Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Søren Knudsen Kær

15 Effect of Current Density, Temperature and Pressure on Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyser Stack

Authors: Na Li, Samuel Simon Araya, Søren Knudsen Kær

Abstract:

This study investigates the effects of operating parameters of different current density, temperature and pressure on the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis stack. A 7-cell PEM water electrolysis stack was assembled and tested under different operation modules. The voltage change and polarization curves under different test conditions, namely current density, temperature and pressure, were recorded. Results show that higher temperature has positive effect on overall stack performance, where temperature of 80 ℃ improved the cell performance greatly. However, the cathode pressure and current density has little effect on stack performance.

Keywords: PEM electrolysis stack, current density, temperature, pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
14 Numerical Investigation of Mixed Convection for Rarefied Gases in Square Enclosures

Authors: Wael Al-Kouz

Abstract:

Numerical simulations to study heat transfer and flow characteristics of mixed convection for rarefied gas in a square enclosure are utilized. Effect of the geometry in terms of the location of the inlet and exit openings are investigated. Moreover, effect of Knudsen number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics is illustrated and discussed. Results of the simulations show that there is a configuration that yields better heat transfer. This configuration is found to be the geometry in which the inlet opening is in the top left corner and the exit opening is at the bottom right corner. In addition, it is found that by increasing Knudsen number, Nusselt number will decrease.

Keywords: Knudsen number, mixed convection, rarefied gas, square enclosure

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
13 Analysis of Slip Flow Heat Transfer between Asymmetrically Heated Parallel Plates

Authors: Hari Mohan Kushwaha, Santosh Kumar Sahu

Abstract:

In the present study, analysis of heat transfer is carried out in the slip flow region for the fluid flowing between two parallel plates by employing the asymmetric heat fluxes at surface of the plates. The flow is assumed to be hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed for the analysis. The second order velocity slip and viscous dissipation effects are considered for the analysis. Closed form expressions are obtained for the Nusselt number as a function of Knudsen number and modified Brinkman number. The limiting condition of the present prediction for Kn = 0, Kn2 = 0, and Brq1 = 0 is considered and found to agree well with other analytical results.

Keywords: Knudsen number, modified Brinkman number, slip flow, velocity slip

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
12 The Evaporation Study of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride

Authors: Kirill D. Semavin, Norbert S. Chilingarov, Eugene.V. Skokan

Abstract:

The ionic liquids (ILs) based on imidazolium cation are well known nowadays. The changing anions and substituents in imidazolium ring may lead to different physical and chemical properties of ILs. It is important that such ILs with halogen as anion are characterized by a low thermal stability. The data about thermal stability of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride are ambiguous. In the works of last years, thermal stability of this IL was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and obtained results are contradictory. Moreover, in the last study, it was shown that the observed temperature of the beginning of decomposition significantly depends on the experimental conditions, for example, the heating rate of the sample. The vapor pressure of this IL is not presented at the literature. In this study, the vapor pressure of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was obtained by Knudsen effusion mass-spectrometry (KEMS). The samples of [ЕMIm]Cl (purity > 98%) were supplied by Sigma–Aldrich and were additionally dried at dynamic vacuum (T = 60 0C). Preliminary procedures with Il were derived into glove box. The evaporation studies of [ЕMIm]Cl were carried out by KEMS with using original research equipment based on commercial MI1201 magnetic mass spectrometer. The stainless steel effusion cell had an effective evaporation/effusion area ratio of more than 6000. The cell temperature, measured by a Pt/Pt−Rh (10%) thermocouple, was controlled by a Termodat 128K5 device with an accuracy of ±1 K. In first step of this study, the optimal temperature of experiment and heating rate of samples were customized: 449 K and 5 K/min, respectively. In these conditions the sample is decomposed, but the experimental measurements of the vapor pressures are possible. The thermodynamic activity of [ЕMIm]Cl is close to 1 and products of decomposition don’t affect it at firstly 50 hours of experiment. Therefore, it lets to determine the saturated vapor pressure of IL. The electronic ionization mass-spectra shows that the decomposition of [ЕMIm]Cl proceeds with two ways. Nonetheless, the MALDI mass spectra of the starting sample and residue in the cell were similar. It means that the main decomposition products are gaseous under experimental conditions. This result allows us to obtain information about the kinetics of [ЕMIm]Cl decomposition. Thus, the original KEMS-based procedure made it possible to determine the IL vapor pressure under decomposition conditions. Also, the loss of sample mass due to the evaporation was obtained.

Keywords: ionic liquids, Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry, thermal stability, vapor pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
11 Investigation of Mesoporous Silicon Carbonization Process

Authors: N. I. Kargin, G. K. Safaraliev, A. S. Gusev, A. O. Sultanov, N. V. Siglovaya, S. M. Ryndya, A. A. Timofeev

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental and theoretical study of the processes of mesoporous silicon carbonization during the formation of buffer layers for the subsequent epitaxy of 3C-SiC films and related wide-band-gap semiconductors is performed. Experimental samples were obtained by the method of chemical vapor deposition and investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Analytic expressions were obtained for the effective diffusion factor and carbon atoms diffusion length in a porous system. The proposed model takes into account the processes of Knudsen diffusion, coagulation and overgrowing of pores during the formation of a silicon carbide layer.

Keywords: silicon carbide, porous silicon, carbonization, electrochemical etching, diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
10 Effect of Leaks in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Tested for Durability under Co-Electrolysis Conditions

Authors: Megha Rao, Søren H. Jensen, Xiufu Sun, Anke Hagen, Mogens B. Mogensen

Abstract:

Solid oxide electrolysis cells have an immense potential in converting CO2 and H2O into syngas during co-electrolysis operation. The produced syngas can be further converted into hydrocarbons. This kind of technology is called power-to-gas or power-to-liquid. To produce hydrocarbons via this route, durability of the cells is still a challenge, which needs to be further investigated in order to improve the cells. In this work, various nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) fuel electrode supported or YSZ electrolyte supported cells, cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) barrier layer, and an oxygen electrode are investigated for durability under co-electrolysis conditions in both galvanostatic and potentiostatic conditions. While changing the gas on the oxygen electrode, keeping the fuel electrode gas composition constant, a change in the gas concentration arc was observed by impedance spectroscopy. Measurements of open circuit potential revealed the presence of leaks in the setup. It is speculated that the change in concentration impedance may be related to the leaks. Furthermore, the cells were also tested under pressurized conditions to find an inter-play between the leak rate and the pressure. A mathematical modeling together with electrochemical and microscopy analysis is presented.

Keywords: co-electrolysis, durability, leaks, gas concentration arc

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
9 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isothermal Microchannel

Authors: Huei Chu Weng, Chien-Hung Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip and jump on forced convection through a long isothermally heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of thermal flow fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and Smoluchowski jump boundary conditions. Results reveal that the second-order term in the Karniadakis slip boundary condition is found to contribute a negative velocity slip and then to lead to a higher pressure drop as well as a higher fluid temperature for the heated-wall case or to a lower fluid temperature for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Deissler model. In addition, the role of second-order slip becomes more significant when the Knudsen number increases.

Keywords: microfluidics, forced convection, gas rarefaction, second-order boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
8 Developing an Advanced Algorithm Capable of Classifying News, Articles and Other Textual Documents Using Text Mining Techniques

Authors: R. B. Knudsen, O. T. Rasmussen, R. A. Alphinas

Abstract:

The reason for conducting this research is to develop an algorithm that is capable of classifying news articles from the automobile industry, according to the competitive actions that they entail, with the use of Text Mining (TM) methods. It is needed to test how to properly preprocess the data for this research by preparing pipelines which fits each algorithm the best. The pipelines are tested along with nine different classification algorithms in the realm of regression, support vector machines, and neural networks. Preliminary testing for identifying the optimal pipelines and algorithms resulted in the selection of two algorithms with two different pipelines. The two algorithms are Logistic Regression (LR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). These algorithms are optimized further, where several parameters of each algorithm are tested. The best result is achieved with the ANN. The final model yields an accuracy of 0.79, a precision of 0.80, a recall of 0.78, and an F1 score of 0.76. By removing three of the classes that created noise, the final algorithm is capable of reaching an accuracy of 94%.

Keywords: Artificial Neural network, Competitive dynamics, Logistic Regression, Text classification, Text mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
7 Embedded Visual Perception for Autonomous Agricultural Machines Using Lightweight Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: René A. Sørensen, Søren Skovsen, Peter Christiansen, Henrik Karstoft

Abstract:

Autonomous agricultural machines act in stochastic surroundings and therefore, must be able to perceive the surroundings in real time. This perception can be achieved using image sensors combined with advanced machine learning, in particular Deep Learning. Deep convolutional neural networks excel in labeling and perceiving color images and since the cost of high-quality RGB-cameras is low, the hardware cost of good perception depends heavily on memory and computation power. This paper investigates the possibility of designing lightweight convolutional neural networks for semantic segmentation (pixel wise classification) with reduced hardware requirements, to allow for embedded usage in autonomous agricultural machines. Using compression techniques, a lightweight convolutional neural network is designed to perform real-time semantic segmentation on an embedded platform. The network is trained on two large datasets, ImageNet and Pascal Context, to recognize up to 400 individual classes. The 400 classes are remapped into agricultural superclasses (e.g. human, animal, sky, road, field, shelterbelt and obstacle) and the ability to provide accurate real-time perception of agricultural surroundings is studied. The network is applied to the case of autonomous grass mowing using the NVIDIA Tegra X1 embedded platform. Feeding case-specific images to the network results in a fully segmented map of the superclasses in the image. As the network is still being designed and optimized, only a qualitative analysis of the method is complete at the abstract submission deadline. Proceeding this deadline, the finalized design is quantitatively evaluated on 20 annotated grass mowing images. Lightweight convolutional neural networks for semantic segmentation can be implemented on an embedded platform and show competitive performance with regards to accuracy and speed. It is feasible to provide cost-efficient perceptive capabilities related to semantic segmentation for autonomous agricultural machines.

Keywords: autonomous agricultural machines, deep learning, safety, visual perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
6 The Three-Zone Composite Productivity Model of Multi-Fractured Horizontal Wells under Different Diffusion Coefficients in a Shale Gas Reservoir

Authors: Weiyao Zhu, Qian Qi, Ming Yue, Dongxu Ma

Abstract:

Due to the nano-micro pore structures and the massive multi-stage multi-cluster hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs, the multi-scale seepage flows are much more complicated than in most other conventional reservoirs, and are crucial for the economic development of shale gas. In this study, a new multi-scale non-linear flow model was established and simplified, based on different diffusion and slip correction coefficients. Due to the fact that different flow laws existed between the fracture network and matrix zone, a three-zone composite model was proposed. Then, according to the conformal transformation combined with the law of equivalent percolation resistance, the productivity equation of a horizontal fractured well, with consideration given to diffusion, slip, desorption, and absorption, was built. Also, an analytic solution was derived, and the interference of the multi-cluster fractures was analyzed. The results indicated that the diffusion of the shale gas was mainly in the transition and Fick diffusion regions. The matrix permeability was found to be influenced by slippage and diffusion, which was determined by the pore pressure and diameter according to the Knudsen number. It was determined that, with the increased half-lengths of the fracture clusters, flow conductivity of the fractures, and permeability of the fracture network, the productivity of the fractured well also increased. Meanwhile, with the increased number of fractures, the distance between the fractures decreased, and the productivity slowly increased due to the mutual interference of the fractures. In regard to the fractured horizontal wells, the free gas was found to majorly contribute to the productivity, while the contribution of the desorption increased with the increased pressure differences.

Keywords: multi-scale, fracture network, composite model, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
5 Numerical Study of Bubbling Fluidized Beds Operating at Sub-atmospheric Conditions

Authors: Lanka Dinushke Weerasiri, Subrat Das, Daniel Fabijanic, William Yang

Abstract:

Fluidization at vacuum pressure has been a topic that is of growing research interest. Several industrial applications (such as drying, extractive metallurgy, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD)) can potentially take advantage of vacuum pressure fluidization. Particularly, the fine chemical industry requires processing under safe conditions for thermolabile substances, and reduced pressure fluidized beds offer an alternative. Fluidized beds under vacuum conditions provide optimal conditions for treatment of granular materials where the reduced gas pressure maintains an operational environment outside of flammability conditions. The fluidization at low-pressure is markedly different from the usual gas flow patterns of atmospheric fluidization. The different flow regimes can be characterized by the dimensionless Knudsen number. Nevertheless, hydrodynamics of bubbling vacuum fluidized beds has not been investigated to author’s best knowledge. In this work, the two-fluid numerical method was used to determine the impact of reduced pressure on the fundamental properties of a fluidized bed. The slip flow model implemented by Ansys Fluent User Defined Functions (UDF) was used to determine the interphase momentum exchange coefficient. A wide range of operating pressures was investigated (1.01, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1 and 0.03 Bar). The gas was supplied by a uniform inlet at 1.5Umf and 2Umf. The predicted minimum fluidization velocity (Umf) shows excellent agreement with the experimental data. The results show that the operating pressure has a notable impact on the bed properties and its hydrodynamics. Furthermore, it also shows that the existing Gorosko correlation that predicts bed expansion is not applicable under reduced pressure conditions.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, fluidized bed, gas-solid flow, vacuum pressure, slip flow, minimum fluidization velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
4 The Breakthrough of Sexual Cinematic Freedom in Denmark in the 1960s and 1970s

Authors: Søren Birkvad

Abstract:

This paper traces the development of sexual cinematic freedom in the wake of an epoch-making event in Danish cultural history. As the first in the world, the Danes abolished all censorship for adults in 1969, making the tiny nation of Denmark the world’s largest exporter of pornography for several years. Drawing on the insights of social and cultural history and the focus point of the National Cinema direction of Cinema Studies, this study focuses on Danish film pornography in the 1960s and 1970s in its own right (e.g., its peculiar mix of sex, popular comedy and certain ‘feminist’ agendas). More importantly, however, it covers a broader pattern, namely the culturally deep-rooted tradition of freedom of speech and sexual liberalism in Denmark. Thus, the key concept of frisind (“free mind”) in Danish cultural history took on an increasingly partisan application in the 1960s and 1970s. It became a designation for all-is-permitted hippie excess but was also embraced by dissenting movements on the left, such as feminism, which questioned whether a free mind necessarily meant free love. In all of this, Danish cinema from the 1960s and 1970s offers a remarkable source of historical insight, simultaneously reminding us of a number of acute issues of contemporary society. These issues include gendered ideas of sexuality and freedom then and now and the equivalent clash of cultures between a liberal commercial industry and the accelerating political demands of the “sexual revolution.” Finally, these issues include certain tensions between, on the one hand, a purely materialistic idea of sexual freedom – incarnated by anything from pornography to many of the taboo-breaking youth films and avant-garde films in the wake of the 1968-rebellion – and, on the other hand, growing opposition to this anti-spiritual perception of human sexuality (represented by for instance the ‘closet conservatism’ of Danish art film star Lars von Trier of nowadays). All in all, this presentation offers a reflection on ideas of sexuality and gender rooted in a unique historical moment in cinematic history.

Keywords: Danish film history, cultural history, film pornography, history of sexuality, national cinema, sexual liberalism

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
3 Influence of Hydrophobic Surface on Flow Past Square Cylinder

Authors: S. Ajith Kumar, Vaisakh S. Rajan

Abstract:

In external flows, vortex shedding behind the bluff bodies causes to experience unsteady loads on a large number of engineering structures, resulting in structural failure. Vortex shedding can even turn out to be disastrous like the Tacoma Bridge failure incident. We need to have control over vortex shedding to get rid of this untoward condition by reducing the unsteady forces acting on the bluff body. In circular cylinders, hydrophobic surface in an otherwise no-slip surface is found to be delaying separation and minimizes the effects of vortex shedding drastically. Flow over square cylinder stands different from this behavior as separation can takes place from either of the two corner separation points (front or rear). An attempt is made in this study to numerically elucidate the effect of hydrophobic surface in flow over a square cylinder. A 2D numerical simulation has been done to understand the effects of the slip surface on the flow past square cylinder. The details of the numerical algorithm will be presented at the time of the conference. A non-dimensional parameter, Knudsen number is defined to quantify the slip on the cylinder surface based on Maxwell’s equation. The slip surface condition of the wall affects the vorticity distribution around the cylinder and the flow separation. In the numerical analysis, we observed that the hydrophobic surface enhances the shedding frequency and damps down the amplitude of oscillations of the square cylinder. We also found that the slip has a negative effect on aerodynamic force coefficients such as the coefficient of lift (CL), coefficient of drag (CD) etc. and hence replacing the no slip surface by a hydrophobic surface can be treated as an effective drag reduction strategy and the introduction of hydrophobic surface could be utilized for reducing the vortex induced vibrations (VIV) and is found as an effective method in controlling VIV thereby controlling the structural failures.

Keywords: drag reduction, flow past square cylinder, flow control, hydrophobic surfaces, vortex shedding

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2 Numerical Modeling and Prediction of Nanoscale Transport Phenomena in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Catalyst Layers by the Lattice Boltzmann Simulation

Authors: Seungho Shin, Keunwoo Choi, Ali Akbar, Sukkee Um

Abstract:

In this study, the nanoscale transport properties and catalyst utilization of vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) catalyst layers are computationally predicted by the three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann simulation based on the quasi-random nanostructural model in pursuance of fuel cell catalyst performance improvement. A series of catalyst layers are randomly generated with statistical significance at the 95% confidence level to reflect the heterogeneity of the catalyst layer nanostructures. The nanoscale gas transport phenomena inside the catalyst layers are simulated by the D3Q19 (i.e., three-dimensional, 19 velocities) lattice Boltzmann method, and the corresponding mass transport characteristics are mathematically modeled in terms of structural properties. Considering the nanoscale reactant transport phenomena, a transport-based effective catalyst utilization factor is defined and statistically analyzed to determine the structure-transport influence on catalyst utilization. The tortuosity of the reactant mass transport path of VACNT catalyst layers is directly calculated from the streaklines. Subsequently, the corresponding effective mass diffusion coefficient is statistically predicted by applying the pre-estimated tortuosity factors to the Knudsen diffusion coefficient in the VACNT catalyst layers. The statistical estimation results clearly indicate that the morphological structures of VACNT catalyst layers reduce the tortuosity of reactant mass transport path when compared to conventional catalyst layer and significantly improve consequential effective mass diffusion coefficient of VACNT catalyst layer. Furthermore, catalyst utilization of the VACNT catalyst layer is substantially improved by enhanced mass diffusion and electric current paths despite the relatively poor interconnections of the ion transport paths.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann method, nano transport phenomena, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, vertically aligned carbon nanotube

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
1 Coupling Strategy for Multi-Scale Simulations in Micro-Channels

Authors: Dahia Chibouti, Benoit Trouette, Eric Chenier

Abstract:

With the development of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), understanding fluid flow and heat transfer at the micrometer scale is crucial. In the case where the flow characteristic length scale is narrowed to around ten times the mean free path of gas molecules, the classical fluid mechanics and energy equations are still valid in the bulk flow, but particular attention must be paid to the gas/solid interface boundary conditions. Indeed, in the vicinity of the wall, on a thickness of about the mean free path of the molecules, called the Knudsen layer, the gas molecules are no longer in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Therefore, macroscopic models based on the continuity of velocity, temperature and heat flux jump conditions must be applied at the fluid/solid interface to take this non-equilibrium into account. Although these macroscopic models are widely used, the assumptions on which they depend are not necessarily verified in realistic cases. In order to get rid of these assumptions, simulations at the molecular scale are carried out to study how molecule interaction with walls can change the fluid flow and heat transfers at the vicinity of the walls. The developed approach is based on a kind of heterogeneous multi-scale method: micro-domains overlap the continuous domain, and coupling is carried out through exchanges of information between both the molecular and the continuum approaches. In practice, molecular dynamics describes the fluid flow and heat transfers in micro-domains while the Navier-Stokes and energy equations are used at larger scales. In this framework, two kinds of micro-simulation are performed: i) in bulk, to obtain the thermo-physical properties (viscosity, conductivity, ...) as well as the equation of state of the fluid, ii) close to the walls to identify the relationships between the slip velocity and the shear stress or between the temperature jump and the normal temperature gradient. The coupling strategy relies on an implicit formulation of the quantities extracted from micro-domains. Indeed, using the results of the molecular simulations, a Bayesian regression is performed in order to build continuous laws giving both the behavior of the physical properties, the equation of state and the slip relationships, as well as their uncertainties. These latter allow to set up a learning strategy to optimize the number of micro simulations. In the present contribution, the first results regarding this coupling associated with the learning strategy are illustrated through parametric studies of convergence criteria, choice of basis functions and noise of input data. Anisothermic flows of a Lennard Jones fluid in micro-channels are finally presented.

Keywords: multi-scale, microfluidics, micro-channel, hybrid approach, coupling

Procedia PDF Downloads 16