Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 167

Search results for: PEM electrolysis stack

167 Effect of Current Density, Temperature and Pressure on Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyser Stack

Authors: Na Li, Samuel Simon Araya, Søren Knudsen Kær


This study investigates the effects of operating parameters of different current density, temperature and pressure on the performance of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) water electrolysis stack. A 7-cell PEM water electrolysis stack was assembled and tested under different operation modules. The voltage change and polarization curves under different test conditions, namely current density, temperature and pressure, were recorded. Results show that higher temperature has positive effect on overall stack performance, where temperature of 80 ℃ improved the cell performance greatly. However, the cathode pressure and current density has little effect on stack performance.

Keywords: PEM electrolysis stack, current density, temperature, pressure

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166 Impact of Stack Caches: Locality Awareness and Cost Effectiveness

Authors: Abdulrahman K. Alshegaifi, Chun-Hsi Huang


Treating data based on its location in memory has received much attention in recent years due to its different properties, which offer important aspects for cache utilization. Stack data and non-stack data may interfere with each other’s locality in the data cache. One of the important aspects of stack data is that it has high spatial and temporal locality. In this work, we simulate non-unified cache design that split data cache into stack and non-stack caches in order to maintain stack data and non-stack data separate in different caches. We observe that the overall hit rate of non-unified cache design is sensitive to the size of non-stack cache. Then, we investigate the appropriate size and associativity for stack cache to achieve high hit ratio especially when over 99% of accesses are directed to stack cache. The result shows that on average more than 99% of stack cache accuracy is achieved by using 2KB of capacity and 1-way associativity. Further, we analyze the improvement in hit rate when adding small, fixed, size of stack cache at level1 to unified cache architecture. The result shows that the overall hit rate of unified cache design with adding 1KB of stack cache is improved by approximately, on average, 3.9% for Rijndael benchmark. The stack cache is simulated by using SimpleScalar toolset.

Keywords: hit rate, locality of program, stack cache, stack data

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165 Application of Post-Stack and Pre-Stack Seismic Inversion for Prediction of Hydrocarbon Reservoirs in a Persian Gulf Gas Field

Authors: Nastaran Moosavi, Mohammad Mokhtari


Seismic inversion is a technique which has been in use for years and its main goal is to estimate and to model physical characteristics of rocks and fluids. Generally, it is a combination of seismic and well-log data. Seismic inversion can be carried out through different methods; we have conducted and compared post-stack and pre- stack seismic inversion methods on real data in one of the fields in the Persian Gulf. Pre-stack seismic inversion can transform seismic data to rock physics such as P-impedance, S-impedance and density. While post- stack seismic inversion can just estimate P-impedance. Then these parameters can be used in reservoir identification. Based on the results of inverting seismic data, a gas reservoir was detected in one of Hydrocarbon oil fields in south of Iran (Persian Gulf). By comparing post stack and pre-stack seismic inversion it can be concluded that the pre-stack seismic inversion provides a more reliable and detailed information for identification and prediction of hydrocarbon reservoirs.

Keywords: density, p-impedance, s-impedance, post-stack seismic inversion, pre-stack seismic inversion

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
164 A Study of the Alumina Distribution in the Lab-Scale Cell during Aluminum Electrolysis

Authors: Olga Tkacheva, Pavel Arkhipov, Alexey Rudenko, Yurii Zaikov


The aluminum electrolysis process in the conventional cryolite-alumina electrolyte with cryolite ratio of 2.7 was carried out at an initial temperature of 970 °C and the anode current density of 0.5 A/cm2 in a 15A lab-scale cell in order to study the formation of the side ledge during electrolysis and the alumina distribution between electrolyte and side ledge. The alumina contained 35.97% α-phase and 64.03% γ-phase with the particles size in the range of 10-120 μm. The cryolite ratio and the alumina concentration were determined in molten electrolyte during electrolysis and in frozen bath after electrolysis. The side ledge in the electrolysis cell was formed only by the 13th hour of electrolysis. With a slight temperature decrease a significant increase in the side ledge thickness was observed. The basic components of the side ledge obtained by the XRD phase analysis were Na3AlF6, Na5Al3F14, Al2O3, and NaF.5CaF2.AlF3. As in the industrial cell, the increased alumina concentration in the side ledge formed on the cell walls and at the ledge-electrolyte-aluminum three-phase boundary during aluminum electrolysis in the lab cell was found (FTP No 05.604.21.0239, IN RFMEFI60419X0239).

Keywords: alumina distribution, aluminum electrolyzer, cryolie-alumina electrolyte, side ledge

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163 The Prospect of Producing Hydrogen by Electrolysis of Idle Discharges of Water from Reservoirs and Recycling of Waste-Gas Condensates

Authors: Inom Sh. Normatov, Nurmakhmad Shermatov, Rajabali Barotov, Rano Eshankulova


The results of the studies for the hydrogen production by the application of water electrolysis and plasma-chemical processing of gas condensate-waste of natural gas production methods are presented. Thin coating covers the electrode surfaces in the process of water electrolysis. Therefore, water for electrolysis was first exposed to electrosedimentation. The threshold voltage is shifted to a lower value compared with the use of electrodes made of stainless steel. At electrolysis of electrosedimented water by use of electrodes from stainless steel, a significant amount of hydrogen is formed. Pyrolysis of gas condensates in the atmosphere of a nitrogen was followed by the formation of acetylene (3-7 vol.%), ethylene (4-8 vol.%), and pyrolysis carbon (10-15 wt.%).

Keywords: electrolyze, gascondensate, hydrogen, pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
162 A Study of Standing-Wave Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Authors: Patcharin Saechan, Isares Dhuchakallaya


Thermoacoustic refrigerator is a cooling device which uses the acoustic waves to produce the cooling effect. The aim of this paper is to explore the experimental and numerical feasibility of a standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator. The effects of the stack length, position of stack and operating frequency on the cooling performance are carried out. The circular pore stacks are tested under the atmospheric pressure. A low-cost loudspeaker is used as an acoustic driver. The results show that the location of stack installed in resonator tube has a greater effect on the cooling performance than the stack length and operating frequency, respectively. The temperature difference across the ends of the stack can be generated up to 13.7°C, and the temperature of cold-end is dropped down by 5.3°C from the ambient temperature.

Keywords: cooling performance, refrigerator, standing-wave, thermoacoustics

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161 Electrolysis Ship for Green Hydrogen Production and Possible Applications

Authors: Julian David Hunt, Andreas Nascimento


Green hydrogen is the most environmental, renewable alternative to produce hydrogen. However, an important challenge to make hydrogen a competitive energy carrier is a constant supply of renewable energy, such as solar, wind and hydropower. Given that the electricity generation potential of these sources vary seasonally and interannually, this paper proposes installing an electrolysis hydrogen production plant in a ship and move the ship to the locations where electricity is cheap, or where the seasonal potential for renewable generation is high. An example of electrolysis ship application is to produce green hydrogen with hydropower from the North region of Brazil and then sail to the Northeast region of Brazil and generate hydrogen using excess electricity from offshore wind power. The electrolysis ship concept is interesting because it has the flexibility to produce green hydrogen using the cheapest renewable electricity available in the market.

Keywords: green hydrogen, electrolysis ship, renewable energies, seasonal variations

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160 Fused Salt Electrolysis of Rare-Earth Materials from the Domestic Ore and Preparation of Rare-Earth Hydrogen Storage Alloys

Authors: Jeong-Hyun Yoo, Hanjung Kwon, Sung-Wook Cho


Fused salt electrolysis was studied to make the high purity rare-earth metals using domestic rare-earth ore. The target metals of the fused salt electrolysis were Mm (Misch metal), La, Ce, Nd, etc. Fused salt electrolysis was performed with the supporting salt such as chloride and fluoride at the various temperatures and ampere. The metals made by fused salt electrolysis were analyzed to identify the phase and composition using the methods of XRD and ICP. As a result, the acquired rare-earth metals were the high purity ones which had more than 99% purity. Also, VIM (vacuum induction melting) was studied to make the kg level rare-earth alloy for the use of secondary battery and hydrogen storage. In order to indentify the physicochemical properties such as phase, impurity gas, alloy composition and hydrogen storage, the alloys were investigated. The battery characteristics were also analyzed through the various tests in the real production line of a battery company.

Keywords: domestic rare-earth ore, fused salt electrolysis, rare-earth materials, hydrogen storage alloy, secondary battery

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159 Optimization of Temperature Difference Formula at Thermoacoustic Cryocooler Stack with Genetic Algorithm

Authors: H. Afsari, H. Shokouhmand


When stack is placed in a thermoacoustic resonator in a cryocooler, one extremity of the stack heats up while the other cools down due to the thermoacoustic effect. In the present, with expression a formula by linear theory, will see this temperature difference depends on what factors. The computed temperature difference is compared to the one predicted by the formula. These discrepancies can not be attributed to non-linear effects, rather they exist because of thermal effects. Two correction factors are introduced for close up results among linear theory and computed and use these correction factors to modified linear theory. In fact, this formula, is optimized by GA (Genetic Algorithm). Finally, results are shown at different Mach numbers and stack location in resonator.

Keywords: heat transfer, thermoacoustic cryocooler, stack, resonator, mach number, genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
158 Effect of Leaks in Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells Tested for Durability under Co-Electrolysis Conditions

Authors: Megha Rao, Søren H. Jensen, Xiufu Sun, Anke Hagen, Mogens B. Mogensen


Solid oxide electrolysis cells have an immense potential in converting CO2 and H2O into syngas during co-electrolysis operation. The produced syngas can be further converted into hydrocarbons. This kind of technology is called power-to-gas or power-to-liquid. To produce hydrocarbons via this route, durability of the cells is still a challenge, which needs to be further investigated in order to improve the cells. In this work, various nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia (Ni-YSZ) fuel electrode supported or YSZ electrolyte supported cells, cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO) barrier layer, and an oxygen electrode are investigated for durability under co-electrolysis conditions in both galvanostatic and potentiostatic conditions. While changing the gas on the oxygen electrode, keeping the fuel electrode gas composition constant, a change in the gas concentration arc was observed by impedance spectroscopy. Measurements of open circuit potential revealed the presence of leaks in the setup. It is speculated that the change in concentration impedance may be related to the leaks. Furthermore, the cells were also tested under pressurized conditions to find an inter-play between the leak rate and the pressure. A mathematical modeling together with electrochemical and microscopy analysis is presented.

Keywords: co-electrolysis, durability, leaks, gas concentration arc

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157 Hydrogen Production Using Solar Energy

Authors: I. M. Sakr, Ali M. Abdelsalam, K. A. Ibrahim, W. A. El-Askary


This paper presents an experimental study for hydrogen production using alkaline water electrolysis operated by solar energy. Two methods are used and compared for separation between the cathode and anode, which are acrylic separator and polymeric membrane. Further, the effects of electrolyte concentration, solar insolation, and space between the pair of electrodes on the amount of hydrogen produced and consequently on the overall electrolysis efficiency are investigated. It is found that the rate of hydrogen production increases using the polymeric membrane installed between the electrodes. The experimental results show also that, the performance of alkaline water electrolysis unit is dominated by the electrolyte concentration and the gap between the electrodes. Smaller gaps between the pair of electrodes are demonstrated to produce higher rates of hydrogen with higher system efficiency.

Keywords: hydrogen production, water electrolysis, solar energy, concentration

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156 Thermal Radiation and Noise Safety Assessment of an Offshore Platform Flare Stack as Sudden Emergency Relief Takes Place

Authors: Lai Xuejiang, Huang Li, Yang Yi


To study the potential hazards of the sudden emergency relief of flare stack, the thermal radiation and noise calculation of flare stack is carried out by using Flaresim program 2.0. Thermal radiation and noise analysis should be considered as the sudden emergency relief takes place. According to the Flaresim software simulation results, the thermal radiation and noise meet the requirement.

Keywords: flare stack, thermal radiation, safety assessment, noise

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155 A Study on ESD Protection Circuit Applying Silicon Controlled Rectifier-Based Stack Technology with High Holding Voltage

Authors: Hee-Guk Chae, Bo-Bae Song, Kyoung-Il Do, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo


In this study, an improved Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit with low trigger voltage and high holding voltage is proposed. ESD has become a serious problem in the semiconductor process because the semiconductor density has become very high these days. Therefore, much research has been done to prevent ESD. The proposed circuit is a stacked structure of the new unit structure combined by the Zener Triggering (SCR ZTSCR) and the High Holding Voltage SCR (HHVSCR). The simulation results show that the proposed circuit has low trigger voltage and high holding voltage. And the stack technology is applied to adjust the various operating voltage. As the results, the holding voltage is 7.7 V for 2-stack and 10.7 V for 3-stack.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, latch-up, power clamp, holding voltage

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154 Analysis of Stacked SCR-Based ESD Protection Circuit with Low Trigger Voltage and Latch-Up Immunity

Authors: Jun-Geol Park, Kyoung-Il Do, Min-Ju Kwon, Kyung-Hyun Park, Yong-Seo Koo


In this paper, we proposed the SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier)-based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection circuit for latch-up immunity. The proposed circuit has a lower trigger voltage and a higher holding voltage characteristic by using the zener diode structure. These characteristics prevent latch-up problem in normal operating conditions. The proposed circuit was analyzed to figure out the electrical characteristics by the variations of design parameters D1, D2 and stack technology to obtain the n-fold electrical characteristics. The simulations are accomplished by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. When using the stack technology, 2-stack has the holding voltage of 6.9V and 3-stack has the holding voltage of 10.9V.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, trigger voltage, holding voltage

Procedia PDF Downloads 339
153 Study on the Effect of Bolt Locking Method on the Deformation of Bipolar Plate in PEMFC

Authors: Tao Chen, ShiHua Liu, JiWei Zhang


Assembly of the proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) has a very important influence on its performance and efficiency. The various components of PEMFC stack are usually locked and fixed by bolts. Locking bolt will cause the deformation of the bipolar plate and the other components, which will affect directly the deformation degree of the integral parts of the PEMFC as well as the performance of PEMFC. This paper focuses on the object of three-cell stack of PEMFC. Finite element simulation is used to investigate the deformation of bipolar plate caused by quantity and layout of bolts, bolt locking pressure, and bolt locking sequence, etc. Finally, we made a conclusion that the optimal combination packaging scheme was adopted to assemble the fuel cell stack. The scheme was in use of 3.8 MPa locking pressure imposed on the fuel cell stack, type Ⅱ of four locking bolts and longitudinal locking method. The scheme was obtained by comparatively analyzing the overall displacement contour of PEMFC stack, absolute displacement curve of bipolar plate along the given three paths in the Z direction and the polarization curve of fuel cell. The research results are helpful for the fuel cell stack assembly.

Keywords: bipolar plate, deformation, finite element simulation, fuel cell, locking bolt

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152 SCR-Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for IO and Power Clamp

Authors: Hyun Young Kim, Chung Kwang Lee, Han Hee Cho, Sang Woon Cho, Yong Seo Koo


In this paper, we proposed a novel SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier) - based ESD (Electrostatic Discharge) protection device for I/O and power clamp. The proposed device has a higher holding voltage characteristic than conventional SCR. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity under normal operating conditions as well as superior full chip ESD protection. The proposed device was analyzed to figure out electrical characteristics and tolerance robustness in term of individual design parameters (D1, D2, D3). They are investigated by using the Synopsys TCAD simulator. As a result of simulation, holding voltage increased with different design parameters. The holding voltage of the proposed device changes from 3.3V to 7.9V. Also, N-Stack structure ESD device with the high holding voltage is proposed. In the simulation results, 2-stack has holding voltage of 6.8V and 3-stack has holding voltage of 10.5V. The simulation results show that holding voltage of stacking structure can be larger than the operation voltage of high-voltage application.

Keywords: ESD, SCR, holding voltage, stack, power clamp

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151 Entropy Analysis of a Thermo-Acoustic Stack

Authors: Ahmadali Shirazytabar, Hamidreza Namazi


The inherent irreversibility of thermo-acoustics primarily in the stack region causes poor efficiency of thermo-acoustic engines which is the major weakness of these devices. In view of the above, this study examines entropy generation in the stack of a thermo-acoustic system. For this purpose two parallel plates representative of the stack is considered. A general equation for entropy generation is derived based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. Assumptions such as Rott’s linear thermo-acoustic approximation, boundary layer type flow, etc. are made to simplify the governing continuity, momentum and energy equations to achieve analytical solutions for velocity and temperature. The entropy generation equation is also simplified based on the same assumptions and then is converted to dimensionless form by using characteristic entropy generation. A time averaged entropy generation rate followed by a global entropy generation rate are calculated and graphically represented for further analysis and inspecting the effect of different parameters on the entropy generation.

Keywords: thermo-acoustics, entropy, second law of thermodynamics, Rott’s linear thermo-acoustic approximation

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150 Thermo-Economic Evaluation of Sustainable Biogas Upgrading via Solid-Oxide Electrolysis

Authors: Ligang Wang, Theodoros Damartzis, Stefan Diethelm, Jan Van Herle, François Marechal


Biogas production from anaerobic digestion of organic sludge from wastewater treatment as well as various urban and agricultural organic wastes is of great significance to achieve a sustainable society. Two upgrading approaches for cleaned biogas can be considered: (1) direct H₂ injection for catalytic CO₂ methanation and (2) CO₂ separation from biogas. The first approach usually employs electrolysis technologies to generate hydrogen and increases the biogas production rate; while the second one usually applies commercially-available highly-selective membrane technologies to efficiently extract CO₂ from the biogas with the latter being then sent afterward for compression and storage for further use. A straightforward way of utilizing the captured CO₂ is on-site catalytic CO₂ methanation. From the perspective of system complexity, the second approach may be questioned, since it introduces an additional expensive membrane component for producing the same amount of methane. However, given the circumstance that the sustainability of the produced biogas should be retained after biogas upgrading, renewable electricity should be supplied to drive the electrolyzer. Therefore, considering the intermittent nature and seasonal variation of renewable electricity supply, the second approach offers high operational flexibility. This indicates that these two approaches should be compared based on the availability and scale of the local renewable power supply and not only the technical systems themselves. Solid-oxide electrolysis generally offers high overall system efficiency, and more importantly, it can achieve simultaneous electrolysis of CO₂ and H₂O (namely, co-electrolysis), which may bring significant benefits for the case of CO₂ separation from the produced biogas. When taking co-electrolysis into account, two additional upgrading approaches can be proposed: (1) direct steam injection into the biogas with the mixture going through the SOE, and (2) CO₂ separation from biogas which can be used later for co-electrolysis. The case study of integrating SOE to a wastewater treatment plant is investigated with wind power as the renewable power. The dynamic production of biogas is provided on an hourly basis with the corresponding oxygen and heating requirements. All four approaches mentioned above are investigated and compared thermo-economically: (a) steam-electrolysis with grid power, as the base case for steam electrolysis, (b) CO₂ separation and co-electrolysis with grid power, as the base case for co-electrolysis, (c) steam-electrolysis and CO₂ separation (and storage) with wind power, and (d) co-electrolysis and CO₂ separation (and storage) with wind power. The influence of the scale of wind power supply is investigated by a sensitivity analysis. The results derived provide general understanding on the economic competitiveness of SOE for sustainable biogas upgrading, thus assisting the decision making for biogas production sites. The research leading to the presented work is funded by European Union’s Horizon 2020 under grant agreements n° 699892 (ECo, topic H2020-JTI-FCH-2015-1) and SCCER BIOSWEET.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, solid-oxide electrolyzer, co-electrolysis, CO₂ utilization, energy storage

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149 Low Trigger Voltage Silicon Controlled Rectifier Stacking Structure with High Holding Voltage for High Voltage Applications

Authors: Kyoung-Il Do, Jun-Geol Park, Hee-Guk Chae, Jeong-Yun Seo, Yong-Seo Koo


A SCR stacking structure is proposed to have improved Latch-up immunity. In comparison with conventional SCR (Silicon Controlled Rectifier), the proposed Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) protection circuit has a lower trigger characteristic by using the LVTSCR (Low Voltage Trigger) structure. Also the proposed ESD protection circuit has improved Holding Voltage Characteristic by using N-stack technique. These characteristics enable to have latch-up immunity in operating conditions. The simulations are accomplished by using the Synopsys TCAD. It has a trigger voltage of 8.9V and a holding voltage of 1.8V in a single structure. And when applying the stack technique, 2-stack has the holding voltage of 3.8V and 3-stack has the holding voltage of 5.1 V.

Keywords: electrostatic discharge (ESD), low voltage trigger silicon controlled rectifier (LVTSCR), MVTSCR, power clamp, silicon controlled rectifier (SCR), latch-up

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148 Online Measurement of Fuel Stack Elongation

Authors: Sung Ho Ahn, Jintae Hong, Chang Young Joung, Tae Ho Yang, Sung Ho Heo, Seo Yun Jang


The performances of nuclear fuels and materials are qualified at an irradiation system in research reactors operating under the commercial nuclear power plant conditions. Fuel centerline temperature, coolant temperature, neutron flux, deformations of fuel stack and swelling are important parameters needed to analyze the nuclear fuel performances. The dimensional stability of nuclear fuels is a key parameter measuring the fuel densification and swelling. In this study, the fuel stack elongation is measured using a LVDT. A mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is developed. The performances of mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is evaluated by experiments.

Keywords: axial deformation, elongation measurement, in-pile instrumentation, LVDT

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147 Laser Welding Technique Effect for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

Authors: Chih-Chia Lin, Ching-Ying Huang, Cheng-Hong Liu, Wen-Lin Wang


A complete fuel cell stack comprises several single cells with end plates, bipolar plates, gaskets and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) components. Electrons generated from cells are conducted through bipolar plates. The amount of cells' components increases as the stack voltage increases, complicating the fuel cell assembly process and mass production. Stack assembly error influence cell performance. PEM fuel cell stack importing laser welding technique could eliminate transverse deformation between bipolar plates to promote stress uniformity of cell components as bipolar plates and MEA. Simultaneously, bipolar plates were melted together using laser welding to decrease interface resistance. A series of experiments as through-plan and in-plan resistance measurement test was conducted to observe the laser welding effect. The result showed that the through-plane resistance with laser welding was a drop of 97.5-97.6% when the contact pressure was about 1MPa to 3 MPa, and the in-plane resistance was not significantly different for laser welding.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, laser welding, through-plan, in-plan, resistance

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146 The Impact of Low-Concentrated Acidic Electrolyzed Water on Foodborne Pathogens

Authors: Ewa Brychcy, Natalia Ulbin-Figlewicz, Dominika Kulig, Żaneta Król, Andrzej Jarmoluk


Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) is an alternative with environmentally friendly broad spectrum microbial decontamination. It is produced by membrane electrolysis of a dilute NaCl solution in water ionizers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-concentrated AEW in reducing selected foodborne pathogens and to examine its bactericidal effect on cellular structures of Escherichia coli. E. coli and S. aureus cells were undetectable after 10 minutes of contact with electrolyzed salt solutions. Non-electrolyzed solutions did not inhibit the growth of bacteria. AE water was found to destroy the cellular structures of the E. coli. The use of more concentrated salt solutions and prolonged electrolysis time from 5 to 10 minutes resulted in a greater changes of rods shape as compared to the control and non-electrolyzed NaCl solutions. This research showed that low-concentrated acid electrolyzed water is an effective method to significantly reduce pathogenic microorganisms and indicated its potential application for decontamination of meat.

Keywords: acidic electrolyzed water, foodborne pathogens, meat decontamination, membrane electrolysis

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145 Matlab/Simulink Simulation of Solar Energy Storage System

Authors: Mustafa A. Al-Refai


This paper investigates the energy storage technologies that can potentially enhance the use of solar energy. Water electrolysis systems are seen as the principal means of producing a large amount of hydrogen in the future. Starting from the analysis of the models of the system components, a complete simulation model was realized in the Matlab-Simulink environment. Results of the numerical simulations are provided. The operation of electrolysis and photovoltaic array combination is verified at various insulation levels. It is pointed out that solar cell arrays and electrolysers are producing the expected results with solar energy inputs that are continuously varying.

Keywords: electrolyzer, simulink, solar energy, storage system

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144 Characterizing Nanoparticles Generated from the Different Working Type and the Stack Flue during 3D Printing Process

Authors: Kai-Jui Kou, Tzu-Ling Shen, Ying-Fang Wang


The objectives of the present study are to characterize nanoparticles generated from the different working type in 3D printing room and the stack flue during 3D printing process. The studied laboratory (10.5 m× 7.2 m × 3.2 m) with a ventilation rate of 500 m³/H is installed a 3D metal printing machine. Direct-reading instrument of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS, Model 3082, TSI Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) was used to conduct static sampling for nanoparticle number concentration and particle size distribution measurements. The SMPS obtained particle number concentration at every 3 minutes, the diameter of the SMPS ranged from 11~372 nm when the aerosol and sheath flow rates were set at 0.6 and 6 L/min, respectively. The concentrations of background, printing process, clearing operation, and screening operation were performed in the laboratory. On the other hand, we also conducted nanoparticle measurement on the 3D printing machine's stack flue to understand its emission characteristics. Results show that the nanoparticles emitted from the different operation process were the same distribution in the form of the uni-modal with number median diameter (NMD) as approximately 28.3 nm to 29.6 nm. The number concentrations of nanoparticles were 2.55×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background, 2.19×10³ count/cm³ during printing process, 2.29×10³ count/cm³ during clearing process, 3.05×10³ count/cm³ during screening process, 2.69×10³ count/cm³ in laboratory background after printing process, and 6.75×10³ outside laboratory, respectively. We found that there are no emission nanoparticles during the printing process. However, the number concentration of stack flue nanoparticles in the ongoing print is 1.13×10⁶ count/cm³, and that of the non-printing is 1.63×10⁴ count/cm³, with a NMD of 458 nm and 29.4 nm, respectively. It can be confirmed that the measured particle size belongs to easily penetrate the filter in theory during the printing process, even though the 3D printer has a high-efficiency filtration device. Therefore, it is recommended that the stack flue of the 3D printer would be equipped with an appropriate dust collection device to prevent the operators from exposing these hazardous particles.

Keywords: nanoparticle, particle emission, 3D printing, number concentration

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143 Beneficiation of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell as Energy Saving from Apple Skin with TiO2 Electrolysis

Authors: Astari Indarsari, Bastian B. Purba, Muhammad Fadlilah


In Indonesian climates that have the tropic climate, one of the potential energy sources is coming from solar energy. From the solar energy, we can convert it into the others energy, such as electrical energy. In this topic, we want to do the research about Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC). The materials that we use as sensitizer is anthocyanin that we extract from apple skin, because the anthocyanin is one of the most effective as a sensitizer for DSSC. The variable in this research is pH. The pH that we used are pH 0,5; pH 1; pH 1,5; pH 2; pH 2,5. The method is electrolysis, and we use TiO2 as sensitized material. The hypothesis from this research is the smaller pH can make higher the efficiency of the absorbent of the solar energy.

Keywords: anthocyanin, TiO2, DSSC, apple skin

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142 A Computational Study of the Effect of Intake Design on Volumetric Efficiency for Best Performance in Motorsport

Authors: Dominic Wentworth-Linton, Shian Gao


This project was aimed at investigating the effect of velocity stacks on the intakes of internal combustion engines for motorsport applications. The intake systems in motorsport are predominantly fuel injection with a plate mounted for the stacks. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics software, the relationship between the stack length and power and torque delivery across the engine’s rev range was investigated and the results were used to choose the best option for its intended motorsport discipline. The test results are expected to vary with engine geometry and its natural manufacturer characteristics. The test was also relevant in bridging between computational data and real simulation as the results show flow, pressure and velocity readings but the behaviour of the engine is inferred from the nature of each test. The results of the data analysis were tested in a real-life simulation on a dynamometer to prove the theory of stack length on power and torque delivery, which helps determine the most suitable stack for the Vauxhall engine for rallying in the Caribbean.

Keywords: CFD simulation, Internal combustion engine, Intake system, Dynamometer test

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
141 Life Cycle Assessment of Rare Earth Metals Production: Hotspot Analysis of Didymium Electrolysis Process

Authors: Sandra H. Fukurozaki, Andre L. N. Silva, Joao B. F. Neto, Fernando J. G. Landgraf


Nowadays, the rare earth (RE) metals play an important role in emerging technologies that are crucial for the decarbonisation of the energy sector. Their unique properties have led to increasing clean energy applications, such as wind turbine generators, and hybrid and electric vehicles. Despite the substantial media coverage that has recently surrounded the mining and processing of rare earth metals, very little quantitative information is available concerning their subsequent life stages, especially related to the metallic production of didymium (Nd-Pr) in fluoride molten salt system. Here we investigate a gate to gate scale life cycle assessment (LCA) of the didymium electrolysis based on three different scenarios of operational conditions. The product system is modeled with SimaPro Analyst 8.0.2 software, and IMPACT 2002+ was applied as an impact assessment tool. In order to develop a life cycle inventories built in software databases, patents, and other published sources together with energy/mass balance were utilized. Analysis indicates that from the 14 midpoint impact categories evaluated, the global warming potential (GWP) is the main contributors to the total environmental burden, ranging from 2.7E2 to 3.2E2 kg CO2eq/kg Nd-Pr. At the damage step assessment, the results suggest that slight changes in materials flows associated with enhancement of current efficiency (between 2.5% and 5%), could lead a reduction up to 12% and 15% of human health and climate change damage, respectively. Additionally, this paper highlights the knowledge gaps and future research efforts needing to understand the environmental impacts of Nd-Pr electrolysis process from the life cycle perspective.

Keywords: didymium electrolysis, environmental impacts, life cycle assessment, rare earth metals

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140 Study of the Hysteretic I-V Characteristics in a Polystyrene/ZnO-Nanorods Stack Layer

Authors: You-Lin Wu, Yi-Hsing Sung, Shih-Hung Lin, Jing-Jenn Lin


Performance improvement in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and photodetectors has been reported when a polymer/ZnO nanorods stack is used. Resistance switching of polymer/ZnO nanocrystals (or nanorods) hybrid has also gained a lot of research interests recently. It has been reported that high- and low-resistance states of a metal/insulator/metal (MIM) structure diode with a polystyrene (PS) and ZnO hybrid as the insulator layer can be switched by applied bias after a high-voltage forming process, while the same device structure merely with a PS layer does not show any forming behavior. In this work, we investigated the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of an MIM device with a PS/ZnO nanorods stack deposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate. The ZnO nanorods were grown by a hydrothermal method using a mixture of zinc nitrate, hexamethylenetetramine, and DI water. Following that, a PS layer was deposited by spin coating. Finally, the device with a structure of Ti/ PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO was completed by e-gun evaporated Ti layer on top of the PS layer. Semiconductor parameters analyzer Agilent 4156C was then used to measure the I-V characteristics of the device by applying linear ramp sweep voltage with sweep sequence of 0V → 4V → 0V → 3V → 0V → 2V → 0V → 1V → 0V in both positive and negative directions. It is interesting to find that the I-V characteristics are bias dependent and hysteretic, indicating that the device Ti/PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO structure has ferroelectricity. Our results also show that the maximum hysteresis loop height of the I-V characteristics as well as the voltage at which the maximum hysteresis loop height of each scan occurs increase with increasing maximum sweep voltage. It should be noticed that, although ferroelectricity has been found in ZnO at its melting temperature (1975℃) and in Li- or Co-doped ZnO, neither PS nor ZnO has ferroelectricity at room temperature. Using the same structure but with a PS or ZnO layer only as the insulator does not give and hysteretic I-V characteristics. It is believed that a charge polarization layer is induced near the PS/ZnO nanorods stack interface and thus causes the ferroelectricity in the device with Ti/PS/ZnO nanorods/FTO structure. Our results show that the PS/ZnO stack can find a potential application in a resistive switching memory device with MIM structure.

Keywords: ferroelectricity, hysteresis, polystyrene, resistance switching, ZnO nanorods

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139 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Linear Motor Based on Rigid Clamping

Authors: Chao Yi, Cunyue Lu, Lingwei Quan


Piezoelectric linear motors have the characteristics of great electromagnetic compatibility, high positioning accuracy, compact structure and no deceleration mechanism, which make it promising to applicate in micro-miniature precision drive systems. However, most piezoelectric motors are employed by flexible clamping, which has insufficient rigidity and is difficult to use in rapid positioning. Another problem is that this clamping method seriously affects the vibration efficiency of the vibrating unit. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a piezoelectric stack linear motor based on double-end rigid clamping. First, a piezoelectric linear motor with a length of only 35.5 mm is designed. This motor is mainly composed of a motor stator, a driving foot, a ceramic friction strip, a linear guide, a pre-tightening mechanism and a base. This structure is much simpler and smaller than most similar motors, and it is easy to assemble as well as to realize precise control. In addition, the properties of piezoelectric stack are reviewed and in order to obtain the elliptic motion trajectory of the driving head, a driving scheme of the longitudinal-shear composite stack is innovatively proposed. Finally, impedance analysis and speed performance testing were performed on the piezoelectric linear motor prototype. The motor can measure speed up to 25.5 mm/s under the excitation of signal voltage of 120 V and frequency of 390 Hz. The result shows that the proposed piezoelectric stacked linear motor obtains great performance. It can run smoothly in a large speed range, which is suitable for various precision control in medical images, aerospace, precision machinery and many other fields.

Keywords: piezoelectric stack, linear motor, rigid clamping, elliptical trajectory

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138 Artificial Neural Network Reconstruction of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Output Profile under Transient Operation

Authors: Ge Zheng, Jun Peng


Unbalanced power output from individual cells of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) has direct effects on PEMFC stack performance, in particular under transient operation. In the paper, a multi-layer ANN (Artificial Neural Network) model Radial Basis Functions (RBF) has been developed for predicting cells' output profiles by applying gas supply parameters, cooling conditions, temperature measurement of individual cells, etc. The feed-forward ANN model was validated with experimental data. Influence of relevant parameters of RBF on the network accuracy was investigated. After adequate model training, the modelling results show good correspondence between actual measurements and reconstructed output profiles. Finally, after the model was used to optimize the stack output performance under steady-state and transient operating conditions, it suggested that the developed ANN control model can help PEMFC stack to have obvious improvement on power output under fast acceleration process.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cell, PEMFC, artificial neural network, ANN, cell output profile, transient

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