Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14106

Search results for: tensile test and impact test

14106 Comparison of Direct and Indirect Tensile Strength of Brittle Materials and Accurate Estimate of Tensile Strength

Authors: M. Etezadi, A. Fahimifar

Abstract:

In many geotechnical designs in rocks and rock masses, tensile strength of rock and rock mass is needed. The difficulties associated with performing a direct uniaxial tensile test on a rock specimen have led to a number of indirect methods for assessing the tensile strength that in the meantime the Brazilian test is more popular. Brazilian test is widely applied in rock engineering because specimens are easy to prepare, the test is easy to conduct and uniaxial compression test machines are quite common. This study compares experimental results of direct and Brazilian tensile tests carried out on two rock types and three concrete types using 39 cylindrical and 28 disc specimens. The tests are performed using Servo-Control device. The relationship between direct and indirect tensile strength of specimens is extracted using linear regression. In the following, tensile strength of direct and indirect test is evaluated using finite element analysis. The results are analyzed and effective factors on results are studied. According to the experimental results Brazilian test is shown higher tensile strength than direct test. Because of decreasing the contact surface of grains and increasing the uniformity in concrete specimens with fine aggregate (largest grain size= 6mm), higher tensile strength in direct test is shown. The experimental and numerical results of tensile strength are compared and empirical relationship witch is obtained from experimental tests is validated.

Keywords: tensile strength, brittle materials, direct and indirect tensile test, numerical modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
14105 Equipment Design for Lunar Lander Landing-Impact Test

Authors: Xiaohuan Li, Wangmin Yi, Xinghui Wu

Abstract:

In order to verify the performance of lunar lander structure, landing-impact test is urgently needed. Moreover, the test equipment is necessary for the test. The functions and the key points of the equipment is presented to satisfy the requirements of the test,and the design scheme is proposed. The composition, the major function and the critical parts’ design of the equipment are introduced. By the load test of releasing device and single-beam hoist, and the compatibility test of landing-impact testing system, the rationality and reliability of the equipment is proved.

Keywords: landing-impact test, lunar lander, releasing device, test equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 460
14104 Experimental Investigation on the Behavior of Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete under Impact Loading

Authors: Feng Fu, Ahmad Bazgir

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate and examine the structural behaviour of steel fibre reinforced concrete slabs when subjected to impact loading using drop weight method. A number of compressive tests, tensile splitting tests, as well as impact tests were conducted. The experimental work consists of testing both conventional reinforced slabs and SFRC slabs. Parameters to be considered for carrying out the test will consist of the volume fraction of steel fibre, type of steel fibres, drop weight height and number of blows. Energy absorption of slabs under impact loading and failure modes were examined in-depth and compared with conventional reinforced concrete slab are investigated.

Keywords: steel fibre reinforce concrete, compressive test, tensile splitting test, impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
14103 Investigation of the Fading Time Effects on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Vermicular Cast Iron

Authors: Mehmet Ekici

Abstract:

In this study, the fading time affecting the mechanical properties and microstructures of vermicular cast iron were studied. Pig iron and steel scrap weighing about 12 kg were charged into the high-frequency induction furnace crucible and completely melted for production of vermicular cast iron. The slag was skimmed using a common flux. After fading time was set at 1. 3 and 5 minutes. In this way, three vermicular cast iron was produced that same composition but different phase structures. The microstructure of specimens was investigated, and uni-axial tensile test and the Charpy impact test were performed, and their micro-hardness measurements were done in order to characterize the mechanical behaviours of vermicular cast iron.

Keywords: vermicular cast iron, fading time, hardness, tensile test and impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
14102 Estimation of Tensile Strength for Granitic Rocks by Using Discrete Element Approach

Authors: Aliakbar Golshani, Armin Ramezanzad

Abstract:

Tensile strength which is an important parameter of the rock for engineering applications is difficult to measure directly through physical experiment (i.e. uniaxial tensile test). Therefore, indirect experimental methods such as Brazilian test have been taken into consideration and some relations have been proposed in order to obtain the tensile strength for rocks indirectly. In this research, to calculate numerically the tensile strength for granitic rocks, Particle Flow Code in three-dimension (PFC3D) software were used. First, uniaxial compression tests were simulated and the tensile strength was determined for Inada granite (from a quarry in Kasama, Ibaraki, Japan). Then, by simulating Brazilian test condition for Inada granite, the tensile strength was indirectly calculated again. Results show that the tensile strength calculated numerically agrees well with the experimental results obtained from uniaxial tensile tests on Inada granite samples.

Keywords: numerical simulation, particle flow code, PFC, tensile strength, Brazilian Test

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
14101 Experimental Study on the Effect of Water-Cement Ratio and Replacement Ratio to the Capacity of the Recycled Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Feng Fu, Maria Karli

Abstract:

In this paper, experimental studies were carried out to investigate the behaviour of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC). A number of compressive tests, tensile splitting tests, as well as impact tests were conducted. In the tests, different recycled aggregate replacement ratio, different mix design and different water to cement ratio have been chosen in the investigation. The behavior of the RAC concrete was investigated in detail. The results of the tests show that the water-cement ratio plays an important role in the strength of the concrete and RAC concrete exhibit sufficient strength in comparison to the normal aggregate concrete; the relevant design recommendations are also made.

Keywords: recycled aggregate concrete, compressive test, tensile splitting test, flexural strength test, impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
14100 Effect of Saturation and Deformation Rate on Split Tensile Strength for Various Sedimentary Rocks

Authors: D. K. Soni

Abstract:

A study of engineering properties of stones, i.e. compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, density, hardness were carried out to explore the possibility of optimum utilization of stone. The laboratory test results on equally dimensioned discs of the stone show a considerable variation in computed split tensile strength with varied rates of deformation. Hence, the effect of strain rate on the tensile strength of a sand stone and lime stone under wet and dry conditions has been studied experimentally using the split tensile strength test technique. It has been observed that the tensile strength of these stone is very much dependent on the rate of deformation particularly in a dry state. On saturation the value of split tensile strength reduced considerably depending upon the structure of rock and amount of water absorption.

Keywords: sedimentary rocks, split tensile test, deformation rate, saturation rate, sand stone, lime stone

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
14099 Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

Authors: Loke Mun Sei

Abstract:

Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, Robot Framework, and Jenkins.

Keywords: test automation tools, test case, test execution, test reporting

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
14098 Correlation of Material Mechanical Characteristics Obtained by Means of Standardized and Miniature Test Specimens

Authors: Vaclav Mentl, P. Zlabek, J. Volak

Abstract:

New methods of mechanical testing were developed recently that are based on making use of miniature test specimens (e.g. Small Punch Test). The most important advantage of these method is the nearly non-destructive withdrawal of test material and small size of test specimen what is interesting in cases of remaining lifetime assessment when a sufficient volume of the representative material cannot be withdrawn of the component in question. In opposite, the most important disadvantage of such methods stems from the necessity to correlate test results with the results of standardised test procedures and to build up a database of material data in service. The correlations among the miniature test specimen data and the results of standardised tests are necessary. The paper describes the results of fatigue tests performed on miniature tests specimens in comparison with traditional fatigue tests for several steels applied in power producing industry. Special miniature test specimens fixtures were designed and manufactured for the purposes of fatigue testing at the Zwick/Roell 10HPF5100 testing machine. The miniature test specimens were produced of the traditional test specimens. Seven different steels were fatigue loaded (R = 0.1) at room temperature.

Keywords: mechanical properties, miniature test specimens, correlations, small punch test, micro-tensile test, mini-charpy impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
14097 Measurement of the Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity of Cylindrical Concrete Specimens Used for the Cyclic Indirect Tensile Test

Authors: Paul G. Bolz, Paul G. Lindner, Frohmut Wellner, Christian Schulze, Joern Huebelt

Abstract:

Concrete, as a result of its use as a construction material, is not only subject to static loads but is also exposed to variables, time-variant, and oscillating stresses. In order to ensure the suitability of construction materials for resisting these cyclic stresses, different test methods are used for the systematic fatiguing of specimens, like the cyclic indirect tensile test. A procedure is presented that allows the estimation of the degradation of cylindrical concrete specimens during the cyclic indirect tensile test by measuring the dynamic modulus of elasticity in different states of the specimens’ fatigue process. Two methods are used in addition to the cyclic indirect tensile test in order to examine the dynamic modulus of elasticity of cylindrical concrete specimens. One of the methods is based on the analysis of eigenfrequencies, whilst the other one uses ultrasonic pulse measurements to estimate the material properties. A comparison between the dynamic moduli obtained using the three methods that operate in different frequency ranges shows good agreement. The concrete specimens’ fatigue process can therefore be monitored effectively and reliably.

Keywords: concrete, cyclic indirect tensile test, degradation, dynamic modulus of elasticity, eigenfrequency, fatigue, natural frequency, ultrasonic, ultrasound, Young’s modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
14096 A New Instrumented Drop-Weight Test Machine for Studying the Impact Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: M. Al-Farttoosi, M. Y. Rafiq, J. Summerscales, C. Williams

Abstract:

Structures can be subjected to impact loading from various sources like earthquake, tsunami, missiles and explosions. The impact loading can cause different degrees of damage to concrete structures. The demand for strengthening and rehabilitation of damaged structures is increasing. In recent years, Car0bon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) matrix composites has gain more attention for strengthening and repairing these structures. To study the impact behaviour of the reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened or repaired using CFRP, a heavy impact test machine was designed and manufactured .The machine included a newly designed support system for beams together with various instrumentation. This paper describes the support design configuration of the impact test machine, instrumentation and dynamic analysis of the concrete beams. To evaluate the efficiency of the new impact test machine, experimental impact tests were conducted on simple supported reinforced concrete beam. Different methods were used to determine the impact force and impact response of the RC beams in terms of inertia force, maximum deflection, reaction force and fracture energy. The manufactured impact test machine was successfully used in testing RC beams under impact loading and used successfully to test the reinforced concrete beams strengthened or repaired using CFRP under impact loading.

Keywords: beam, concrete, impact, machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
14095 Waterproofing Agent in Concrete for Tensile Improvement

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Umi Nadiah Nor Ali, Mohammed Alias Yusof, Norazman Mohamad Nor, Vikneswaran Munikanan

Abstract:

In construction, concrete is one of the materials that can commonly be used as for structural elements. Concrete consists of cement, sand, aggregate and water. Concrete can be added with admixture in the wet condition to suit the design purpose such as to prolong the setting time to improve workability. For strength improvement, concrete is being added with other hybrid materials to increase strength; this is because the tensile strength of concrete is very low in comparison to the compressive strength. This paper shows the usage of a waterproofing agent in concrete to enhance the tensile strength. High tensile concrete is expensive because the concrete mix needs fiber and also high cement content to be incorporated in the mix. High tensile concrete being used for structures that are being imposed by high impact dynamic load such as blast loading that hit the structure. High tensile concrete can be defined as a concrete mix design that achieved 30%-40% tensile strength compared to its compression strength. This research evaluates the usage of a waterproofing agent in a concrete mix as an element of reinforcement to enhance the tensile strength. According to the compression and tensile test, it shows that the concrete mix with a waterproofing agent enhanced the mechanical properties of the concrete. It is also show that the composite concrete with waterproofing is a high tensile concrete; this is because of the tensile is between 30% and 40% of the compression strength. This mix is economical because it can produce high tensile concrete with low cost.

Keywords: high tensile concrete, waterproofing agent, concrete, rheology

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
14094 Sustainable Milling Process for Tensile Specimens

Authors: Shilpa Kumari, Ramakumar Jayachandran

Abstract:

Machining of aluminium extrusion profiles in the automotive industry has gained much interest in the last decade, particularly due to the higher utilization of aluminum profiles and the weight reduction benefits it brings. Milling is the most common material removal process, where the rotary milling cutter is moved against a workpiece. The physical contact of the milling cutter to the workpiece increases the friction between them, thereby affecting the longevity of the milling tool and also the surface finish of the workpiece. To minimise this issue, the milling process uses cutting fluids or emulsions; however, the use of emulsion in the process has a negative impact on the environment ( such as consumption of water, oils and the used emulsion needs to be treated before disposal) and also on the personal ( may cause respiratory problems, exposure to microbial toxins generated by bacteria in the emulsions on prolonged use) working close to the process. Furthermore, the workpiece also needs to be cleaned after the milling process, which is not adding value to the process, and the cleaning also disperses mist of emulsion in the working environment. Hydro Extrusion is committed to improving the performance of sustainability from its operations, and with the negative impact of using emulsion in the milling process, a new innovative process- Dry Milling was developed to minimise the impact the cutting fluid brings. In this paper, the authors present one application of dry milling in the machining of tensile specimens in the laboratory. Dry milling is an innovative milling process without the use of any cooling/lubrication and has several advantages. Several million tensile tests are carried out in extrusion laboratories worldwide with the wet milling process. The machining of tensile specimens has a significant impact on the reliability of test results. The paper presents the results for different 6xxx alloys with different wall thicknesses of the specimens, which were machined by both dry and wet milling processes. For both different 6xxx alloys and different wall thicknesses, mechanical properties were similar for samples milled using dry and wet milling. Several tensile specimens were prepared using both dry and wet milling to compare the results, and the outcome showed the dry milling process does not affect the reliability of tensile test results.

Keywords: dry milling, tensile testing, wet milling, 6xxx alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
14093 Study the Impact of Welding Poles Type on the Tensile Strength Steel of Low Alloys and High Resistance

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Abdul Fatah M. Emhamed

Abstract:

The steel alloy Introduced after becoming carbon-steel does not meet the requirements of engineering industry; and it cannot be obtained tensile strength from carbon-steel higher than (700MPa), the low alloy steel enters in a lot of heavy engineering equipment parts, molds, agricultural equipment and other industry. In addition, that may be exposed to in-service failure, which may require returned to work, to do the repairs or maintenance by one of the welding methods available. The ability of steel weld determined through palpation of the cracks, which can reduce by many ways. These ways are often expensive and difficult to implement, perhaps the control to choose the type of electrode welding user is one of the easiest and least expensive applications. It has been welding the steel low alloys high resistance by manual metal arc (MMA), and by using a set of welding electrodes which varying in chemical composition and in their prices as well and test their effect on tensile strength. Results showed that using the poles of welding, which have a high proportion of iron powder and low hydrogen. The Tensile resistance is (484MPa) and the weld joint efficiency was (56.9%), but when (OK 47.04) electrode was used the tensile strength increased to (720MPa) and the weld joint efficiency to (84.7%). Using the cheapest electrode (OK 45.00) the weld joint efficiency did not exceed (24.2%), but when using the most expensive electrode (OK 91.28) the weld joint efficiency is (38.1%).

Keywords: steel low alloys high resistance, electrodes welding, tensile test

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
14092 Plasma Spraying of 316 Stainless Steel on Aluminum and Investigation of Coat/Substrate Interface

Authors: P. Abachi, T. W. Coyle, P. S. Musavi Gharavi

Abstract:

By applying coating onto a structural component, the corrosion and/or wear resistance requirements of the surface can be fulfilled. Since the layer adhesion of the coating influences the mechanical integrity of the coat/substrate interface during the service time, it should be examined accurately. At the present work, the tensile bonding strength of the 316 stainless steel plasma sprayed coating on aluminum substrate was determined by using tensile adhesion test, TAT, specimen. The interfacial fracture toughness was specified using four-point bend specimen containing a saw notch and modified chevron-notched short-bar (SB) specimen. The coating microstructure and fractured specimen surface were examined by using scanning electron- and optical-microscopy. The investigation of coated surface after tensile adhesion test indicates that the failure mechanism is mostly cohesive and rarely adhesive type. The calculated value of critical strain energy release rate proposes relatively good interface status. It seems that four-point bending test offers a potentially more sensitive means for evaluation of mechanical integrity of coating/substrate interfaces than is possible with the tensile test. The fracture toughness value reported for the modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen testing cannot be taken as absolute value because its calculation is based on the minimum stress intensity coefficient value which has been suggested for the fracture toughness determination of homogeneous parts in the ASTM E1304-97 standard. 

Keywords: bonding strength, four-point bend test, interfacial fracture toughness, modified chevron-notched short-bar specimen, plasma sprayed coating, tensile adhesion test

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
14091 Adherence Induced Formwork Removal in Small-Scale Pull-Off Tensile Tests

Authors: Nicolas Spitz, Nicolas Coniglio, Mohamed El Mansori, Alex Montagne, Sabeur Mezghani

Abstract:

Nowadays buildings' construction is performed by pouring concrete into molds referred to as formworks that are usually prefabricated metallic modules. Defects such as stripping may possibly form during the removal of the formwork if the interfacial bonding between the concrete and the formwork is high. A new pull-off tensile test was developed in our laboratory to simulate small-scale formwork removals. The concrete-to-formwork adherence force was measured on bare and coated formworks with different surface signatures. The used concrete was a mixture largely used on building sites and contains CEM I Portland cement and calcareous filler. The concrete surface appearance and the type of failures at the concrete-formwork interface have been investigated. The originality of this near-to-surface test was to compare the laboratory-measured adherence forces to the on-site observations. Based upon the small-scale laboratory test results, functional formwork specifications with low adherence to concrete was proposed in terms of superficial signature characteristics.

Keywords: concrete-formwork adherence, interfacial bonding, skin formwork functionality, small-scale pull-off tensile test

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
14090 Effect of Welding Parameters on Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Aluminum Alloys Produced by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Khalil Aghapouramin

Abstract:

The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical and microstructural properties of dissimilar and similar aluminum alloys welded by Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The specimens investigated by applying different welding speed and rotary speed. Typically, mechanical properties of the joints performed through tensile test fatigue test and microhardness (HV) at room temperature. Fatigue test investigated by using electromechanical testing machine under constant loading control with similar since wave loading. The Maximum stress versus minimum got the range between 0.1 to 0.3 in the research. Based upon welding parameters by optical observation and scanning electron microscopy microstructural properties fulfilled with a cross section of welds, in addition, SEM observations were made of the fracture surfaces

Keywords: friction stir welding, fatigue and tensile test, Al alloys, microstructural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
14089 Analysis of the Result for the Accelerated Life Cycle Test of the Motor for Washing Machine by Using Acceleration Factor

Authors: Youn-Sung Kim, Jin-Ho Jo, Mi-Sung Kim, Jae-Kun Lee

Abstract:

Accelerated life cycle test is applied to various products or components in order to reduce the time of life cycle test in industry. It must be considered for many test conditions according to the product characteristics for the test and the selection of acceleration parameter is especially very important. We have carried out the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test by applying the acceleration factor (AF) considering the characteristics of brushless DC (BLDC) motor for washing machine. The final purpose of this study is to verify the validity by analyzing the results of the general life cycle test and the accelerated life cycle test. It will make it possible to reduce the life test time through the reasonable accelerated life cycle test.

Keywords: accelerated life cycle test, reliability test, motor for washing machine, brushless dc motor test

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
14088 Experimental Investigations on the Mechanical properties of Spiny (Kawayan Tinik) Bamboo Layers

Authors: Ma. Doreen E. Candelaria, Ma. Louise Margaret A. Ramos, Dr. Jaime Y. Hernandez, Jr

Abstract:

Bamboo has been introduced as a possible alternative to some construction materials nowadays. Its potential use in the field of engineering, however, is still not widely practiced due to insufficient engineering knowledge on the material’s properties and characteristics. Although there are researches and studies proving its advantages, it is still not enough to say that bamboo can sustain and provide the strength and capacity required of common structures. In line with this, a more detailed analysis was made to observe the layered structure of the bamboo, particularly the species of Kawayan Tinik. It is the main intent of this research to provide the necessary experiments to determine the tensile strength of dried bamboo samples. The test includes tensile strength parallel to fibers with samples taken at internodes only. Throughout the experiment, methods suggested by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) were followed. The specimens were tested using 3366 INSTRON Universal Testing Machine, with a rate of loading set to 0.6 mm/min. It was then observed from the results of these experiments that dried bamboo samples recorded high layered tensile strengths, as high as 600 MPa. Likewise, along the culm’s length and across its cross section, higher tensile strength were observed at the top part and at its outer layers. Overall, the top part recorded the highest tensile strength per layer, with its outer layers having tensile strength as high as 600 MPa. The recorded tensile strength of its middle and inner layers, on the other hand, were approximately 450 MPa and 180 MPa, respectively. From this variation in tensile strength across the cross section, it may be concluded that an increase in tensile strength may be observed towards the outer periphery of the bamboo. With these preliminary investigations on the layered tensile strength of bamboo, it is highly recommended to conduct experimental investigations on the layered compressive strength properties as well. It is also suggested to conduct investigations evaluating perpendicular layered tensile strength of the material.

Keywords: bamboo strength, layered strength tests, strength test, tensile test

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
14087 Impact Tensile Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel at Different Strain Rates

Authors: Jiawei Chen, Jia Qu, Dianwei Ju

Abstract:

316L stainless steel has good mechanical and technological properties, has been widely used in shipbuilding and aerospace manufacturing. In order to understand the effect of strain rate on the yield limit of 316L stainless steel and the constitutive relationship of the materials at different strain rates, this paper used the INSTRON-4505 electronic universal testing machine to study the mechanical properties of the tensile specimen under quasi-static conditions. Meanwhile, the Zwick-Roell RKP450 intelligent oscillometric impact tester was used to test the tensile specimens at different strain rates. Through the above two kinds of experimental researches, the relationship between the true stress-strain and the engineering stress-strain at different strain rates is obtained. The result shows that the tensile yield point of 316L stainless steel increases with the increase of strain rate, and the real stress-strain curve of the 316L stainless steel has a better normalization than that of the engineering stress-strain curve. The real stress-strain curves can be used in the practical engineering of impact stretch to improve its safety.

Keywords: impact stretch, 316L stainless steel, strain rate, real stress-strain, normalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
14086 A Proposal for Systematic Mapping Study of Software Security Testing, Verification and Validation

Authors: Adriano Bessa Albuquerque, Francisco Jose Barreto Nunes

Abstract:

Software vulnerabilities are increasing and not only impact services and processes availability as well as information confidentiality, integrity and privacy, but also cause changes that interfere in the development process. Security test could be a solution to reduce vulnerabilities. However, the variety of test techniques with the lack of real case studies of applying tests focusing on software development life cycle compromise its effective use. This paper offers an overview of how a Systematic Mapping Study (MS) about security verification, validation and test (VVT) was performed, besides presenting general results about this study.

Keywords: software test, software security verification validation and test, security test institutionalization, systematic mapping study

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
14085 Tensile Strength of Asphalt Concrete Due to Moisture Conditioning

Authors: R. Islam, Rafiqul A. Tarefder

Abstract:

This study investigates the effect of moisture conditioning on the Indirect Tensile Strength (ITS) of asphalt concrete. As a first step, cylindrical samples of 100 mm diameter and 50 mm thick were prepared using a Superpave gyratory compactor. Next, the samples were conditioned using Moisture Induced Susceptibility Test (MIST) device at different numbers of moisture conditioning cycles. In the MIST device, samples are subjected water pressure through the sample pores cyclically. The MIST conditioned samples were tested for ITS. Results show that the ITS does not change significantly with MIST conditioning at the specific pressure and cycles adopted in this study.

Keywords: asphalt concrete, tensile strength, moisture, laboratory test

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
14084 Teachers and Learners Perceptions on the Impact of Different Test Procedures on Reading: A Case Study

Authors: Bahloul Amel

Abstract:

The main aim of this research was to investigate the perspectives of English language teachers and learners on the effect of test techniques on reading comprehension, test performance and assessment. The research has also aimed at finding the differences between teacher and learner perspectives, specifying the test techniques which have the highest effect, investigating the other factors affecting reading comprehension, and comparing the results with the similar studies. In order to achieve these objectives, perspectives and findings of different researchers were reviewed, two different questionnaires were prepared to collect data for the perspectives of teachers and learners, the questionnaires were applied to 26 learners and 8 teachers from the University of Batna (Algeria), and quantitative and qualitative data analysis of the results were done. The results and analysis of the results show that different test techniques affect reading comprehension, test performance and assessment at different percentages rates.

Keywords: reading comprehension, reading assessment, test performance, test techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
14083 Mechanical Characterization of Porcine Skin with the Finite Element Method Based Inverse Optimization Approach

Authors: Djamel Remache, Serge Dos Santos, Michael Cliez, Michel Gratton, Patrick Chabrand, Jean-Marie Rossi, Jean-Louis Milan

Abstract:

Skin tissue is an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material. Uniaxial tensile testing is one of the primary testing techniques for the mechanical characterization of skin at large scales. In order to predict the mechanical behavior of materials, the direct or inverse analytical approaches are often used. However, in case of an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material as skin tissue, analytical approaches are not able to provide solutions. The numerical simulation is thus necessary. In this work, the uniaxial tensile test and the FEM (finite element method) based inverse method were used to identify the anisotropic mechanical properties of porcine skin tissue. The uniaxial tensile experiments were performed using Instron 8800 tensile machine®. The uniaxial tensile test was simulated with FEM, and then the inverse optimization approach (or the inverse calibration) was used for the identification of mechanical properties of the samples. Experimentally results were compared to finite element solutions. The results showed that the finite element model predictions of the mechanical behavior of the tested skin samples were well correlated with experimental results.

Keywords: mechanical skin tissue behavior, uniaxial tensile test, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
14082 Studying the Relationship Between Washback Effects of IELTS Test on Iranian Language Teachers, Teaching Strategies and Candidates

Authors: Afsaneh Jasmine Majidi

Abstract:

Language testing is an important part of language teaching experience and language learning process as it presents assessment strategies for teachers to evaluate the efficiency of teaching and for learners to examine their outcomes. However, language testing is demanding and challenging because it should provide the opportunity for proper and objective decision. In addition to all the efforts test designers put to design valid and reliable tests, there are some other determining factors which are even more complex and complicated. These factors affect the educational system, individuals, and society, and the impact of the tests vary according to the scope of the test. Seemingly, the impact of a simple classroom assessment is not the same as that of high stake tests such as International English Language Testing System (IELTS). As the importance of the test increases, it affects wider domain. Accordingly, the impacts of high stake tests are reflected not only in teaching, learning strategies but also in society. Testing experts use the term ‘washback’ or ‘impact’ to define the different effects of a test on teaching, learning, and community. This paper first looks at the theoretical background of ‘washback’ and ‘impact’ in language testing by reviewing of relevant literature in the field and then investigates washback effects of IELTS test of on Iranian IELTS teachers and students. The study found significant relationship between the washback effect of IELTS test and teaching strategies of Iranian IELTS teachers as well as performance of Iranian IELTS candidates and their community.

Keywords: high stake tests, IELTS, Iranian Candidates, language testing, test impact, washback

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
14081 Comparison of Low Velocity Impact Test on Coir Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

Authors: Ricardo Mendoza, Jason Briceño, Juan F. Santa, Gabriel Peluffo, Mauricio Márquez, Beatriz Cardozo, Carlos Gutiérrez

Abstract:

The most common controlled method to obtain impact strength of composites materials is performing a Charpy Impact Test which consists of a pendulum with calibrated mass and length released from a known height. In fact, composites components experience impact events in normal operations such as when a tool drops or a foreign object strikes it. These events are categorized into low velocity impact (LVI) which typically occurs at velocities below 10m/s. In this study, the major aim was to calculate the absorbed energy during the impact. Tests were performed on three types of composite panels: fiberglass laminated panels, coir fiber reinforced polyester and coir fiber reinforced polyester subjected to water immersion for 48 hours. Coir fibers were obtained in local plantations of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. They were alkali treated in 5% aqueous NaOH solution for 2h periods. Three type of shape impactors were used on drop-weight impact test including hemispherical, ogive and pointed. Failure mechanisms and failure modes of specimens were examined using an optical microscope. Results demonstrate a reduction in absorbed energy correlated with the increment of water absorption of the panels. For each level of absorbed energy, it was possible to associate a different fracture state. This study compares results of energy absorbed obtained from two impact test methods.

Keywords: coir fiber, polyester composites, low velocity impact, Charpy impact test, drop-weight impact test

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
14080 A Survey on the Status of Test Automation

Authors: Andrei Contan, Richard Torkar

Abstract:

Aim: The process of test automation and its practices in industry have to be better understood, both for the industry itself and for the research community. Method: We conducted a quantitative industry survey by asking IT professionals to answer questions related to the area of test automation. Results: Test automation needs and practices vary greatly between organizations at different stages of the software development life cycle. Conclusions: Most of the findings are general test automation challenges and are specific to small- to medium-sized companies, developing software applications in the web, desktop or mobile domain.

Keywords: survey, testing, test automation, status of test automation

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
14079 A Methodology of Testing Beam to Column Connection under Lateral Impact Load

Authors: A. Al-Rifaie, Z. W. Guan, S. W. Jones

Abstract:

Beam to column connection can be considered as the most important structural part that affects the response of buildings to progressive collapse. However, many studies were conducted to investigate the beam to column connection under accidental loads such as fire, blast and impact load to investigate the connection response. The study is a part of a PhD plan to investigate different types of connections under lateral impact load. The conventional test setups, such as cruciform setup, were designed to apply shear forces and bending moment on the connection, whilst, in the lateral impact case, the connection is subjected to combined tension and moment. Hence, a review is presented to introduce the previous test setup that is used to investigate the connection behaviour. Then, the design and fabrication of the novel test setup is presented. Finally, some trial test results to investigate the efficiency of the proposed setup are discussed. The final results indicate that the setup was efficient in terms of the simplicity and strength.

Keywords: connections, impact load, drop hammer, testing methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 174
14078 Analyses of Uniaxial and Biaxial Flexure Tests Used in Ceramic Materials

Authors: Barry Hojjatie

Abstract:

Uniaxial (e.g., three-point bending) and biaxial flexure tests are used frequently for determining the strength of ceramics. It is generally believed that the biaxial test has an advantage as compared to uniaxial test because it produces a state of pure tension on the lower surface of the specimen and the maximum tensile stress, which is usually responsible for crack initiation and failure is unaffected by the edge condition. However, inconsistent strength values have been reported for the same material and testing conditions. The objective of this study was to analyze the strength of dental porcelain materials using the two different test methods and evaluate the main contributions to variability in biaxial testing and to analyze the relative influence of variables such as specimen geometric conditions and loading conditions on calculated strength of porcelain subjected to biaxial testing. Porcelain disks (16 mm dia x 2 mm thick) were subjected to biaxial flexure (pin-on-three-ball), and flexure strength values were calculated. A 3-D finite element model was developed to simulate various biaxial flexure test conditions. Stresses were analyzed for ceramic thickness in the range of 1.0-3.0 mm. For a 2-mm-thick disk subjected to a point load of 200 N, the maximum tensile stress at the lower surface was 180 MPa. This stress decreased to 95, 77, 68, and 59 MPa for the radius of the load values of 0.15, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 mm, respectively. Tensile stresses which developed at the top surface near the site of loading were small for the radius of the load ≥ 0.6 mm.

Keywords: ceramis, biaxial, flexure test, uniaxial

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14077 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Gas Turbine Blade at High Temperature

Authors: Sung-Uk Wee, Chang-Sung Seok, Jae-Mean Koo, Jeong-Min Lee

Abstract:

Gas turbine blade is important part of power plant, so it is necessary to evaluate gas turbine reliability. For better heat efficiency, inlet temperature of gas turbine has been elevated more and more so gas turbine blade is exposed to high-temperature environment. Then, higher inlet temperature affects mechanical behavior of the gas turbine blade, so it is necessary that evaluation of mechanical property of gas turbine blade at high-temperature environment. In this study, tensile test and fatigue test were performed at various high temperature, and fatigue life was predicted by Coffin-Manson equation at each temperature. The experimental results showed that gas turbine blade has a lower elastic modulus and shorter fatigue life at higher temperature.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, tensile test, fatigue life, stress-strain

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