text present in video to understanding and video indexing. This is achieved in two steps. First step is text localization and the second step is text verification. The method of text detection can be extended to text recognition which finds applications in automatic video indexing; video annotation and content based video retrieval. The method has been tested on various types of videos.

Keywords: video, subtitles, extraction, annotation, frames

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
931 Urdu Text Extraction Method from Images

Authors: Samabia Tehsin, Sumaira Kausar

Abstract:

Due to the vast increase in the multimedia data in recent years, efficient and robust retrieval techniques are needed to retrieve and index images/ videos. Text embedded in the images can serve as the strong retrieval tool for images. This is the reason that text extraction is an area of research with increasing attention. English text extraction is the focus of many researchers but very less work has been done on other languages like Urdu. This paper is focusing on Urdu text extraction from video frames. This paper presents a text detection feature set, which has the ability to deal up with most of the problems connected with the text extraction process. To test the validity of the method, it is tested on Urdu news dataset, which gives promising results.

Keywords: caption text, content-based image retrieval, document analysis, text extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
930 OCR/ICR Text Recognition Using ABBYY FineReader as an Example Text

Authors: A. R. Bagirzade, A. Sh. Najafova, S. M. Yessirkepova, E. S. Albert

Abstract:

This article describes a text recognition method based on Optical Character Recognition (OCR). The features of the OCR method were examined using the ABBYY FineReader program. It describes automatic text recognition in images. OCR is necessary because optical input devices can only transmit raster graphics as a result. Text recognition describes the task of recognizing letters shown as such, to identify and assign them an assigned numerical value in accordance with the usual text encoding (ASCII, Unicode). The peculiarity of this study conducted by the authors using the example of the ABBYY FineReader, was confirmed and shown in practice, the improvement of digital text recognition platforms developed by Electronic Publication.

Keywords: ABBYY FineReader system, algorithm symbol recognition, OCR/ICR techniques, recognition technologies

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
929 Programmed Speech to Text Summarization Using Graph-Based Algorithm

Authors: Hamsini Pulugurtha, P. V. S. L. Jagadamba

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Programmed Speech to Text and Text Summarization Using Graph-based Algorithms can be utilized in gatherings to get the short depiction of the gathering for future reference. This gives signature check utilizing Siamese neural organization to confirm the personality of the client and convert the client gave sound record which is in English into English text utilizing the discourse acknowledgment bundle given in python. At times just the outline of the gathering is required, the answer for this text rundown. Thus, the record is then summed up utilizing the regular language preparing approaches, for example, solo extractive text outline calculations

Keywords: Siamese neural network, English speech, English text, natural language processing, unsupervised extractive text summarization

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928 Reducing Accidents Using Text Stops

Authors: Benish Chaudhry

Abstract:

Most of the accidents these days are occurring because of the ‘text-and-drive’ concept. If we look at the structure of cities in UAE, there are great distances, because of which it is impossible to drive without using or merely checking the cellphone. Moreover, if we look at the road structure, it is almost impossible to stop at a point and text. With the introduction of TEXT STOPs, drivers will be able to stop different stops for a maximum of 1 and a half-minute in order to reply or write a message. They can be introduced at a distance of 10 minutes of driving on the average speed of the road, so the drivers can look forward to a stop and can reply to a text when needed. A user survey indicates that drivers are willing to NOT text-and-drive if they have such a facility available.

Keywords: transport, accidents, urban planning, road planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
927 Structure Analysis of Text-Image Connection in Jalayrid Period Illustrated Manuscripts

Authors: Mahsa Khani Oushani

Abstract:

Text and image are two important elements in the field of Iranian art, the text component and the image component have always been manifested together. The image narrates the text and the text is the factor in the formation of the image and they are closely related to each other. The connection between text and image is an interactive and two-way connection in the tradition of Iranian manuscript arrangement. The interaction between the narrative description and the image scene is the result of a direct and close connection between the text and the image, which in addition to the decorative aspect, also has a descriptive aspect. In this article the connection between the text element and the image element and its adaptation to the theory of Roland Barthes, the structuralism theorist, in this regard will be discussed. This study tends to investigate the question of how the connection between text and image in illustrated manuscripts of the Jalayrid period is defined according to Barthes’ theory. And what kind of proportion has the artist created in the composition between text and image. Based on the results of reviewing the data of this study, it can be inferred that in the Jalayrid period, the image has a reference connection and although it is of major importance on the page, it also maintains a close connection with the text and is placed in a special proportion. It is not necessarily balanced and symmetrical and sometimes uses imbalance for composition. This research has been done by descriptive-analytical method, which has been done by library collection method.

Keywords: structure, text, image, Jalayrid, painter

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926 Optimal Classifying and Extracting Fuzzy Relationship from Query Using Text Mining Techniques

Authors: Faisal Alshuwaier, Ali Areshey

Abstract:

Text mining techniques are generally applied for classifying the text, finding fuzzy relations and structures in data sets. This research provides plenty text mining capabilities. One common application is text classification and event extraction, which encompass deducing specific knowledge concerning incidents referred to in texts. The main contribution of this paper is the clarification of a concept graph generation mechanism, which is based on a text classification and optimal fuzzy relationship extraction. Furthermore, the work presented in this paper explains the application of fuzzy relationship extraction and branch and bound method to simplify the texts.

Keywords: extraction, max-prod, fuzzy relations, text mining, memberships, classification, memberships, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 457
925 Anatomical Survey for Text Pattern Detection

Authors: S. Tehsin, S. Kausar

Abstract:

The ultimate aim of machine intelligence is to explore and materialize the human capabilities, one of which is the ability to detect various text objects within one or more images displayed on any canvas including prints, videos or electronic displays. Multimedia data has increased rapidly in past years. Textual information present in multimedia contains important information about the image/video content. However, it needs to technologically testify the commonly used human intelligence of detecting and differentiating the text within an image, for computers. Hence in this paper feature set based on anatomical study of human text detection system is proposed. Subsequent examination bears testimony to the fact that the features extracted proved instrumental to text detection.

Keywords: biologically inspired vision, content based retrieval, document analysis, text extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
924 Arabic Text Representation and Classification Methods: Current State of the Art

Authors: Rami Ayadi, Mohsen Maraoui, Mounir Zrigui

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In this paper, we have presented a brief current state of the art for Arabic text representation and classification methods. We decomposed Arabic Task Classification into four categories. First we describe some algorithms applied to classification on Arabic text. Secondly, we cite all major works when comparing classification algorithms applied on Arabic text, after this, we mention some authors who proposing new classification methods and finally we investigate the impact of preprocessing on Arabic TC.

Keywords: text classification, Arabic, impact of preprocessing, classification algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
923 Arabic Text Classification: Review Study

Authors: M. Hijazi, A. Zeki, A. Ismail

Abstract:

An enormous amount of valuable human knowledge is preserved in documents. The rapid growth in the number of machine-readable documents for public or private access requires the use of automatic text classification. Text classification can be defined as assigning or structuring documents into a defined set of classes known in advance. Arabic text classification methods have emerged as a natural result of the existence of a massive amount of varied textual information written in the Arabic language on the web. This paper presents a review on the published researches of Arabic Text Classification using classical data representation, Bag of words (BoW), and using conceptual data representation based on semantic resources such as Arabic WordNet and Wikipedia.

Keywords: Arabic text classification, Arabic WordNet, bag of words, conceptual representation, semantic relations

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
922 A Quantitative Evaluation of Text Feature Selection Methods

Authors: B. S. Harish, M. B. Revanasiddappa

Abstract:

Due to rapid growth of text documents in digital form, automated text classification has become an important research in the last two decades. The major challenge of text document representations are high dimension, sparsity, volume and semantics. Since the terms are only features that can be found in documents, selection of good terms (features) plays an very important role. In text classification, feature selection is a strategy that can be used to improve classification effectiveness, computational efficiency and accuracy. In this paper, we present a quantitative analysis of most widely used feature selection (FS) methods, viz. Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (tfidf ), Mutual Information (MI), Information Gain (IG), CHISquare (x2), Term Frequency-Relevance Frequency (tfrf ), Term Strength (TS), Ambiguity Measure (AM) and Symbolic Feature Selection (SFS) to classify text documents. We evaluated all the feature selection methods on standard datasets like 20 Newsgroups, 4 University dataset and Reuters-21578.

Keywords: classifiers, feature selection, text classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
921 The Acquisition of Case in Biological Domain Based on Text Mining

Authors: Shen Jian, Hu Jie, Qi Jin, Liu Wei Jie, Chen Ji Yi, Peng Ying Hong

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In order to settle the problem of acquiring case in biological related to design problems, a biometrics instance acquisition method based on text mining is presented. Through the construction of corpus text vector space and knowledge mining, the feature selection, similarity measure and case retrieval method of text in the field of biology are studied. First, we establish a vector space model of the corpus in the biological field and complete the preprocessing steps. Then, the corpus is retrieved by using the vector space model combined with the functional keywords to obtain the biological domain examples related to the design problems. Finally, we verify the validity of this method by taking the example of text.

Keywords: text mining, vector space model, feature selection, biologically inspired design

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920 Text Similarity in Vector Space Models: A Comparative Study

Authors: Omid Shahmirzadi, Adam Lugowski, Kenneth Younge

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Automatic measurement of semantic text similarity is an important task in natural language processing. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different vector space models to perform this task. We address the real-world problem of modeling patent-to-patent similarity and compare TFIDF (and related extensions), topic models (e.g., latent semantic indexing), and neural models (e.g., paragraph vectors). Contrary to expectations, the added computational cost of text embedding methods is justified only when: 1) the target text is condensed; and 2) the similarity comparison is trivial. Otherwise, TFIDF performs surprisingly well in other cases: in particular for longer and more technical texts or for making finer-grained distinctions between nearest neighbors. Unexpectedly, extensions to the TFIDF method, such as adding noun phrases or calculating term weights incrementally, were not helpful in our context.

Keywords: big data, patent, text embedding, text similarity, vector space model

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
919 Structural Analysis of Kamaluddin Behzad's Works Based on Roland Barthes' Theory of Communication, 'Text and Image'

Authors: Mahsa Khani Oushani, Mohammad Kazem Hasanvand

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Text and image have always been two important components in Iranian layout. The interactive connection between text and image has shaped the art of book design with multiple patterns. In this research, first the structure and visual elements in the research data were analyzed and then the position of the text element and the image element in relation to each other based on Roland Barthes theory on the three theories of text and image, were studied and analyzed and the results were compared, and interpreted. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pattern of text and image in the works of Kamaluddin Behzad based on three Roland Barthes communication theories, 1. Descriptive communication, 2. Reference communication, 3. Matched communication. The questions of this research are what is the relationship between text and image in Behzad's works? And how is it defined according to Roland Barthes theory? The method of this research has been done with a structuralist approach with a descriptive-analytical method in a library collection method. The information has been collected in the form of documents (library) and is a tool for collecting online databases. Findings show that the dominant element in Behzad's drawings is with the image and has created a reference relationship in the layout of the drawings, but in some cases it achieves a different relationship that despite the preference of the image on the page, the text is dispersed proportionally on the page and plays a more active role, played within the image. The text and the image support each other equally on the page; Roland Barthes equates this connection.

Keywords: text, image, Kamaluddin Behzad, Roland Barthes, communication theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
918 Morphological Processing of Punjabi Text for Sentiment Analysis of Farmer Suicides

Authors: Jaspreet Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Prabhsimran Singh, Rajinder Singh, Prithvipal Singh, Karanjeet Singh Kahlon, Ravinder Singh Sawhney

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Morphological evaluation of Indian languages is one of the burgeoning fields in the area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). The evaluation of a language is an eminent task in the era of information retrieval and text mining. The extraction and classification of knowledge from text can be exploited for sentiment analysis and morphological evaluation. This study coalesce morphological evaluation and sentiment analysis for the task of classification of farmer suicide cases reported in Punjab state of India. The pre-processing of Punjabi text involves morphological evaluation and normalization of Punjabi word tokens followed by the training of proposed model using deep learning classification on Punjabi language text extracted from online Punjabi news reports. The class-wise accuracies of sentiment prediction for four negatively oriented classes of farmer suicide cases are 93.85%, 88.53%, 83.3%, and 95.45% respectively. The overall accuracy of sentiment classification obtained using proposed framework on 275 Punjabi text documents is found to be 90.29%.

Keywords: deep neural network, farmer suicides, morphological processing, punjabi text, sentiment analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
917 Written Argumentative Texts in Elementary School: The Development of Text Structure and Its Relation to Reading Comprehension

Authors: Sara Zadunaisky Ehrlich, Batia Seroussi, Anat Stavans

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Text structure is a parameter of text quality. This study investigated the structure of written argumentative texts produced by elementary school age children. We set two objectives: to identify and trace the structural components of the argumentative texts and to investigate whether reading comprehension skills were correlated with text structure. 293 school children from 2nd to 5th grades were asked to write two argumentative texts about informal or everyday life controversial topics and completed two reading tasks that targeted different levels of text comprehension. The findings indicated, on the one hand, significant developmental differences between mature and more novice writers in terms of text length and mean proportion of clauses produced for a better elaboration of the different text components. On the other hand, with certain fluctuations, no meaningful differences were found in terms of presence of text structure: at all grade levels, elementary school children produced the basic and minimal structure that included the writer's argument and reasons or arguments' supports. Counter-arguments were scarce even in the upper grades. While the children captured that essentially an argument must be justified, the more the number of supports produced, the fewer the clauses the children produced. Last, weak to mild relations were found between reading comprehension and argumentative text structure. Nevertheless, children who scored higher on sophisticated questions that require inferential or world knowledge displayed more elaborated structures in terms of text length and size of supports to the writer's argument. These findings indicate how school-age children perceive the basic template of an argument with future implications regarding how to elaborate written arguments.

Keywords: argumentative text, text structure, elementary school children, written argumentations

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916 The Morphology of Sri Lankan Text Messages

Authors: Chamindi Dilkushi Senaratne

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Communicating via a text or an SMS (Short Message Service) has become an integral part of our daily lives. With the increase in the use of mobile phones, text messaging has become a genre by itself worth researching and studying. It is undoubtedly a major phenomenon revealing language change. This paper attempts to describe the morphological processes of text language of urban bilinguals in Sri Lanka. It will be a typological study based on 500 English text messages collected from urban bilinguals residing in Colombo. The messages are selected by categorizing the deviant forms of language use apparent in text messages. These stylistic deviations are a deliberate skilled performance by the users of the language possessing an in-depth knowledge of linguistic systems to create new words and thereby convey their linguistic identity and individual and group solidarity via the message. The findings of the study solidifies arguments that the manipulation of language in text messages is both creative and appropriate. In addition, code mixing theories will be used to identify how existing morphological processes are adapted by bilingual users in Sri Lanka when texting. The study will reveal processes such as omission, initialism, insertion and alternation in addition to other identified linguistic features in text language. The corpus reveals the most common morphological processes used by Sri Lankan urban bilinguals when sending texts.

Keywords: bilingual, deviations, morphology, texts

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915 “Octopub”: Geographical Sentiment Analysis Using Named Entity Recognition from Social Networks for Geo-Targeted Billboard Advertising

Authors: Oussama Hafferssas, Hiba Benyahia, Amina Madani, Nassima Zeriri

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Although data nowadays has multiple forms; from text to images, and from audio to videos, yet text is still the most used one at a public level. At an academical and research level, and unlike other forms, text can be considered as the easiest form to process. Therefore, a brunch of Data Mining researches has been always under its shadow, called "Text Mining". Its concept is just like data mining’s, finding valuable patterns in data, from large collections and tremendous volumes of data, in this case: Text. Named entity recognition (NER) is one of Text Mining’s disciplines, it aims to extract and classify references such as proper names, locations, expressions of time and dates, organizations and more in a given text. Our approach "Octopub" does not aim to find new ways to improve named entity recognition process, rather than that it’s about finding a new, and yet smart way, to use NER in a way that we can extract sentiments of millions of people using Social Networks as a limitless information source, and Marketing for product promotion as the main domain of application.

Keywords: textmining, named entity recognition(NER), sentiment analysis, social media networks (SN, SMN), business intelligence(BI), marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
914 Video Text Information Detection and Localization in Lecture Videos Using Moments

Authors: Belkacem Soundes, Guezouli Larbi

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This paper presents a robust and accurate method for text detection and localization over lecture videos. Frame regions are classified into text or background based on visual feature analysis. However, lecture video shows significant degradation mainly related to acquisition conditions, camera motion and environmental changes resulting in low quality videos. Hence, affecting feature extraction and description efficiency. Moreover, traditional text detection methods cannot be directly applied to lecture videos. Therefore, robust feature extraction methods dedicated to this specific video genre are required for robust and accurate text detection and extraction. Method consists of a three-step process: Slide region detection and segmentation; Feature extraction and non-text filtering. For robust and effective features extraction moment functions are used. Two distinct types of moments are used: orthogonal and non-orthogonal. For orthogonal Zernike Moments, both Pseudo Zernike moments are used, whereas for non-orthogonal ones Hu moments are used. Expressivity and description efficiency are given and discussed. Proposed approach shows that in general, orthogonal moments show high accuracy in comparison to the non-orthogonal one. Pseudo Zernike moments are more effective than Zernike with better computation time.

Keywords: text detection, text localization, lecture videos, pseudo zernike moments

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
913 Intonation Salience as an Underframe to Text Intonation Models

Authors: Tatiana Stanchuliak

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It is common knowledge that intonation is not laid over a ready text. On the contrary, intonation forms and accompanies the text on the level of its birth in the speaker’s mind. As a result, intonation plays one of the fundamental roles in the process of transferring a thought into external speech. Intonation structure can highlight the semantic significance of textual elements and become a ranging mark in understanding the information structure of the text. Intonation functions by means of prosodic characteristics, one of which is intonation salience, whose function in texts results in making some textual elements more prominent than others. This function of intonation, therefore, performs as organizing. It helps to form the frame of key elements of the text. The study under consideration made an attempt to look into the inner nature of salience and create a sort of a text intonation model. This general goal brought to some more specific intermediate results. First, there were established degrees of salience on the level of the smallest semantic element - intonation group, as well as prosodic means of creating salience, were examined. Second, the most frequent combinations of prosodic means made it possible to distinguish patterns of salience, which then became constituent elements of a text intonation model. Third, the analysis of the predicate structure allowed to divide the whole text into smaller parts, or units, which performed a specific function in the developing of the general communicative intention. It appeared that such units can be found in any text and they have common characteristics of their intonation arrangement. These findings are certainly very important both for the theory of intonation and their practical application.

Keywords: accentuation , inner speech, intention, intonation, intonation functions, models, patterns, predicate, salience, semantics, sentence stress, text

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
912 Distorted Document Images Dataset for Text Detection and Recognition

Authors: Ilia Zharikov, Philipp Nikitin, Ilia Vasiliev, Vladimir Dokholyan

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With the increasing popularity of document analysis and recognition systems, text detection (TD) and optical character recognition (OCR) in document images become challenging tasks. However, according to our best knowledge, no publicly available datasets for these particular problems exist. In this paper, we introduce a Distorted Document Images dataset (DDI-100) and provide a detailed analysis of the DDI-100 in its current state. To create the dataset we collected 7000 unique document pages, and extend it by applying different types of distortions and geometric transformations. In total, DDI-100 contains more than 100,000 document images together with binary text masks, text and character locations in terms of bounding boxes. We also present an analysis of several state-of-the-art TD and OCR approaches on the presented dataset. Lastly, we demonstrate the usefulness of DDI-100 to improve accuracy and stability of the considered TD and OCR models.

Keywords: document analysis, open dataset, optical character recognition, text detection

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911 Towards Logical Inference for the Arabic Question-Answering

Authors: Wided Bakari, Patrice Bellot, Omar Trigui, Mahmoud Neji

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This article constitutes an opening to think of the modeling and analysis of Arabic texts in the context of a question-answer system. It is a question of exceeding the traditional approaches focused on morphosyntactic approaches. Furthermore, we present a new approach that analyze a text in order to extract correct answers then transform it to logical predicates. In addition, we would like to represent different levels of information within a text to answer a question and choose an answer among several proposed. To do so, we transform both the question and the text into logical forms. Then, we try to recognize all entailment between them. The results of recognizing the entailment are a set of text sentences that can implicate the user’s question. Our work is now concentrated on an implementation step in order to develop a system of question-answering in Arabic using techniques to recognize textual implications. In this context, the extraction of text features (keywords, named entities, and relationships that link them) is actually considered the first step in our process of text modeling. The second one is the use of techniques of textual implication that relies on the notion of inference and logic representation to extract candidate answers. The last step is the extraction and selection of the desired answer.

Keywords: NLP, Arabic language, question-answering, recognition text entailment, logic forms

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910 The Composer’s Hand: An Analysis of Arvo Pärt’s String Orchestral Work, Psalom

Authors: Mark K. Johnson

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Arvo Pärt has composed over 80 text-based compositions based on nine different languages. But prior to 2015, it was not publicly known what texts the composer used in composing a number of his non-vocal works, nor the language of those texts. Because of this lack of information, few if any musical scholars have illustrated in any detail how textual structure applies to any of Pärt’s instrumental compositions. However, in early 2015, the Arvo Pärt Centre in Estonia published In Principio, a compendium of the texts Pärt has used to derive many of the parameters of his text-based compositions. This paper provides the first detailed analysis of the relationship between structural aspects of the Church Slavonic Eastern Orthodox text of Psalm 112 and the musical parameters that Pärt used when composing the string orchestral work Psalom. It demonstrates that Pärt’s text-based compositions are carefully crafted works, and that evidence of the presence of the ‘invisible’ hand of the composer can be found within every aspect of the underpinning structures, at the more elaborate middle ground level, and even within surface aspects of these works. Based on the analysis of Psalom, it is evident that the text Pärt selected for Psalom informed many of his decisions regarding the musical structures, parameters and processes that he deployed in composing this non-vocal text-based work. Many of these composerly decisions in relation to these various aspects cannot be fathomed without access to, and an understanding of, the text associated with the work.

Keywords: Arvo Pärt, minimalism, psalom, text-based process music

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909 N400 Investigation of Semantic Priming Effect to Symbolic Pictures in Text

Authors: Thomas Ousterhout

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The purpose of this study was to investigate if incorporating meaningful pictures of gestures and facial expressions in short sentences of text could supplement the text with enough semantic information to produce and N400 effect when probe words incongruent to the picture were subsequently presented. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from a 14-channel commercial grade EEG headset while subjects performed congruent/incongruent reaction time discrimination tasks. Since pictures of meaningful gestures have been shown to be semantically processed in the brain in a similar manner as words are, it is believed that pictures will add supplementary information to text just as the inclusion of their equivalent synonymous word would. The hypothesis is that when subjects read the text/picture mixed sentences, they will process the images and words just like in face-to-face communication and therefore probe words incongruent to the image will produce an N400.

Keywords: EEG, ERP, N400, semantics, congruency, facilitation, Emotiv

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908 Interactive, Topic-Oriented Search Support by a Centroid-Based Text Categorisation

Authors: Mario Kubek, Herwig Unger

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Centroid terms are single words that semantically and topically characterise text documents and so may serve as their very compact representation in automatic text processing. In the present paper, centroids are used to measure the relevance of text documents with respect to a given search query. Thus, a new graphbased paradigm for searching texts in large corpora is proposed and evaluated against keyword-based methods. The first, promising experimental results demonstrate the usefulness of the centroid-based search procedure. It is shown that especially the routing of search queries in interactive and decentralised search systems can be greatly improved by applying this approach. A detailed discussion on further fields of its application completes this contribution.

Keywords: search algorithm, centroid, query, keyword, co-occurrence, categorisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
907 Binarization and Recognition of Characters from Historical Degraded Documents

Authors: Bency Jacob, S.B. Waykar

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Degradations in historical document images appear due to aging of the documents. It is very difficult to understand and retrieve text from badly degraded documents as there is variation between the document foreground and background. Thresholding of such document images either result in broken characters or detection of false texts. Numerous algorithms exist that can separate text and background efficiently in the textual regions of the document; but portions of background are mistaken as text in areas that hardly contain any text. This paper presents a way to overcome these problems by a robust binarization technique that recovers the text from a severely degraded document images and thereby increases the accuracy of optical character recognition systems. The proposed document recovery algorithm efficiently removes degradations from document images. Here we are using the ostus method ,local thresholding and global thresholding and after the binarization training and recognizing the characters in the degraded documents.

Keywords: binarization, denoising, global thresholding, local thresholding, thresholding

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906 Adaptation of Projection Profile Algorithm for Skewed Handwritten Text Line Detection

Authors: Kayode A. Olaniyi, Tola. M. Osifeko, Adeola A. Ogunleye

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Text line segmentation is an important step in document image processing. It represents a labeling process that assigns the same label using distance metric probability to spatially aligned units. Text line detection techniques have successfully been implemented mainly in printed documents. However, processing of the handwritten texts especially unconstrained documents has remained a key problem. This is because the unconstrained hand-written text lines are often not uniformly skewed. The spaces between text lines may not be obvious, complicated by the nature of handwriting and, overlapping ascenders and/or descenders of some characters. Hence, text lines detection and segmentation represents a leading challenge in handwritten document image processing. Text line detection methods that rely on the traditional global projection profile of the text document cannot efficiently confront with the problem of variable skew angles between different text lines. Hence, the formulation of a horizontal line as a separator is often not efficient. This paper presents a technique to segment a handwritten document into distinct lines of text. The proposed algorithm starts, by partitioning the initial text image into columns, across its width into chunks of about 5% each. At each vertical strip of 5%, the histogram of horizontal runs is projected. We have worked with the assumption that text appearing in a single strip is almost parallel to each other. The algorithm developed provides a sliding window through the first vertical strip on the left side of the page. It runs through to identify the new minimum corresponding to a valley in the projection profile. Each valley would represent the starting point of the orientation line and the ending point is the minimum point on the projection profile of the next vertical strip. The derived text-lines traverse around any obstructing handwritten vertical strips of connected component by associating it to either the line above or below. A decision of associating such connected component is made by the probability obtained from a distance metric decision. The technique outperforms the global projection profile for text line segmentation and it is robust to handle skewed documents and those with lines running into each other.

Keywords: connected-component, projection-profile, segmentation, text-line

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905 Glossematics and Textual Structure

Authors: Abdelhadi Nadjer

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The structure of the text to the systemic school -(glossématique-Helmslev). At the beginning of the note we have a cursory look around the concepts of general linguistics The science that studies scientific study of human language based on the description and preview the facts away from the trend of education than we gave a detailed overview the founder of systemic school and most important customers and more methods and curriculum theory and analysis they extend to all humanities, practical action each offset by a theoretical and the procedure can be analyzed through the elements that pose as another method we talked to its links with other language schools where they are based on the sharp criticism of the language before and deflected into consideration for the field of language and its erection has outside or language network and its participation in the actions (non-linguistic) and after that we started our Valglosamatik analytical structure of the text is ejected text terminal or all of the words to was put for expression. This text Negotiable divided into types in turn are divided into classes and class should not be carrying a contradiction and be inclusive. It is on the same materials as described relationships that combine language and seeks to describe their relations and identified.

Keywords: text, language schools, linguistics, human language

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904 Incorporating Information Gain in Regular Expressions Based Classifiers

Authors: Rosa L. Figueroa, Christopher A. Flores, Qing Zeng-Treitler

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A regular expression consists of sequence characters which allow describing a text path. Usually, in clinical research, regular expressions are manually created by programmers together with domain experts. Lately, there have been several efforts to investigate how to generate them automatically. This article presents a text classification algorithm based on regexes. The algorithm named REX was designed, and then, implemented as a simplified method to create regexes to classify Spanish text automatically. In order to classify ambiguous cases, such as, when multiple labels are assigned to a testing example, REX includes an information gain method Two sets of data were used to evaluate the algorithm’s effectiveness in clinical text classification tasks. The results indicate that the regular expression based classifier proposed in this work performs statically better regarding accuracy and F-measure than Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes for both datasets.

Keywords: information gain, regular expressions, smith-waterman algorithm, text classification

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903 Multi-Class Text Classification Using Ensembles of Classifiers

Authors: Syed Basit Ali Shah Bukhari, Yan Qiang, Saad Abdul Rauf, Syed Saqlaina Bukhari

Abstract:

Text Classification is the methodology to classify any given text into the respective category from a given set of categories. It is highly important and vital to use proper set of pre-processing , feature selection and classification techniques to achieve this purpose. In this paper we have used different ensemble techniques along with variance in feature selection parameters to see the change in overall accuracy of the result and also on some other individual class based features which include precision value of each individual category of the text. After subjecting our data through pre-processing and feature selection techniques , different individual classifiers were tested first and after that classifiers were combined to form ensembles to increase their accuracy. Later we also studied the impact of decreasing the classification categories on over all accuracy of data. Text classification is highly used in sentiment analysis on social media sites such as twitter for realizing people’s opinions about any cause or it is also used to analyze customer’s reviews about certain products or services. Opinion mining is a vital task in data mining and text categorization is a back-bone to opinion mining.

Keywords: Natural Language Processing, Ensemble Classifier, Bagging Classifier, AdaBoost

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