Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1247

Search results for: sound propagation

1247 Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in an Elastic Pipe with Viscoelastic Liquid

Authors: S. Levitsky, R. Bergman

Abstract:

Fluid rheology may have essential impact on sound propagation in a liquid-filled pipe, especially, in a low frequency range. Rheological parameters of liquid are temperature-sensitive, which ultimately results in a temperature dependence of the wave speed and attenuation in the waveguide. The study is devoted to modeling of this effect at sound propagation in an elastic pipe with polymeric liquid, described by generalized Maxwell model with non-zero high-frequency viscosity. It is assumed that relaxation spectrum is distributed according to the Spriggs law; temperature impact on the liquid rheology is described on the basis of the temperature-superposition principle and activation theory. The dispersion equation for the waveguide, considered as a thin-walled tube with polymeric solution, is obtained within a quasi-one-dimensional formulation. Results of the study illustrate the influence of temperature on sound propagation in the system.

Keywords: elastic tube, sound propagation, temperature effect, viscoelastic liquid

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1246 Liquid Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in Polymeric Solution with Gas Bubbles

Authors: S. Levitsky

Abstract:

Acoustic properties of polymeric liquids are high sensitive to free gas traces in the form of fine bubbles. Their presence is typical for such liquids because of chemical reactions, small wettability of solid boundaries, trapping of air in technological operations, etc. Liquid temperature influences essentially its rheological properties, which may have an impact on the bubble pulsations and sound propagation in the system. The target of the paper is modeling of the liquid temperature effect on single bubble dynamics and sound dispersion and attenuation in polymeric solution with spherical gas bubbles. The basic sources of attenuation (heat exchange between gas in microbubbles and surrounding liquid, rheological and acoustic losses) are taken into account. It is supposed that in the studied temperature range the interface mass transfer has a minor effect on bubble dynamics. The results of the study indicate that temperature raise yields enhancement of bubble pulsations and increase in sound attenuation in the near-resonance range and may have a strong impact on sound dispersion in the liquid-bubble mixture at frequencies close to the resonance frequency of bubbles.

Keywords: sound propagation, gas bubbles, temperature effect, polymeric liquid

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
1245 Acoustic Finite Element Analysis of a Slit Model with Consideration of Air Viscosity

Authors: M. Sasajima, M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

In very narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change due to the air viscosity. We have developed a new Finite Element Method (FEM) that includes the effects of air viscosity for modeling a narrow sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing FEM for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results for several three-dimensional slit models using the proposed FEM are validated against existing calculation methods.

Keywords: simulation, FEM, air viscosity, slit

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1244 Research on the Two-Way Sound Absorption Performance of Multilayer Material

Authors: Yang Song, Xiaojun Qiu

Abstract:

Multilayer materials are applied to much acoustics area. Multilayer porous materials are dominant in room absorber. Multilayer viscoelastic materials are the basic parts in underwater absorption coating. In most cases, the one-way sound absorption performance of multilayer material is concentrated according to the sound source site. But the two-way sound absorption performance is also necessary to be known in some special cases which sound is produced in both sides of the material and the both sides especially might contact with different media. In this article, this kind of case was research. The multilayer material was composed of viscoelastic layer and steel plate and the porous layer. The two sides of multilayer material contact with water and air, respectively. A theory model was given to describe the sound propagation and impedance in multilayer absorption material. The two-way sound absorption properties of several multilayer materials were calculated whose two sides all contacted with different media. The calculated results showed that the difference of two-way sound absorption coefficients is obvious. The frequency, the relation of layers thickness and parameters of multilayer materials all have an influence on the two-way sound absorption coefficients. But the degrees of influence are varied. All these simulation results were analyzed in the article. It was obtained that two-way sound absorption at different frequencies can be promoted by optimizing the configuration parameters. This work will improve the performance of underwater sound absorption coating which can absorb incident sound from the water and reduce the noise radiation from inside space.

Keywords: different media, multilayer material, sound absorption coating, two-way sound absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
1243 FEM Analysis of an Occluded Ear Simulator with Narrow Slit Pathway

Authors: Manabu Sasajima, Takao Yamaguchi, Yoshio Koike, Mitsuharu Watanabe

Abstract:

This paper discusses the propagation of sound waves in air, specifically in narrow rectangular pathways of an occluded-ear simulator for acoustic measurements. In narrow pathways, both the speed of sound and the phase of the sound waves are affected by the damping of the air viscosity. Herein, we propose a new finite-element method (FEM) that considers the effects of the air viscosity. The method was developed as an extension of existing FEMs for porous, sound-absorbing materials. The results of a numerical calculation for a three-dimensional ear-simulator model using the proposed FEM were validated by comparing with theoretical lumped-parameter modeling analysis and standard values.

Keywords: ear simulator, FEM, simulation, viscosity

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1242 Three-Dimensional Jet Refraction Simulation Using a Gradient Term Suppression and Filtering Method

Authors: Lican Wang, Rongqian Chen, Yancheng You, Ruofan Qiu

Abstract:

In the applications of jet engine, open-jet wind tunnel and airframe, there wildly exists a shear layer formed by the velocity and temperature gradients between jet flow and surrounded medium. The presence of shear layer will refract and reflect the sound path that consequently influences the measurement results in far-field. To investigate and evaluate the shear layer effect, a gradient term suppression and filtering method is adopted to simulate sound propagation through a steady sheared flow in three dimensions. Two typical configurations are considered: one is an incompressible and cold jet flow in wind tunnel and the other is a compressible and hot jet flow in turbofan engine. A numerically linear microphone array is used to localize the position of given sound source. The localization error is presented and linearly fitted.

Keywords: aeroacoustic, linearized Euler equation, acoustic propagation, source localization

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1241 Near Field Focusing Behaviour of Airborne Ultrasonic Phased Arrays Influenced by Airflows

Authors: D. Sun, T. F. Lu, A. Zander, M. Trinkle

Abstract:

This paper investigates the potential use of airborne ultrasonic phased arrays for imaging in outdoor environments as a means of overcoming the limitations experienced by kinect sensors, which may fail to work in the outdoor environments due to the oversaturation of the infrared photo diodes. Ultrasonic phased arrays have been well studied for static media, yet there appears to be no comparable examination in the literature of the impact of a flowing medium on the focusing behaviour of near field focused ultrasonic arrays. This paper presents a method for predicting the sound pressure fields produced by a single ultrasound element or an ultrasonic phased array influenced by airflows. The approach can be used to determine the actual focal point location of an array exposed in a known flow field. From the presented simulation results based upon this model, it can be concluded that uniform flows in the direction orthogonal to the acoustic propagation have a noticeable influence on the sound pressure field, which is reflected in the twisting of the steering angle of the array. Uniform flows in the same direction as the acoustic propagation have negligible influence on the array. For an array impacted by a turbulent flow, determining the location of the focused sound field becomes difficult due to the irregularity and continuously changing direction and the speed of the turbulent flow. In some circumstances, ultrasonic phased arrays impacted by turbulent flows may not be capable of producing a focused sound field.

Keywords: airborne, airflow, focused sound field, ultrasonic phased array

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1240 Acoustic Performance and Application of Three Personalized Sound-Absorbing Materials

Authors: Fangying Wang, Zhang Sanming, Ni Qian

Abstract:

In recent years, more and more personalized sound absorbing materials have entered the Chinese room acoustical decoration market. The acoustic performance of three kinds of personalized sound-absorbing materials: Flame-retardant Flax Fiber Sound-absorbing Cotton, Eco-Friendly Sand Acoustic Panel and Transparent Micro-perforated Panel (Film) are tested by Reverberation Room Method. The sound absorption characteristic curves show that their performance match for or even exceed the traditional sound absorbing material. Through the application in the actual projects, these personalized sound-absorbing materials also proved their sound absorption ability and unique decorative effect.

Keywords: acoustic performance, application prospect personalized sound-absorbing materials

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1239 Comparing the Effect of Virtual Reality and Sound on Landscape Perception

Authors: Mark Lindquist

Abstract:

This paper presents preliminary results of exploratory empirical research investigating the effect of viewing 3D landscape visualizations in virtual reality compared to a computer monitor, and how sound impacts perception. Five landscape types were paired with three sound conditions (no sound, generic sound, realistic sound). Perceived realism, preference, recreational value, and biodiversity were evaluated in a controlled laboratory environment. Results indicate that sound has a larger perceptual impact than display mode regardless of sound source across all perceptual measures. The results are considered to assess how sound can impact landscape preference and spatiotemporal understanding. The paper concludes with a discussion of the impact on designers, planners, and the public and targets future research endeavors in this area.

Keywords: landscape experience, perception, soundscape, virtual reality

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1238 Altered States of Consciousness in Narrative Cinema: Subjective Film Sound

Authors: Mladen Milicevic

Abstract:

In this paper, subjective film sound will be addressed as it gets represented in narrative cinema. First, 'meta-diegetic' sound will be briefly explained followed by transition to “oneiric” sound. The representation of oneiric sound refers to a situation where film characters are experiencing some sort of an altered state of consciousness. Looking at an antlered state of consciousness in terms of human brain processes will point out to the cinematic ways of expression, which 'mimic' those processes. Using several examples for different films will illustrate these points.

Keywords: oneiric, ASC, film, sound

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
1237 Development of Prediction Tool for Sound Absorption and Sound Insulation for Sound Proof Properties

Authors: Yoshio Kurosawa, Takao Yamaguchi

Abstract:

High frequency automotive interior noise above 500 Hz considerably affects automotive passenger comfort. To reduce this noise, sound insulation material is often laminated on body panels or interior trim panels. For a more effective noise reduction, the sound reduction properties of this laminated structure need to be estimated. We have developed a new calculate tool that can roughly calculate the sound absorption and insulation properties of laminate structure and handy for designers. In this report, the outline of this tool and an analysis example applied to floor mat are introduced.

Keywords: automobile, acoustics, porous material, transfer matrix method

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1236 The Effect of Floor Impact Sound Insulation Performance Using Scrambled Thermoplastic Poly Urethane and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

Authors: Bonsoo Koo, Seong Shin Hong, Byung Kwon Lee

Abstract:

Most of apartments in Korea have wall type structure that present poor performance regarding floor impact sound insulation. In order to minimize the transmission of floor impact sound, flooring structures are used in which an insulating material, 30 mm thickness pad of EPS or EVA, is sandwiched between a concrete slab and the finished mortar. Generally, a single-material pad used for insulation has a heavyweight impact sound level of 44~47 dB with 210 mm thickness slab. This study provides an analysis of the floor impact sound insulation performance using thermoplastic poly urethane (TPU), ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), and expanded polystyrene (EPS) materials with buffering performance. Following mock-up tests the effect of lightweight impact sound turned out to be similar but heavyweight impact sound was decreased by 3 dB compared to conventional single material insulation pad.

Keywords: floor impact sound, thermoplastic poly urethane, ethylene vinyl acetate, heavyweight impact sound

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1235 A Review on Predictive Sound Recognition System

Authors: Ajay Kadam, Ramesh Kagalkar

Abstract:

The proposed research objective is to add to a framework for programmed recognition of sound. In this framework the real errand is to distinguish any information sound stream investigate it & anticipate the likelihood of diverse sounds show up in it. To create and industrially conveyed an adaptable sound web crawler a flexible sound search engine. The calculation is clamor and contortion safe, computationally productive, and hugely adaptable, equipped for rapidly recognizing a short portion of sound stream caught through a phone microphone in the presence of frontal area voices and other predominant commotion, and through voice codec pressure, out of a database of over accessible tracks. The algorithm utilizes a combinatorial hashed time-recurrence group of stars examination of the sound, yielding ordinary properties, for example, transparency, in which numerous tracks combined may each be distinguished.

Keywords: fingerprinting, pure tone, white noise, hash function

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1234 Finding the Free Stream Velocity Using Flow Generated Sound

Authors: Saeed Hosseini, Ali Reza Tahavvor

Abstract:

Sound processing is one the subjects that newly attracts a lot of researchers. It is efficient and usually less expensive than other methods. In this paper the flow generated sound is used to estimate the flow speed of free flows. Many sound samples are gathered. After analyzing the data, a parameter named wave power is chosen. For all samples, the wave power is calculated and averaged for each flow speed. A curve is fitted to the averaged data and a correlation between the wave power and flow speed is founded. Test data are used to validate the method and errors for all test data were under 10 percent. The speed of the flow can be estimated by calculating the wave power of the flow generated sound and using the proposed correlation.

Keywords: the flow generated sound, free stream, sound processing, speed, wave power

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1233 Numerical Simulation of Supersonic Gas Jet Flows and Acoustics Fields

Authors: Lei Zhang, Wen-jun Ruan, Hao Wang, Peng-Xin Wang

Abstract:

The source of the jet noise is generated by rocket exhaust plume during rocket engine testing. A domain decomposition approach is applied to the jet noise prediction in this paper. The aerodynamic noise coupling is based on the splitting into acoustic sources generation and sound propagation in separate physical domains. Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is used to simulate the supersonic jet flow. Based on the simulation results of the flow-fields, the jet noise distribution of the sound pressure level is obtained by applying the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FW-H) acoustics equation and Fourier transform. The calculation results show that the complex structures of expansion waves, compression waves and the turbulent boundary layer could occur due to the strong interaction between the gas jet and the ambient air. In addition, the jet core region, the shock cell and the sound pressure level of the gas jet increase with the nozzle size increasing. Importantly, the numerical simulation results of the far-field sound are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in directivity.

Keywords: supersonic gas jet, Large Eddy Simulation(LES), acoustic noise, Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings(FW-H) equations, nozzle size

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1232 Analysis of Sound Loss from the Highway Traffic through Lightweight Insulating Concrete Walls and Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Sound Transmission

Authors: Mustafa Tosun, Kevser Dincer

Abstract:

In this study, analysis on whether the lightweight concrete walled structures used in four climatic regions of Turkey are also capable of insulating sound was conducted. As a new approach, first the wall’s thermal insulation sufficiency’s were calculated and then, artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was used on their cross sections to check if they are sound transmitters too. The ANN was trained and tested by using MATLAB toolbox on a personal computer. ANN input parameters that used were thickness of lightweight concrete wall, frequency and density of lightweight concrete wall, while the transmitted sound was the output parameter. When the results of the TS analysis and those of ANN modeling are evaluated together, it is found from this study, that sound transmit loss increases at higher frequencies, higher wall densities and with larger wall cross sections.

Keywords: artificial neuron network, lightweight concrete, sound insulation, sound transmit loss

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1231 Research of Acoustic Propagation within Marine Riser in Deepwater Drilling

Authors: Xiaohui Wang, Zhichuan Guan, Roman Shor, Chuanbin Xu

Abstract:

Early monitoring and real-time quantitative description of gas intrusion under the premise of ensuring the integrity of the drilling fluid circulation system will greatly improve the accuracy and effectiveness of deepwater gas-kick monitoring. Therefore, in order to study the propagation characteristics of ultrasonic waves in the gas-liquid two-phase flow within the marine riser, in this paper, a numerical simulation method of ultrasonic propagation in the annulus of the riser was established, and the credibility of the numerical analysis was verified by the experimental results of the established gas intrusion monitoring simulation experimental device. The numerical simulation can solve the sound field in the gas-liquid two-phase flow according to different physical models, and it is easier to realize the single factor control. The influence of each parameter on the received signal can be quantitatively investigated, and the law with practical guiding significance can be obtained.

Keywords: gas-kick detection, ultrasonic, void fraction, coda wave velocity

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1230 The Optimization Design of Sound Absorbing for Automotive Interior Material

Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Gyu Park

Abstract:

Nonwoven fabric such as an automobile interior material becomes consists of several material layers required for the sound-absorbing function. Because several material layers, many experimental tuning is required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, a lot of time and money is spent in the development of the car interior materials. In this study, we present the method to predict the sound-absorbing performance of the various layers with physical properties of each material. and we will verify it with the measured value of a prototype. If the sound absorption can be estimated, it can be optimized without a number of tuning tests of the interiors. So, it can reduce the development cost and time during development

Keywords: automotive interior material, sound absorbing, optimization design, nonwoven fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
1229 Effect of Load Ratio on Probability Distribution of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

It is necessary to predict a fatigue crack propagation life for estimation of structural integrity. Because of an uncertainty and a randomness of a structural behavior, it is also required to analyze stochastic characteristics of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size. The essential purpose of this study is to present the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified fatigue crack size in magnesium alloys under various fatigue load ratio conditions. To investigate a stochastic crack growth behavior, fatigue crack propagation experiments are performed in laboratory air under several conditions of fatigue load ratio using AZ31. By Anderson-Darling test, a goodness-of-fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is performed and the good probability distribution fit for the fatigue crack propagation life is presented. The effect of load ratio on variability of fatigue crack propagation life is also investigated.

Keywords: fatigue crack propagation life, load ratio, magnesium alloys, probability distribution

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1228 Influence of Maximum Fatigue Load on Probabilistic Aspect of Fatigue Crack Propagation Life at Specified Grown Crack in Magnesium Alloys

Authors: Seon Soon Choi

Abstract:

The principal purpose of this paper is to find the influence of maximum fatigue load on the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack in magnesium alloys. The experiments of fatigue crack propagation are carried out in laboratory air under different conditions of the maximum fatigue loads to obtain the fatigue crack propagation data for the statistical analysis. In order to analyze the probabilistic aspect of fatigue crack propagation life, the goodness-of fit test for probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life at a specified grown crack is implemented through Anderson-Darling test. The good probability distribution of the fatigue crack propagation life is also verified under the conditions of the maximum fatigue loads.

Keywords: fatigue crack propagation life, magnesium alloys, maximum fatigue load, probability

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1227 Research and Design on a Portable Intravehicular Ultrasonic Leak Detector for Manned Spacecraft

Authors: Yan Rongxin, Sun Wei, Li Weidan

Abstract:

Based on the acoustics cascade sound theory, the mechanism of air leak sound producing, transmitting and signal detecting has been analyzed. A formula of the sound power, leak size and air pressure in the spacecraft has been built, and the relationship between leak sound pressure and receiving direction and distance has been studied. The center frequency in millimeter diameter leak is more than 20 kHz. The situation of air leaking from spacecraft to space has been simulated and an experiment of different leak size and testing distance and direction has been done. The sound pressure is in direct proportion to the cosine of the angle of leak to sensor. The portable ultrasonic leak detector has been developed, whose minimal leak rate is 10-1 Pa·m3/s, the testing radius is longer than 20 mm, the mass is less than 1.0 kg, and the electric power is less than 2.2 W.

Keywords: leak testing, manned spacecraft, sound transmitting, ultrasonic

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1226 Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Photorefractive Crystal

Authors: A. Keshavarz

Abstract:

A physical model for guiding the wave in photorefractive media is studied. Propagation of cos-Gaussian beam as the special cases of sinusoidal-Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystal is simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicolson method in one dimension. Results show that the beam profile deforms as the energy transfers from the center to the tails under propagation. This simulation approach is of significant interest for application in optical telecommunication. The results are presented graphically and discussed.

Keywords: beam propagation, cos-Gaussian beam, numerical simulation, photorefractive crystal

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1225 Measurement and Prediction of Speed of Sound in Petroleum Fluids

Authors: S. Ghafoori, A. Al-Harbi, B. Al-Ajmi, A. Al-Shaalan, A. Al-Ajmi, M. Ali Juma

Abstract:

Seismic methods play an important role in the exploration for hydrocarbon reservoirs. However, the success of the method depends strongly on the reliability of the measured or predicted information regarding the velocity of sound in the media. Speed of sound has been used to study the thermodynamic properties of fluids. In this study, experimental data are reported and analyzed on the speed of sound in toluene and octane binary mixture. Three-factor three-level Box-Benhkam design is used to determine the significance of each factor, the synergetic effects of the factors, and the most significant factors on speed of sound. The developed mathematical model and statistical analysis provided a critical analysis of the simultaneous interactive effects of the independent variables indicating that the developed quadratic models were highly accurate and predictive.

Keywords: experimental design, octane, speed of sound, toluene

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1224 The Design Optimization for Sound Absorption Material of Multi-Layer Structure

Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Sound absorbing material is used as automotive interior material. Sound absorption coefficient should be predicted to design it. But it is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because it is comprised of several material layers. So, its targets are achieved through many experimental tunings. It causes a lot of cost and time. In this paper, we propose the process to estimate the sound absorption coefficient with multi-layer structure. In order to estimate the coefficient, physical properties of each material are used. These properties also use predicted values by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Since there are many physical properties and the measurement equipment is expensive, the values predicted by software are used. Through the measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of each material, its physical properties are calculated inversely. The properties of each material are used to calculate the sound absorption coefficient of the multi-layer material. Since the absorption coefficient of multi-layer can be calculated, optimization design is possible through simulation. Then, we will compare and analyze the calculated sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If this method is used when developing automotive interior materials with multi-layer structure, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation. So, cost and time can be saved.

Keywords: sound absorption material, sound impedance tube, sound absorption coefficient, optimization design

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1223 Finite Element Method Analysis of Occluded-Ear Simulator and Natural Human Ear Canal

Authors: M. Sasajima, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Hu, Y. Koike

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the propagation of sound in the narrow pathways of an occluded-ear simulator typically used for the measurement of insert-type earphones. The simulator has a standardized frequency response conforming to the international standard (IEC60318-4). In narrow pathways, the speed and phase of sound waves are modified by viscous air damping. In our previous paper, we proposed a new finite element method (FEM) to consider the effects of air viscosity in this type of audio equipment. In this study, we will compare the results from the ear simulator FEM model, and those from a three dimensional human ear canal FEM model made from computed tomography images, with the measured frequency response data from the ear canals of 18 people.

Keywords: ear simulator, FEM, viscosity, human ear canal

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1222 Implementation of Real-Time Multiple Sound Source Localization and Separation

Authors: Jeng-Shin Sheu, Qi-Xun Zheng

Abstract:

This paper mainly discusses a method of separating speech when using a microphone array without knowing the number and direction of sound sources. In recent years, there have been many studies on the method of separating signals by using masking, but most of the separation methods must be operated under the condition of a known number of sound sources. Such methods cannot be used for real-time applications. In our method, this paper uses Circular-Integrated-Cross-Spectrum to estimate the statistical histogram distribution of the direction of arrival (DOA) to obtain the number of sound sources and sound in the mixed-signal Source direction. In calculating the relevant parameters of the ring integrated cross-spectrum, the phase (Phase of the Cross-Power Spectrum) and phase rotation factors (Phase Rotation Factors) calculated by the cross power spectrum of each microphone pair are used. In the part of separating speech, it uses the DOA weighting and shielding separation method to calculate the sound source direction (DOA) according to each T-F unit (time-frequency point). The weight corresponding to each T-F unit can be used to strengthen the intensity of each sound source from the T-F unit and reduce the influence of the remaining sound sources, thereby achieving voice separation.

Keywords: real-time, spectrum analysis, sound source localization, sound source separation

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1221 RF Propagation Analysis in Outdoor Environments Using RSSI Measurements Applied in ZigBee Sensor Networks

Authors: Teles de Sales Bezerra, Saulo Aislan da Silva Eleuterio, José Anderson Rodrigues de Souza, Jeronimo Silva Rocha

Abstract:

Propagation in radio frequency is a constant concern in the application of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), the behavior of an environment determines how good the quality of signal reception. The objective of this paper is to analyze the behavior of a WSN in an environment for agriculture where environmental variables are present and correlate the capture of values received signal strength (RSSI) with a propagation model.

Keywords: propagation, WSN, agriculture, quality

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1220 The Prediction of Sound Absorbing Coefficient for Multi-Layer Non-Woven

Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Gyu Park

Abstract:

Automotive interior material consisting of several material layers has the sound-absorbing function. It is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because of several material layers. So, many experimental tunings are required to achieve the target of sound absorption. Therefore, while the car interior materials are developed, so much time and money is spent. In this study, we present a method to predict the sound absorbing performance of the material with multi-layer using physical properties of each material. The properties are predicted by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Then, we will compare and analyze the predicted sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If the method is used instead of experimental tuning in the development of car interior material, the time and money can be saved, and then, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation.

Keywords: multi-layer nonwoven, sound absorption coefficient, scaled reverberation chamber, impedance tubes

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1219 Mitigation of Offshore Piling Noise Effects on Marine Mammals

Authors: Waled A. Dawoud, Abdelazim M. Negm, Nasser M. Saleh

Abstract:

Offshore piling generates underwater sound at level high enough to cause physical damage or hearing impairment to the marine mammals. Several methods can be used to mitigate the effect of underwater noise from offshore pile driving on marine mammals which can be divided into three main approaches. The first approach is to keep the mammal out of the high-risk area by using aversive sound waves produced by acoustic mitigation devices such as playing-back of mammal's natural predator vocalization, alarm or distress sounds, and anthropogenic sound. The second approach is to reduce the amount of underwater noise from pile driving using noise mitigation techniques such as bubble curtains, isolation casing, and hydro-sound dampers. The third approach is to eliminate the overlap of underwater waves by using prolonged construction process. To investigate the effectiveness of different noise mitigation methods; a pile driven with 235 kJ rated energy diesel hammer near Jeddah Coast, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was used. Using empirical sound exposure model based on Red Sea characteristics and limits of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; it was found that the aversive sound waves should extend to 1.8 km around the pile location. Bubble curtains can reduce the behavioral disturbance area up to 28%; temporary threshold shift up to 36%; permanent threshold shift up to 50%; and physical injury up to 70%. Isolation casing can reduce the behavioral disturbance range up to 12%; temporary threshold shift up to 21%; permanent threshold shift up to 29%; and physical injury up to 46%. Hydro-sound dampers efficiency depends mainly on the used technology and it can reduce the behavioral disturbance range from 10% to 33%; temporary threshold shift from 18% to 25%; permanent threshold shift from 32% to 50%; and physical injury from 46% to 60%. To prolong the construction process, it was found that the single pile construction, use of soft start, and keep time between two successive hammer strikes more than 3 seconds are the most effective techniques.

Keywords: offshore pile driving, sound propagation models, noise effects on marine mammals, Underwater noise mitigation

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1218 Development and Characterization of Synthetic Non-Woven for Sound Absorption

Authors: P. Sam Vimal Rajkumar, K. Priyanga

Abstract:

Acoustics is the scientific study of sound which includes the effect of reflection, refraction, absorption, diffraction and interference. Sound can be considered as a wave phenomenon. A sound wave is a longitudinal wave where particles of the medium are temporarily displaced in a direction parallel to energy transport and then return to their original position. The vibration in a medium produces alternating waves of relatively dense and sparse particles –compression and rarefaction respectively. The resultant variation to normal ambient pressure is translated by the ear and perceived as sound. Today much importance is given to the acoustical environment. The noise sources are increased day by day and annoying level is strongly violated in different locations by traffic, sound systems, and industries. There is simple evidence showing that the high noise levels cause sleep disturbance, hearing loss, decrease in productivity, learning disability, lower scholastic performance and increase in stress related hormones and blood pressure. Therefore, achieving a pleasing and noise free environment is one of the endeavours of many a research groups. This can be obtained by using various techniques. One such technique is by using suitable materials with good sound absorbing properties. The conventionally used materials that possess sound absorbing properties are rock wool or glass wool. In this work, an attempt is made to use synthetic material in both fibrous and sheet form and use it for manufacturing of non-woven for sound absorption.

Keywords: acoustics, fibre, non-woven, noise, sound absorption properties, sound absorption coefficient

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