Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5594

Search results for: temperature

5564 Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating According to Temperature and Curvature

Authors: Hyunwoo Song, Jeong-Min Lee, Yongseok Kim, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok


To avoid the damage of gas turbine blade from high-temperature, thermal barrier coating (TBC) is applied on the blade. However, it is damaged by thermal fatigue during the operation of gas turbine, and this damage lead to delamination of TBC between top coat and bond coat. The blade can be damaged after the failure of TBC, so durability evaluation of TBC should be performed. The durability of thermal barrier coating was decreased according to the increase of temperature, because thermal stress according to increase of temperature. Also, the curvature can be affect to durability of TBC, because the stress is determined by the shape of the TBC. Therefore, the effect of temperature and curvature on the stress should be evaluated. In this study, finite element analysis according to temperature and curvature were performed in the same condition of Kim et al. Finally, the stress was evaluated from the finite element analysis results according to temperature and curvature.

Keywords: curvature, finite element analysis, thermal barrier coating, thermal fatigue, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
5563 Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in an Elastic Pipe with Viscoelastic Liquid

Authors: S. Levitsky, R. Bergman


Fluid rheology may have essential impact on sound propagation in a liquid-filled pipe, especially, in a low frequency range. Rheological parameters of liquid are temperature-sensitive, which ultimately results in a temperature dependence of the wave speed and attenuation in the waveguide. The study is devoted to modeling of this effect at sound propagation in an elastic pipe with polymeric liquid, described by generalized Maxwell model with non-zero high-frequency viscosity. It is assumed that relaxation spectrum is distributed according to the Spriggs law; temperature impact on the liquid rheology is described on the basis of the temperature-superposition principle and activation theory. The dispersion equation for the waveguide, considered as a thin-walled tube with polymeric solution, is obtained within a quasi-one-dimensional formulation. Results of the study illustrate the influence of temperature on sound propagation in the system.

Keywords: elastic tube, sound propagation, temperature effect, viscoelastic liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
5562 Temperature Distribution Simulation of Divergent Fluid Flow with Helical Arrangement

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe


Numerical study is performed to investigate the temperature distribution in an annular diffuser fitted with helical tape hub. Different pitches (Y = 20 mm, and Y = 30 mm) for the helical tape are studied with different heights (H = 20 mm, 22 mm, and 24 mm) to be compared. The geometry of the annular diffuser and the inlet condition for both hub arrangements are kept constant. The result obtains that using helical tape insert with different pitches and different heights will force the temperature to distribute in a helical direction; however the use of helical tape hub with height (H = 22 mm) for both pitches enhance the temperature distribution in a good manner.

Keywords: helical tape, divergent fluid flow, temperature distribution, swirl flow, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
5561 Power and Efficiency of Photovoltaic Module: Effect of Cell Temperature

Authors: R. Nasrin, M. Ferdows


Among the renewable energy sources, photovoltaic (PV) is a high potential, effective, and sustainable system. Irradiation intensity from 200 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 has been considered to observe the performance of PV module. Generally, this module converts only about 15% - 20% of incident irradiation into electrical energy and the rest part is converted into heat energy. Finite element method has been used to solve the problem numerically. Simulation has been performed by considering the ambient temperature 30°C. Higher irradiation increase solar cell temperature and electrical power. The electrical efficiency of PV module decreases with the variation of solar radiation. The efficiency of PV module can be increased if cell temperature is reduced. Thus the effect of irradiation is significant to enhance the efficiency of PV module if the solar cell temperature is kept at a certain level.

Keywords: PV module, solar radiation, efficiency, cell temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
5560 A Study on the Magnetic and Mechanical Properties of Nd-Fe-B Sintered Magnets According to Sintering Temperature

Authors: J. H. Kim, S. Y. Park, K. M. Lim, S. K. Hyun


The effect of sintering temperature on the magnetic and mechanical properties of Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets has been investigated in this study. The sintering temperature changed from 950°C to 1120°C. While remanence and hardness of the magnets increased with increasing sintering temperature, the coercivity first increased, and then decreased. The optimum magnetic and mechanical properties of the magnets were obtained at the sintering temperature of 1050°C. In order to clarify the reason for the variation on magnetic and mechanical properties of the magnets, we systematically analyzed the microstructure.

Keywords: magnetic and mechanical property, microstructure, permanent magnets, sintered Nd-Fe-B magnet

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
5559 Pre-Service Teachers’ Conceptual Representations of Heat and Temperature

Authors: Abdeljalil Métioui


The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research on the conceptual representations of 128 Quebec (Canada) pre-service teachers enrolled in their third year of university in a program to train elementary teachers about heat and temperature. To identify their conceptual representations about heat and temperature, we constructed a multiple-choice questionnaire consisting of five questions. For each question, they had to explain their choice of an answer. At the methodological level, this step is essential to be able to identify the student conceptual representations. It should be noted that the selected questions were based: (1) on the works have done worldwide on primary and secondary students’ misconceptions about heat and temperature; (2) on the notions prescribed in the curriculum related to the physical world and (3) on student’s everyday contexts. As illustrations, the following are the erroneous conceptual representations identified in our analysis of the data collected: (1) The change of state of the matter does not require a constant temperature, (2) The temperature is a measure in degrees to indicate the level of heat of an object or person, (3) The mercury contained in a thermometer expands when it is heated so that the particles which constitute it expand and (4) The sensation of cold (or warm) is related to the difference in temperature. In conclusion, we will see that it is possible to develop situations of conflict, dealing specifically with the limits of the analogy between heat and temperature. These situations must consider the conceptual representations of the pre-service teachers, as well as the relevant scientific understanding of the concept of heat and temperature.

Keywords: conceptual representation, heat, temperature, pre-service teachers

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5558 Catalytic Combustion of Methane over Co/Mo and Co/Mn Catalysts at Low Temperature

Authors: Ahmed I. Osman, Jehad K. Abu-Dahrieh, Jillian M. Thompson, David W. Rooney


Natural gas (the main constituent is Methane 95%) is considered as an alternative to petroleum for the production of synthetics fuels. Nowadays, methane combustion at low temperature has received much attention however; it is the most difficult hydrocarbon to be combusted. Co/Mo and (4:1 wt/wt) catalysts were prepared from a range of different precursors and used for the low temperature total methane oxidation (TMO). The catalysts were characterized by, XRD, BET and H2-TPR and tested under reaction temperatures of 250-400 °C with a GHSV= 36,000 mL g-1 h-1. It was found that the combustion temperature was dependent on the type of the precursor, and that those containing chloride led to catalysts with lower activity. The optimum catalyst was Co/Mo (4:1wt/wt) where greater than 20% methane conversion was observed at 250 °C. This catalyst showed a high degree of stability for TMO, showing no deactivation during 50 hours of time on stream.

Keywords: methane low temperature total oxidation, oxygen carrier, Co/Mo, Co/Mn

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
5557 3D Numerical Simulation on Annular Diffuser Temperature Distribution Enhancement by Different Twist Arrangement

Authors: Ehan Sabah Shukri, Wirachman Wisnoe


The influence of twist arrangement on the temperature distribution in an annular diffuser fitted with twisted rectangular hub is investigated. Different pitches (Y = 120 mm, 100 mm, 80 mm, and 60 mm) for the twist arrangements are simulated to be compared. The geometry of the annular diffuser and the inlet condition for the hub arrangements are kept constant. The result reveals that using twisted rectangular hub insert with different pitches will force the temperature to distribute in a circular direction. However, temperature distribution will be enhanced with the length pitch increases.

Keywords: numerical simulation, twist arrangement, annular diffuser, temperature distribution, swirl flow, pitches

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
5556 Heat Distribution Simulation on Transformer Using FEMM Software

Authors: N. K. Mohd Affendi, T. A. R. Tuan Abdullah, S. A. Syed Mustaffa


In power industry transformer is an important component and most of us familiar by the functioning principle of a transformer electrically. There are many losses occur during the operation of a transformer that causes heat generation. This heat, if not dissipated properly will reduce the lifetime and effectiveness of the transformer. Transformer cooling helps in maintaining the temperature rise of various paths. This paper proposed to minimize the ambient temperature of the transformer room in order to lower down the temperature of the transformer. A simulation has been made using finite element methods programs called FEMM (Finite Elements Method Magnetics) to create a virtual model based on actual measurement of a transformer. The generalization of the two-dimensional (2D) FEMM results proves that by minimizing the ambient temperature, the heat of the transformer is decreased. The modeling process and of the transformer heat flow has been presented.

Keywords: heat generation, temperature rise, ambient temperature, FEMM

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
5555 Nonlinear Heat Transfer in a Spiral Fin with a Period Base Temperature

Authors: Kuo-Teng Tsai, You-Min Huang


In this study, the problem of a spiral fin with a period base temperature is analyzed by using the Adomian decomposition method. The Adomian decomposition method is a useful and practice method to solve the nonlinear energy equation which are associated with the heat radiation. The period base temperature is around a mean value. The results including the temperature distribution and the heat flux from the spiral fin base can be calculated directly. The results also discussed the effects of the dimensionless variables for the temperature variations and the total energy transferred from the spiral fin base.

Keywords: spiral fin, period, adomian decomposition method, nonlinear

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
5554 Determination of the Thermally Comfortable Air Temperature with Consideration of Individual Clothing and Activity as Preparation for a New Smart Home Heating System

Authors: Alexander Peikos, Carole Binsfeld


The aim of this paper is to determine a thermally comfortable air temperature in an automated living room. This calculated temperature should serve as input for a user-specific and dynamic heating control in such a living space. In addition to the usual physical factors (air temperature, humidity, air velocity, and radiation temperature), individual clothing and activity should be taken into account. The calculation of such a temperature is based on different methods and indices which are usually used for the evaluation of the thermal comfort. The thermal insulation of the worn clothing is determined with a Radio Frequency Identification system. The activity performed is only taken into account indirectly through the generated heart rate. All these methods are ultimately very well suited for use in temperature regulation in an automated home, but still require further research and extensive evaluation.

Keywords: smart home, thermal comfort, predicted mean vote, radio frequency identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
5553 After-Cooling Analysis of RC Structural Members Exposed to High Temperature by Using Numerical Approach

Authors: Ju-Young Hwang, Hyo-Gyoung Kwak


This paper introduces a numerical analysis method for reinforced-concrete (RC) structures exposed to fire and compares the result with experimental results. The proposed analysis method for RC structure under the high temperature consists of two procedures. First step is to decide the temperature distribution across the section through the heat transfer analysis by using the time-temperature curve. After determination of the temperature distribution, the nonlinear analysis is followed. By considering material and geometrical nonlinearity with the temperature distribution, nonlinear analysis predicts the behavior of RC structure under the fire by the exposed time. The proposed method is validated by the comparison with the experimental results. Finally, prediction model to describe the status of after-cooling concrete can also be introduced based on the results of additional experiment. The product of this study is expected to be embedded for smart structure monitoring system against fire in u-City.

Keywords: RC, high temperature, after-cooling analysis, nonlinear analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
5552 Projection of Climate Change over the Upper Ping River Basin Using Regional Climate Model

Authors: Chakrit Chotamonsak, Eric P. Salathé Jr, Jiemjai Kreasuwan


Dynamical downscaling of the ECHAM5 global climate model is applied at 20-km horizontal resolution using the WRF regional climate model (WRF-ECHAM5), to project changes from 1990–2009 to 2045–2064 of temperature and precipitation over the Upper Ping River Basin. The analysis found that monthly changes in daily temperature and precipitation over the basin for the 2045-2064 compared to the 1990-2009 are revealed over the basin all months, with the largest warmer in December and the smallest warmer in February. The future simulated precipitation is smaller than that of the baseline value in May, July and August, while increasing of precipitation is revealed during pre-monsoon (April) and late monsoon (September and October). This means that the rainy season likely becomes longer and less intensified during the rainy season. During the cool-dry season and hot-dry season, precipitation is substantial increasing over the basin. For the annual cycle of changes in daily temperature and precipitation over the upper Ping River basin, the largest warmer in the mean temperature over the basin is 1.93 °C in December and the smallest is 0.77 °C in February. Increase in nighttime temperature (minimum temperature) is larger than that of daytime temperature (maximum temperature) during the dry season, especially in wintertime (November to February), resulted in decreasing the diurnal temperature range. The annual and seasonal changes in daily temperature and precipitation averaged over the basin. The annual mean rising are 1.43, 1.54 and 1.30 °C for mean temperature, maximum temperature and minimum temperature, respectively. The increasing of maximum temperature is larger than that of minimum temperature in all months during the dry season (November to April).

Keywords: climate change, regional climate model, upper Ping River basin, WRF

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
5551 An Innovative Use of Flow Columns in Electrocoagulation Reactor to Control Water Temperature

Authors: Khalid S. Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Alkhaddar, David Phipps, Ortoneda Pedrola


Temperature is an essential parameter in the electrocoagulation process (EC) as it governs the solubility of electrodes and the precipitates and the collision rate of particles in water being treated. Although it has been about 100 years since the EC technology was invented and applied in water and wastewater treatment, the effects of temperature on the its performance were insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present project aims to fill this gap by an innovative use of perforated flow columns in the designing of a new EC reactor (ECR1). The new reactor (ECR1) consisted of a Perspex made cylinder container supplied with a flow column consisted of perorated discoid electrodes that made from aluminium. The flow column has been installed vertically, half submerged in the water being treated, inside a plastic cylinder. The unsubmerged part of the flow column works as a radiator for the water being treated. In order to investigate the performance of ECR1; water samples with different initial temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C) to the ECR1 for 20 min. Temperature of effluent water samples were measured using Hanna meter (Model: HI 98130). The obtained results demonstrated that the ECR1 reduced water temperature from 35, 30, and 25 °C to 24.6, 23.8, and 21.8 °C respectively. While low water temperature, 15 °C, increased slowly to reach 19.1 °C after 15 minutes and kept the same level till the end of the treatment period. At the same time, water sample with initial temperature of 20 °C showed almost a steady level of temperature along the treatment process, where the temperature increased negligibly from 20 to 20.1 °C after 20 minutes of treatment. In conclusion, ECR1 is able to control the temperature of water being treated around the room temperature even when the initial temperature was high (35 °C) or low (15 °C).

Keywords: electrocoagulation, flow column, treatment, water temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
5550 A Calibration Method for Temperature Distribution Measurement of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal Based on Mathematical Morphology of Hue Image

Authors: Risti Suryantari, Flaviana


The aim of this research is to design calibration method of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal for temperature distribution measurement based on mathematical morphology of hue image A glass of water is placed on the surface of sample TLC R25C5W at certain temperature. We use scanner for image acquisition. The true images in RGB format is converted to HSV (hue, saturation, value) by taking of hue without saturation and value. Then the hue images is processed based on mathematical morphology using Matlab2013a software to get better images. There are differences on the final images after processing at each temperature variation based on visualization observation and the statistic value. The value of maximum and mean increase with rising temperature. It could be parameter to identify the temperature of the human body surface like hand or foot surface.

Keywords: thermochromic liquid crystal, TLC, mathematical morphology, hue image

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
5549 Cable Diameter Effect on the Contact Temperature of Power Automotive Connector

Authors: Amine Beloufa, Mohamed Amirat


In the electric vehicle, high power leads to high current; automotive power connector should resist to this high current in order to avoid a serious damage caused by the increase of contact temperature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze experimentally and numerically the effect of the cable diameter variation on the decrease of contact temperature. For this reason, a finite element model was developed to calculate the numerical contact temperature for several cable diameters and several electrical high currents. Also, experimental tests were established in order to validate this numerical model. Results show that the influence of cable diameter on the contact temperature is never neglected.

Keywords: contact temperature, experimental test, finite element, power automotive connector

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
5548 Improving the Optoacoustic Signal by Monitoring the Changes of Coupling Medium

Authors: P. Prasannakumar, L. Myoung Young, G. Seung Kye, P. Sang Hun, S. Chul Gyu


In this paper, we discussed the coupling medium in the optoacoustic imaging. The coupling medium is placed between the scanned object and the ultrasound transducers. Water with varying temperature was used as the coupling medium. The water temperature is gradually varied between 25 to 40 degrees. This heating process is taken with care in order to avoid the bubble formation. Rise in the photoacoustic signal is noted through an unfocused transducer with frequency of 2.25 MHz as the temperature increases. The temperature rise is monitored using a NTC thermistor and the values in degrees are calculated using an embedded evaluation kit. Also the temperature is transmitted to PC through a serial communication. All these processes are synchronized using a trigger signal from the laser source.

Keywords: embedded, optoacoustic, ultrasound , unfocused transducer

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
5547 Change of Internal Friction on Magnesium Alloy with 5.48% Al Dependence on the Temperature

Authors: Milan Uhríčik, Andrea Soviarová, Zuzana Dresslerová, Peter Palček, Alan Vaško


The article is focused on the analysis changes dependence on the temperature on the magnesium alloy with 5,48% Al, 0,813% Zn and 0,398% Mn by internal friction. Internal friction is a property of the material is measured on the ultrasonic resonant aparature at a frequency about f = 20470 Hz. The measured temperature range was from 30 °C up to 420 °C. Precisely measurement of the internal friction can be monitored ongoing structural changes and various mechanisms that prevent these changes.

Keywords: internal friction, magnesium alloy, temperature, resonant frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 473
5546 Tga Analysis on the Decomposition of Active Material of Aquilaria Malaccencis

Authors: Nurshafika Adira Bt Audi Ashraf, Habsah Alwi


This study describes the series of analysis conducted after the use of Vacuum far Infra Red. Parameter including the constant drying temperature at 40°C with pressure difference (-400 bar, -500 bar and -600 bar) and constant drying pressure at -400 bar with difference temperature (40°C, 50°C and 60°C). The dried leaves with constant temperature and constant pressure is compared with the fresh leaves via several analysis including TGA, FTIR and Chromameter. Results indicated that the fresh leaves shows three degradation stages while temperature constant shows four stages of degradation and at constant pressure of -400 bar, five stages of degradation is shown. However, at the temperature constant with pressure -500 bar, five degradation stages are identified and at constant pressure with temperature 40°C, three stage of degradation is presence. It is assumed that it is due to the difference size of the sample as the particle size is decrease, the peak temperature shown in TG curves is also decrease which lead to the rapid ignition. Based on the FTIR analysis, fresh leaves gives the high presence of O-H and C=O group where both of the constant parameters give the absence of those due to the drying effects. In color analysis, the constant drying parameters (pressure and temperature) both shows that as the temperature increases, the average total of color change is also increases.

Keywords: chromameter, FTIR, TGA, Vaccum far infrared dying

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5545 Temperature Control and Thermal Management of Cylindrical Lithium Batteries Using Phase Change Materials (PCMs)

Authors: S. M. Sadrameli, Y. Azizi


Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have shown to be one of the most reliable energy storage systems for electric cars in the recent years. Ambient temperature has a significant impact on the performance, lifetime, safety and cost of such batteries. Increasing the temperature degrade the lithium batteries more quickly while working at low-temperature environment results reducing the power and energy capability of the system. A thermal management system has been designed and setup in laboratory scale for controlling the temperature at optimum conditions using PEG-1000 with the melting point in the range of 33-40 oC as a phase change material. Aluminum plates have been installed in the PCM to increase the thermal conductivity and increasing the heat transfer rate. Experimental tests have been run at different discharge rates and ambient temperatures to investigate the effects of temperature on the efficiency of the batteries. The comparison has been made between the system of 6 batteries with and without PCM and the results show that PCM with aluminum plates decrease the surface temperature of the batteries that would result better performance and longer lifetime of the batteries.

Keywords: lithium-ion batteries, phase change materials, thermal management, temperature control

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
5544 Effects of Operating Conditions on Creep Life of Industrial Gas Turbine

Authors: Enyia James Diwa, Dodeye Ina Igbong, Archibong Eso Archibong


The creep life of an industrial gas turbine is determined through a physics-based model used to investigate the high pressure temperature (HPT) of the blade in use. A performance model was carried out via the Cranfield University TURBOMATCH simulation software to size the blade and to determine the corresponding stress. Various effects such as radial temperature distortion factor, turbine entry temperature, ambient temperature, blade metal temperature, and compressor degradation on the blade creep life were investigated. The output results show the difference in creep life and the location of failure along the span of the blade enabling better-informed advice for the gas turbine operator.

Keywords: creep, living, performance, degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
5543 The Temperature Effects on the Microstructure and Profile in Laser Cladding

Authors: P. C. Chiu, Jehnming Lin


In this study, a 50-W CO2 laser was used for the clad of 304L powders on the stainless steel substrate with a temperature sensor and image monitoring system. The laser power and cladding speed and focal position were modified to achieve the requirement of the workpiece flatness and mechanical properties. The numerical calculation is based on ANSYS to analyze the temperature change of the moving heat source at different surface positions when coating the workpiece, and the effect of the process parameters on the bath size was discussed. The temperature of stainless steel powder in the nozzle outlet reacting with the laser was simulated as a process parameter. In the experiment, the difference of the thermal conductivity in three-dimensional space is compared with single-layer cladding and multi-layer cladding. The heat dissipation pattern of the single-layer cladding is the steel plate and the multi-layer coating is the workpiece itself. The relationship between the multi-clad temperature and the profile was analyzed by the temperature signal from an IR pyrometer.

Keywords: laser cladding, temperature, profile, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
5542 Application of Model Free Adaptive Control in Main Steam Temperature System of Thermal Power Plant

Authors: Khaing Yadana Swe, Lillie Dewan


At present, the cascade PID control is widely used to control the super-heating temperature (main steam temperature). As the main steam temperature has the characteristics of large inertia, large time-delay, and time varying, etc., conventional PID control strategy can not achieve good control performance. In order to overcome the bad performance and deficiencies of main steam temperature control system, Model Free Adaptive Control (MFAC) P cascade control system is proposed in this paper. By substituting MFAC in PID of the main control loop of the main steam temperature control, it can overcome time delays, non-linearity, disturbance and time variation.

Keywords: model-free adaptive control, cascade control, adaptive control, PID

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
5541 Modeling of Radiofrequency Nerve Lesioning in Inhomogeneous Media

Authors: Nour Ismail, Sahar El Kardawy, Bassant Badwy


Radiofrequency (RF) lesioning of nerves have been commonly used to alleviate chronic pain, where RF current preventing transmission of pain signals through the nerve by heating the nerve causing the pain. There are some factors that affect the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size, one of these factors is the inhomogeneities in the tissue medium. Our objective is to calculate the temperature distribution and the nerve lesion size in a nonhomogenous medium surrounding the RF electrode. A two 3-D finite element models are used to compare the temperature distribution in the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous medium. Also the effect of temperature-dependent electric conductivity on maximum temperature and lesion size is observed. Results show that the presence of a nonhomogeneous medium around the RF electrode has a valuable effect on the temperature distribution and lesion size. The dependency of electric conductivity on tissue temperature increased lesion size.

Keywords: finite element model, nerve lesioning, pain relief, radiofrequency lesion

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5540 Effect of Substrate Temperature on Structure and Properties of Sputtered Transparent Conducting Film of La-Doped BaSnO₃

Authors: Alok Tiwari, Ming Show Wong


Lanthanum (La) doped Barium Tin Oxide (BaSnO₃) film is an excellent alternative for expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs) film such as Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). However single crystal film of La-doped BaSnO₃ has been reported with a good amount of conductivity and transparency but in order to improve its reachability, it is important to grow doped BaSO₃ films on an inexpensive substrate. La-doped BaSnO₃ thin films have been grown on quartz substrate by Radio Frequency (RF) sputtering at a different substrate temperature (from 200⁰C to 750⁰C). The thickness of the film measured was varying from 360nm to 380nm with varying substrate temperature. Structure, optical and electrical properties have been studied. The carrier concentration is seen to be decreasing as we enhance the substrate temperature while mobility found to be increased up to 9.3 cm²/V-S. At low substrate temperature resistivity found was lower (< 3x10⁻³ ohm-cm) while sudden enhancement was seen as substrate temperature raises and the trend continues further with increasing substrate temperature. Optical transmittance is getting better with higher substrate temperature from 70% at 200⁰C to > 80% at 750⁰C. Overall, understanding of changes in microstructure, electrical and optical properties of a thin film by varying substrate temperature has been reported successfully.

Keywords: conductivity, perovskite, mobility, TCO film

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5539 Implemented Cascade with Feed Forward by Enthalpy Balance Superheated Steam Temperature Control for a Boiler with Distributed Control System

Authors: Kanpop Saion, Sakreya Chitwong


Control of superheated steam temperature in the steam generation is essential for the efficiency safety and increment age of the boiler. Conventional cascade PID temperature control in the super heater is known to be efficient to compensate disturbance. However, the complex of thermal power plant due to nonlinearity, load disturbance and time delay of steam of superheater system is bigger than other control systems. The cascade loop with feed forward steam temperature control with energy balance compensator using thermodynamic model has been used for the compensation the complex structure of superheater. In order to improve the performance of steam temperature control. The experiment is implemented for 100% load steady and load changing state. The cascade with feed forward with energy balance steam temperature control has stabilized the system as well.

Keywords: cascade with feed forward, boiler, superheated steam temperature control, enthalpy balance

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5538 The Investigation of the Impact of Process and Location Parameters in Warpage Study of Semiconductor Packages

Authors: Wheyming Song, Ssu-Ping Lin


The primary advantage of package-on-package (PoP) packaging is that since it has less volume, it weighs less. But this is also related to its principal drawback, which is warpage. This research investigates how PoP package warpage patterns are affected by assembling process parameters, including substrate temperature, injection speed, injection temperature, and compound forces. We also investigate how warpage patterns are affected by the location of the silicon chip. The methodologies used in this research are design of experiment and warpage simulation via ANSYS. We propose a regression model to predict the warpage value as a function of substrate temperature, injection speed, injection temperature, and compound forces. Our results show that interaction effects exist between substrate temperature and compound forces and between injection speed and injection temperature. Therefore, determining the optimal values for substrate temperature, compound forces, injection speed, and injection temperature cannot be done individually. Also, our results show that the warpage patterns based on the location of silicon chips can be classified into 11 groups, with the largest warpage occurring at the left-most and right-most sides.

Keywords: package-on-package, warpage, design of experiment, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
5537 The High Temperature Damage of DV–2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni–Base Superalloy

Authors: Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Alan Vaško, Milan Uhríčik


High-pressure turbine (HPT) blades of DV–2 jet engines are made from Ni–base superalloy, a former Soviet Union production, specified as ŽS6K. For improving its high-temperature resistance are blades covered with Al–Si diffusion layer. A regular operation temperature of HPT blades vary from 705°C to 750°C depending on jet engine regime. An over-crossing working temperature range causes degradation of protective alitize layer as well as base material–gamma matrix and gamma prime particles what decreases turbine blade lifetime. High-temperature degradation has mainly diffusion mechanism and causes coarsening of strengthening phase gamma prime and protective alitize layer thickness growing. All changes have a significant influence on high-temperature properties of base material.

Keywords: alitize layer, gamma prime phase, high-temperature degradation, Ni–base superalloy ŽS6K, turbine blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
5536 Analysis of Heat Exchanger Area of Two Stage Cascade Refrigeration System Using Taguchi

Authors: A. D. Parekh


The present work describes relative contributions of operating parameters on required heat transfer area of three heat exchangers viz. evaporator, condenser and cascade condenser of two stage R404A-R508B cascade refrigeration system using Taguchi method. The operating parameters considered in present study includes (1) condensing temperature of high temperature cycle and low temperature cycle (2) evaporating temperature of low temperature cycle (3) degree of superheating in low temperature cycle (4) refrigerating effect. Heat transfer areas of three heat exchangers are studied with variation of above operating parameters and also optimum working levels of each operating parameter has been obtained for minimum heat transfer area of each heat exchanger using Taguchi method. The analysis using Taguchi method reveals that evaporating temperature of low temperature cycle and refrigerating effect contribute relatively largely on the area of evaporator. Condenser area is mainly influenced by both condensing temperature of high temperature cycle and refrigerating effect. Area of cascade condenser is mainly affected by refrigerating effect and the effects of other operating parameters are minimal.

Keywords: cascade refrigeration system, Taguchi method, heat transfer area, ANOVA, optimal solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
5535 Analysis of Heat Exchanger Area of Two Stage Cascade Refrigeration System Using Taguchi Methodology

Authors: A. D. Parekh


The present work describes relative contributions of operating parameters on required heat transfer area of three heat exchangers viz. evaporator, condenser and cascade condenser of two stage R404A-R508B cascade refrigeration system using Taguchi method. The operating parameters considered in present study includes (1) condensing temperature of high temperature cycle and low temperature cycle (2) evaporating temperature of low temperature cycle (3) degree of superheating in low temperature cycle (4) refrigerating effect. Heat transfer areas of three heat exchangers are studied with variation of above operating parameters and also optimum working levels of each operating parameter has been obtained for minimum heat transfer area of each heat exchanger using Taguchi method. The analysis using Taguchi method reveals that evaporating temperature of low temperature cycle and refrigerating effect contribute relatively largely on the area of evaporator. Condenser area is mainly influenced by both condensing temperature of high temperature cycle and refrigerating effect. Area of cascade condenser is mainly affected by refrigerating effect and the effects of other operating parameters are minimal.

Keywords: cascade refrigeration system, Taguchi method, heat transfer area, ANOVA, optimal solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 246