Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12310

Search results for: methane low temperature total oxidation

12310 Catalytic Combustion of Methane over Co/Mo and Co/Mn Catalysts at Low Temperature

Authors: Ahmed I. Osman, Jehad K. Abu-Dahrieh, Jillian M. Thompson, David W. Rooney


Natural gas (the main constituent is Methane 95%) is considered as an alternative to petroleum for the production of synthetics fuels. Nowadays, methane combustion at low temperature has received much attention however; it is the most difficult hydrocarbon to be combusted. Co/Mo and (4:1 wt/wt) catalysts were prepared from a range of different precursors and used for the low temperature total methane oxidation (TMO). The catalysts were characterized by, XRD, BET and H2-TPR and tested under reaction temperatures of 250-400 °C with a GHSV= 36,000 mL g-1 h-1. It was found that the combustion temperature was dependent on the type of the precursor, and that those containing chloride led to catalysts with lower activity. The optimum catalyst was Co/Mo (4:1wt/wt) where greater than 20% methane conversion was observed at 250 °C. This catalyst showed a high degree of stability for TMO, showing no deactivation during 50 hours of time on stream.

Keywords: methane low temperature total oxidation, oxygen carrier, Co/Mo, Co/Mn

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12309 Preparation and Characterization of Mixed Cu-Ag-Pd Oxide Supported Catalysts for Complete Catalytic Oxidation of Methane

Authors: Ts. Lazarova, V. Tumbalev, S. Atanacova-Vladimirova, G. Ivanov, A. Naydenov, D. Kovacheva


Methane is a major Greenhouse Gas (GHG) that accounts for 14% of the world’s total amount of GHG emissions, originating mainly from agriculture, Coal mines, land fields, wastewater and oil and gas facilities. Nowadays the problem caused by the methane emissions has been a subject of an increased concern. One of the methods for neutralization of the methane emissions is it's complete catalytic oxidation. The efforts of the researchers are focused on the development of new types of catalysts and optimizing the existing catalytic systems in order to prevent the sintering of the palladium, providing at the same time a sufficient activity at temperatures below 500oC. The aim of the present work is to prepare mixed Cu-Ag-Pd oxide catalysts supported on alumina and to test them for methane complete catalytic oxidation. Cu-Ag-Pd/Al2O3 were prepared on a γ-Al2O3 (BET surface area = 220 m2/g) by the incipient wetness method using the corresponding metal nitrates (Cu:Ag = 90:10, Cu:Pd =97:3, Cu:Ag:Pd= 87:10:3) as precursors. A second set of samples were prepared with addition of urea to the metal nitrate solutions with the above mentioned ratios assuming increased dispersivity of the catalysts. The catalyst samples were dried at 100°C for 3 hours and calcined at 550°C for 30 minutes. Catalysts samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), low temperature adsorption of nitrogen (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity tests were carried out in a continuous flow type of reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of catalyst aging at 500 oC for 120 h on the methane combustion activity was also investigated. The results clearly indicate the synergetic effect of Ag and Pd on the catalytic activity.

Keywords: catalysts, XRD, BET, SEM, catalytic oxidation

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12308 Catalytic Combustion of Methane over Pd-Meox-CeO₂/Al₂O₃ (Me= Co or Ni) Catalysts

Authors: Silviya Todorova, Anton Naydenov, Ralitsa Velinova, Alexander Larin


Catalytic combustion of methane has been extensively investigated for emission control and power generation during the last decades. The alumina-supported palladium catalyst is widely accepted as the most active catalysts for catalytic combustion of methane. The activity of Pd/Al₂O₃ decreases during the time on stream, especially underwater vapor. The following order of activity in the reaction of complete oxidation of methane was established: Co₃O₄> CuO>NiO> Mn₂O₃> Cr₂O₃. It may be expected that the combination between Pd and these oxides could lead to the promising catalysts in the reaction of complete methane. In the present work, we investigate the activity of Pd/Al₂O₃ catalysts promoted with other metal oxides (MOx; M= Ni, Co, Ce). The Pd-based catalysts modified by metal oxide were prepared by sequential impregnation of Al₂O₃ with aqueous solutions of Me(NO₃)₂.6H₂O and Pd(NO₃)₂H₂O. All samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). An improvement of activity was observed after modification with different oxides. The results demonstrate that the Pd/Al₂O₃ catalysts modified with Co and Ce by impregnation with a common solution of respective salts, exhibit the most promising catalytic activity for methane oxidation. Most probably, the presence of Co₃O₄ and CeO₂ on catalytic surface increases surface oxygen and therefore leads to the better reactivity in methane combustion.

Keywords: methane combustion, palladium, Co-Ce, Ni-Ce

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12307 Effect of Sulphur Concentration on Microbial Population and Performance of a Methane Biofilter

Authors: Sonya Barzgar, J. Patrick, A. Hettiaratchi


Methane (CH4) is reputed as the second largest contributor to greenhouse effect with a global warming potential (GWP) of 34 related to carbon dioxide (CO2) over the 100-year horizon, so there is a growing interest in reducing the emissions of this gas. Methane biofiltration (MBF) is a cost effective technology for reducing low volume point source emissions of methane. In this technique, microbial oxidation of methane is carried out by methane-oxidizing bacteria (methanotrophs) which use methane as carbon and energy source. MBF uses a granular medium, such as soil or compost, to support the growth of methanotrophic bacteria responsible for converting methane to carbon dioxide (CO₂) and water (H₂O). Even though the biofiltration technique has been shown to be an efficient, practical and viable technology, the design and operational parameters, as well as the relevant microbial processes have not been investigated in depth. In particular, limited research has been done on the effects of sulphur on methane bio-oxidation. Since bacteria require a variety of nutrients for growth, to improve the performance of methane biofiltration, it is important to establish the input quantities of nutrients to be provided to the biofilter to ensure that nutrients are available to sustain the process. The study described in this paper was conducted with the aim of determining the influence of sulphur on methane elimination in a biofilter. In this study, a set of experimental measurements has been carried out to explore how the conversion of elemental sulphur could affect methane oxidation in terms of methanotrophs growth and system pH. Batch experiments with different concentrations of sulphur were performed while keeping the other parameters i.e. moisture content, methane concentration, oxygen level and also compost at their optimum level. The study revealed the tolerable limit of sulphur without any interference to the methane oxidation as well as the particular sulphur concentration leading to the greatest methane elimination capacity. Due to the sulphur oxidation, pH varies in a transient way which affects the microbial growth behavior. All methanotrophs are incapable of growth at pH values below 5.0 and thus apparently are unable to oxidize methane. Herein, the certain pH for the optimal growth of methanotrophic bacteria is obtained. Finally, monitoring methane concentration over time in the presence of sulphur is also presented for laboratory scale biofilters.

Keywords: global warming, methane biofiltration (MBF), methane oxidation, methanotrophs, pH, sulphur

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12306 Effect of Oxidation on Wetting Behavior between Silicon and Silicon Carbide

Authors: Zineb Benouahmane, Zhang Lifeng


Experimental oxidation tests at high temperature (1300°C-1500°C) on α-SiC samples have been performed with different holding times and atmosphere (air, argon). Oxidized samples were then analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy coupled to SEM and DAKTEK surface profiler verification. The oxidation rate and the mas gain were found to increase with temperature and holding times, corresponding to a passive oxidation regime which lead to the formation of SiO2 layer. The sessile drop method is employed in order to measure the wetting angles between Si/SiC system at high temperature (1430°C-1550°C). Contact angle can be varied between 44 °C to 85°C, by controlling the oxygen content in α-SiC. Increasing the temperature occurred the infiltration of liquid silicon and deoxidation of the coating.

Keywords: oxidation, wettability, silicon, SiC

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12305 Methane versus Carbon Dioxide Mitigation Prospects

Authors: Alexander J. Severinsky, Allen L. Sessoms


Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO₂) has dominated the discussion about the causes of climate change. This is a reflection of the time horizon that has become the norm adopted by the IPCC as the planning horizon. Recently, it has become clear that a 100-year time horizon is much too long, and yet almost all mitigation efforts, including those in the near-term horizon of 30 years, are geared toward it. In this paper, we show that, for a 30-year time horizon, methane (CH₄) is the greenhouse gas whose radiative forcing exceeds that of CO₂. In our analysis, we used radiative forcing of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere since they directly affect the temperature rise on Earth. In 2019, the radiative forcing of methane was ~2.5 W/m² and that of carbon dioxide ~2.1 W/m². Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario until 2050, such forcing would be ~2.8 W/m² and ~3.1 W/m², respectively. There is a substantial spread in the data for anthropogenic and natural methane emissions as well as CH₄ leakages from production to consumption. We estimated the minimum and maximum effects of the reduction of these leakages. Such action may reduce the annual radiative forcing of all CH₄ emissions by between ~15% and ~30%. This translates into a reduction of the RF by 2050 from ~2.8 W/m² to ~2.5 W/m² in the case of the minimum effect and to ~2.15 W/m² in the case of the maximum. Under the BAU, we found that the RF of CO₂ would increase from ~2.1 W/m² nowadays to ~3.1 W/m² by 2050. We assumed a reduction of 50% of anthropogenic emission linearly over the next 30 years. That would reduce radiative forcing from ~3.1 W/m² to ~2.9 W/m². In the case of ‘net zero,’ the other 50% of reduction of only anthropogenic emissions would be limited to either from sources of emissions or directly from the atmosphere. The total reduction would be from ~3.1 to ~2.7, or ~0.4 W/m². To achieve the same radiative forcing as in the scenario of maximum reduction of methane leakages of ~2.15 W/m², then an additional reduction of radiative forcing of CO₂ would be approximately 2.7 -2.15=0.55 W/m². This is a much larger value than in expectations from ‘net zero’. In total, one needs to remove from the atmosphere ~660 GT to match the maximum reduction of current methane leakages and ~270 GT to achieve ‘net zero.’ This amounts to over 900 GT in total.

Keywords: methane leakages, methane radiative forcing, methane mitigation, methane net zero

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12304 Investigation of Flow Behavior inside the Single Channel Catalytic Combustor for Lean Mixture

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Catalytic combustor substantially reduces emission entailing fuel-air premixing at very low equivalence ratios. The catalytic combustion of natural gas has the potential to become sufficiently active at light off temperature by the convection of heat from the catalyst surface. Only one channel is selected to investigate both the gas and surface reactions in the catalyst bed because of the honeycomb structure of the catalytic combustor. The objective of the present study is to find the methane catalytic combustion behavior inside the catalytic combustor, where the gas phase kinetics is employed by homogeneous methane combustion and surface chemistry is described with the heterogeneous catalysis of the oxidation of methane on a platinum catalyst. The reaction of the premixed mixture in the catalytic regime improves flame stability with complete combustion for lower operating flame temperature. An overview of the flow behavior is presented inside the single channel catalytic combustor including the operation of catalytic combustion with various F/A ratios and premixed inlet temperature.

Keywords: catalytic combustor, equivalence ratios, flame temperature, heterogeneous catalysis, homogeneous combustion

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12303 Comparative Study of Isothermal and Cyclic Oxidation on Titanium Alloys

Authors: Poonam Yadav, Dong Bok Lee


Isothermal oxidation at 800°C for 50h and Cyclic oxidation at 600°C and 800°C for 40h of Pure Ti and Ti64 were performed in a muffle furnace. In Cyclic oxidation, massive scale spallation occurred, and the oxide scale cracks and peels off were observed at high temperature, it represents oxide scale that formed during cyclic oxidation was spalled out owing to stresses due to thermal shock generated during repetitive oxidation and subsequent cooling. The thickness of scale is larger in cyclic oxidation than the isothermal case. This is due to inward diffusion of oxygen through oxide scales and/or pores and cracks in cyclic oxidation.

Keywords: cyclic, diffusion, isothermal, cyclic

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12302 Preparation and Characterization of a Nickel-Based Catalyst Supported by Silica Promoted by Cerium for the Methane Steam Reforming Reaction

Authors: Ali Zazi, Ouiza Cherifi


Natural gas currently represents a raw material of choice for the manufacture of a wide range of chemical products via synthesis gas, among the routes of transformation of methane into synthesis gas The reaction of the oxidation of methane by gas vapor 'water. This work focuses on the study of the effect of cerieum on the nickel-based catalyst supported by silica for the methane vapor reforming reaction, with a variation of certain parameters of the reaction. The reaction temperature, the H₂O / CH₄ ratio and the flow rate of the reaction mixture (CH₄-H₂O). Two catalysts were prepared by impregnation of Degussa silica with a solution of nickel nitrates and a solution of cerium nitrates [Ni (NO₃) 2 6H₂O and Ce (NO₃) 3 6H₂O] so as to obtain the 1.5% nickel concentrations. For both catalysts and plus 1% cerium for the second catalyst. These Catalysts have been characterized by physical and chemical analysis techniques: BET technique, Atomic Absorption, IR Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. These characterizations indicated that the nitrates had impregnated the silica. And that the NiO and Ce₂O3 phases are present and Ni°(after reaction). The BET surface of the silica decreases without being affected. The catalytic tests carried out on the two catalysts for the steam reforming reactions show that the addition of cerium to the nickel improves the catalytic performances of the nickel. And that these performances also depend on the parameters of the reaction, namely the temperature, the rate of the reaction mixture, and the ratio (H₂O / CH₄).

Keywords: heterogeneous catalysis, steam reforming, Methane, Nickel, Cerium, synthesis gas, hydrogen

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12301 High Rate Bio-Methane Generation from Petrochemical Wastewater Using Improved CSTR

Authors: Md. Nurul Islam Siddique, A. W. Zularisam


The effect of gradual increase in organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on biomethanation from petrochemical wastewater treatment was investigated using CSTR. The digester performance was measured at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4 to 2d, and start up procedure of the reactor was monitored for 60 days via chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, biogas and methane production. By enhancing the temperature from 30 to 55 ˚C Thermophilic condition was attained, and pH was adjusted at 7 ± 0.5 during the experiment. Supreme COD removal competence was 98±0.5% (r = 0.84) at an OLR of 7.5 g-COD/Ld and 4d HRT. Biogas and methane yield were logged to an extreme of 0.80 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.81), 0.60 L/g-CODremoved d (r = 0.83), and mean methane content of biogas was 65.49%. The full acclimatization was established at 55 ˚C with high COD removal efficiency and biogas production. An OLR of 7.5 g-COD/L d and HRT of 4 days were apposite for petrochemical wastewater treatment.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, petrochemical wastewater, CSTR, methane

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12300 Nanoparticle Emission Characteristics during Methane Pyrolysis in a Laminar Premixed Flame

Authors: Mohammad Javad Afroughi, Farjad Falahati, Larry W. Kostiuk, Jason S. Olfert


This study investigates the physical characteristics of nanoparticles generated during pyrolysis of methane in hot products of a premixed propane-air flame. An inverted burner is designed to provide a laminar premixed propane-air flame (35 SLPM) then introduce methane co-flow to be pyrolyzed within a closed cylindrical chamber (20 cm in diameter and 68 cm in length). The formed products are discharged through an exhaust with a sampling branch to measure emission characteristics. Carbon particles are sampled with a preheated nitrogen dilution system, and the size distribution of particles formed by pyrolysis is measured by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Dilution ratio is calculated using simultaneously measured CO2 concentrations in the exhaust products and diluted samples. Results show that particle size distribution (PSD) is strongly affected by dilution ratio and preheating temperature. PSD becomes unstable at high dilution ratios (typically above 700 times) and/or low preheating temperatures (below 40° C). At a suitable dilution ratio of 55 and preheating temperature up to 70° C, the median diameter of PSD increases from 20 to 220 nm following the introduction of 0.5 SLPM of methane to the propane-air premixed flame. Furthermore, with pyrolysis of methane, total particle number concentration and estimated total mass concentration of particles in the size range of 14 to 700 nm, increase from 1.12 to 3.90 *107 cm-3 and from 0.11 to 154 µg L-1, respectively.

Keywords: laminar premixed flame, methane pyrolysis, nanoparticle physical characteristics, particle mass concentration, particle number concentration, particle size distribution (PSD)

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12299 Mordenite as Catalyst Support for Complete Volatile Organic Compounds Oxidation

Authors: Yuri A. Kalvachev, Totka D. Todorova


Zeolite mordenite has been investigated as a transition metal support for the preparation of efficient catalysts in the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The highly crystalline mordenite samples were treated with hydrofluoric acid and ammonium fluoride to get hierarchical material with secondary porosity. The obtained supports by this method have a high active surface area, good diffusion properties and prevent the extraction of metal components during catalytic reactions. The active metal phases platinum and copper were loaded by impregnation on both mordenite materials (parent and acid treated counterparts). Monometalic Pt and Cu, and bimetallic Pt/Cu catalysts were obtained. The metal phases were fine dispersed as nanoparticles on the functional porous materials. The catalysts synthesized in this way were investigated in the reaction of complete oxidation of propane and benzene. Platinum, copper and platinum/copper were loaded and there catalytic activity was investigated and compared. All samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron measurements (XPS) and temperature programed reduction (TPR). The catalytic activity of the samples obtained is investigated in the reaction of complete oxidation of propane and benzene by using of Gas Chromatography (GC). The oxidation of three organic molecules was investigated—methane, propane and benzene. The activity of metal loaded mordenite catalysts for methane oxidation is almost the same for parent and treated mordenite as a support. For bigger molecules as propane and benzene, the activity of catalysts based on treated mordenite is higher than those based on parent zeolite.

Keywords: metal loaded catalysts, mordenite, VOCs oxidation, zeolites

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12298 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri


In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, high temperature oxidation, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure

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12297 Separate Production of Hydrogen and Methane from Ethanol Wastewater Using Two-Stage UASB: Micronutrient Transportation

Authors: S. Jaikeaw, S. Chavadej


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of COD loading rate on hydrogen and methane production and micronutrient transportation using a two-stage upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system under mesophilic temperature (37°C) with a constant recycle ratio of 1:1 (final effluent flow rate: feed flow rate). The first (hydrogen) UASB unit having 4 L liquid holding volume was controlled at pH 5.5 but the second (methane) UASB unit having 24 L liquid holding volume had no pH control. The two-stage UASB system operated at different COD loading rates from 8 to 20 kg/m³d based on total UASB working volume. The results showed that, at the optimum COD loading rate of 13 kg/m³d, the produced gas from the hydrogen UASB unit contained 1.5% H₂, 16.5% CH₄, and 82% CO₂ with H₂S of 252 ppm and also provided a hydrogen yield of 1.66 mL/g COD removed (or 0.56 mL/g COD applied) and a specific hydrogen production rate of 156.85 ml H₂/LRd (or 5.12 ml H₂/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, the produced gas from the methane UASB unit mainly contained methane and carbon dioxide without hydrogen of 74 and 26%, respectively with hydrogen sulfide of 287 ppm and the system also provided a maximum methane yield of 407.00 mL/g COD removed (or 263.23 mL/g COD applied) and a specific methane production rate of 2081.44 ml CH₄/LRd (or 99.75 ml CH₄/g MLVSS d). Under the optimum COD loading rate, all micronutrients markedly dropped by the sulfide precipitation reactions. The reduction of micronutrients mostly appeared in the methane UASB unit. Under the studied conditions, both Co and Ni were found to be greatly precipitated out, causing the deficiency to microbial activity. It is hypothesized that an addition of both Co and Ni can improve the methanogenic activity.

Keywords: hydrogen and methane production, ethanol wastewater, a two-stage upflow anaerobic blanket (UASB) system, mesophillic temperature, microbial concentration (MLVSS), micronutrients

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12296 In vitro Evaluation of the Anti-Methanogenic Properties of Australian Native and Some Exotic Plants with a View of Their Potential Role in Management of Ruminant Livestock Emissions

Authors: Philip Vercoe, Ali Hardan


Samples of 29 Australian wild natives and exotic plants were tested in vitro batch rumen culture system for their methanogenic characteristics and potential usage as feed or antimicrobial to enhance sustainable livestock ruminant production system. The plants were tested for their in vitro rumen fermentation end products properties which include: methane production, total gas pressure, concentrations of total volatile fatty acids, ammonia, and acetate to propionate ratio. All of the plants were produced less methane than the positive control (i.e., oaten chaff) in vitro. Nearly 50 % of plants inhibiting methane by over 50% in comparison to the control. Eremophila granitica had the strongest inhibitory effect about 92 % on methane production comparing with oaten chaff. The exotic weed Arctotheca calendula (Capeweed) had the highest concentration of volatile fatty acids production as well as the highest in total gas pressure among all plants and the control. Some of the acacia species have the lowest production of total gas pressure. The majority of the plants produced more ammonia than the oaten chaff control. The plant species that produced the most ammonia was Codonocarpus cotinifolius, producing over 3 times as much methane as oaten chaff control while the lowest was Eremophila galeata. There was strong positive correlation between methane production and total gas production as well as between total gas production and the concentration of VFA produced with R² = 0.74, R² = 0.84, respectively. While there was weak positive correlation between methane production and the acetate to propionate ratio as well as between the concentration of VFA produced and methane production with R² = 0.41, R² = 0.52, respectively.

Keywords: in vitro Rumen Fermentation, methane, wild Australian native plants, forages

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12295 Microstructure and Oxidation Behaviors of Al, Y Modified Silicide Coatings Prepared on an Nb-Si Based Ultrahigh Temperature Alloy

Authors: Xiping Guo, Jing Li


The microstructure of an Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating prepared on an Nb-Si based ultra high temperature alloy by pack cementation process at 1250°C for eight hours was studied. The results showed that the coating was composed of a (Nb,X)Si₂ (X represents Ti, Cr and Hf elements) outer layer, a (Ti,Nb)₅Si₄ middle layer and an Al, Cr-rich inner layer. For comparison, the oxidation behaviors of the coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C were investigated respectively. Linear oxidation kinetics was found with the parabolic rate constants of 5.29×10⁻², 9×10⁻²and 5.81 mg² cm⁻⁴ h⁻¹, respectively. Catastrophic pesting oxidation has not been found at 800°C even for 100 h. The surface of the scale was covered by compact glassy SiO₂ film. The coating was able to effectively protect the Nb-Si based alloy from oxidation at 1350°C for at least 100 h. The formation process of the scale was testified following an epitaxial growth mechanism. The mechanism responsible for the oxidation behavior of the Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C was proposed.

Keywords: Nb-Si based ultra high temperature alloy, oxidation resistance, pack cementation, silicide coating, Al and Y modified

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12294 Anaerobic Digestion of Green Wastes at Different Solids Concentrations and Temperatures to Enhance Methane Generation

Authors: A. Bayat, R. Bello-Mendoza, D. G. Wareham


Two major categories of green waste are fruit and vegetable (FV) waste and garden and yard (GY) waste. Although, anaerobic digestions (AD) is able to manage FV waste; there is less confidence in the conditions for AD to handle GY wastes (grass, leaves, trees and bush trimmings); mainly because GY contains lignin and other recalcitrant organics. GY in the dry state (TS ≥ 15 %) can be digested at mesophilic temperatures; however, little methane data has been reported under thermophilic conditions, where conceivably better methane yields could be achieved. In addition, it is suspected that at lower solids concentrations, the methane yield could be increased. As such, the aim of this research is to find the temperature and solids concentration conditions that produce the most methane; under two different temperature regimes (mesophilic, thermophilic) and three solids states (i.e. 'dry', 'semi-dry' and 'wet'). Twenty liters of GY waste was collected from a public park located in the northern district in Tehran. The clippings consisted of freshly cut grass as well as dry branches and leaves. The GY waste was chopped before being fed into a mechanical blender that reduced it to a paste-like consistency. An initial TS concentration of approximately 38 % was achieved. Four hundred mL of anaerobic inoculum (average total solids (TS) concentration of 2.03 ± 0.131 % of which 73.4% were volatile solid (VS), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) of 4.59 ± 0.3 g/L) was mixed with the GY waste substrate paste (along with distilled water) to achieve a TS content of approximately 20 %. For comparative purposes, approximately 20 liters of FV waste was ground in the same manner as the GY waste. Since FV waste has a much higher natural water content than GY, it was dewatered to obtain a starting TS concentration in the dry solid-state range (TS ≥ 15 %). Three samples were dewatered to an average starting TS concentration of 32.71 %. The inoculum was added (along with distilled water) to dilute the initial FV TS concentrations down to semi-dry conditions (10-15 %) and wet conditions (below 10 %). Twelve 1-L batch bioreactors were loaded simultaneously with either GY or FV waste at TS solid concentrations ranging from 3.85 ± 1.22 % to 20.11 ± 1.23 %. The reactors were sealed and were operated for 30 days while being immersed in water baths to maintain a constant temperature of 37 ± 0.5 °C (mesophilic) or 55 ± 0.5 °C (thermophilic). A maximum methane yield of 115.42 (L methane/ kg VS added) was obtained for the GY thermophilic-wet AD combination. Methane yield was enhanced by 240 % compared to the GY waste mesophilic-dry condition. The results confirm that high temperature regimes and small solids concentrations are conditions that enhance methane yield from GY waste. A similar trend was observed for the anaerobic digestion of FV waste. Furthermore, a maximum value of VS (53 %) and sCOD (84 %) reduction was achieved during the AD of GY waste under the thermophilic-wet condition.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, thermophilic, mesophilic, total solids concentration

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12293 High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Aluminized Steel by Arc Spray and Cementation Techniques

Authors: Minoo Tavakoli, Alireza Kiani Rashid, Abbas Afrasiabi


An aluminum coating deposited on mild steel substrate by electric arc spray and diffused to the base steel material by diffusion treatment at 800 and 900°C for 1 and 3 hours in a static air. Alloy layers formed by diffusion at both temperatures were investigated, and their features were compared with those of pack cementation aluminized steel. High-temperature oxidation tests were carried out in air at 600 °C for 145 hours. Results indicated that the aluminide coatings obtained from this process have significantly improved the high-temperature oxidation resistance in both methods due to the Al2O3 scale formation. Furthermore, it showed that the isothermal oxidation resistance of arc spray technique is better than pack cementation method. This can be attributed to voids that formed at the intermetallic layer /Al layer interface which is increased in the pack cementation method.

Keywords: electric arc spray, pack cementation, oxidation resistance, aluminized steel

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12292 Influence of Grain Shape, Size and Grain Boundary Diffusion on High Temperature Oxidation of Metal

Authors: Sneha Samal, Iva Petrikova, Bohdana Marvalova


Influence of grain size, shape and grain boundary diffusion at high temperature oxidation of pure metal is investigated as the function of microstructure evolution in this article. The oxidized scale depends on the geometrical parameter of the metal-scale system and grain shape, size, diffusion through boundary layers and influence of the contamination. The creation of the inner layer and the morphological structure develops from the internal stress generated during the growth of the scale. The oxidation rate depends on the cation and anion mobile transport of the metal in the inward and outward direction of the diffusion layer. Oxidation rate decreases with decreasing the grain size of the pure metal, whereas zinc deviates from this principle. A strong correlation between the surface roughness evolution, grain size, crystalline properties and oxidation mechanism of the oxidized metal was established.

Keywords: high temperature oxidation, pure metals, grain size, shape and grain boundary

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12291 The Effect of System Parameters on the Biogas Production from Poultry Rendering Plant Anaerobic Digesters

Authors: N. Lovanh, J. Loughrin, G. Ruiz-Aguilar


Animal wastes can serve as the feedstock for biogas production (mainly methane) that could be used as alternative energy source. The green energy derived from animal wastes is considered to be carbon neutral and offsetting those generated from fossil fuels. In this study, an evaluation of system parameters on methane production from anaerobic digesters utilizing poultry rendering plant wastewater was carried out. Anaerobic batch reactors and continuous flow system subjected to different operation conditions (i.e., flow rate, temperature, and etc.) containing poultry rendering wastewater were set up to evaluate methane potential from each scenario. Biogas productions were sampled and monitored by gas chromatography and photoacoustic gas analyzer over six months of operation. The results showed that methane productions increased as the temperature increased. However, there is an upper limit to the increase in the temperature on the methane production. Flow rates and type of systems (batch vs. plug-flow regime) also had a major effect on methane production. Constant biogas production was observed in plug-flow system whereas batch system produced biogas quicker and tapering off toward the end of the six-month study. Based on these results, it is paramount to consider operating conditions and system setup in optimizing biogas production from agricultural wastewater.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, methane, poultry rendering wastewater, biotechnology

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12290 Simulation of the Performance of the Reforming of Methane in a Primary Reformer

Authors: A. Alkattib, M. Boumaza


Steam reforming is industrially important as it is incorporated in several major chemical processes including the production of ammonia, methanol, hydrogen and ox alcohols. Due to the strongly endothermic nature of the process, a large amount of heat is supplied by fuel burning (commonly natural gas) in the furnace chamber. Reaction conversions, tube catalyst life, energy consumption and CO2 emission represent the principal factors affecting the performance of this unit and are directly influenced by the high operating temperatures and pressures. This study presents a simulation of the performance of the reforming of methane in a primary reformer, through a developed empirical relation which enables to investigate the effects of operating parameters such as the pressure, temperature, steam to carbon ratio on the production of hydrogen, as well as the fraction of non-converted methane. It appears from this analysis that the exit temperature Te, the operating pressure as well the steam to carbon ratio has an important effect on the reforming of methane.

Keywords: reforming, methane, performance, hydrogen, parameters

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12289 Optimizing Oxidation Process Parameters of Al-Li Base Alloys Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Muna K. Abbass, Laith A. Mohammed, Muntaha K. Abbas


The oxidation of Al-Li base alloy containing small amounts of rare earth (RE) oxides such as 0.2 wt% Y2O3 and 0.2wt% Nd2O3 particles have been studied at temperatures: 400ºC, 500ºC and 550°C for 60hr in a dry air. Alloys used in this study were prepared by melting and casting in a permanent steel mould under controlled atmosphere. Identification of oxidation kinetics was carried out by using weight gain/surface area (∆W/A) measurements while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction analysis were used for micro structural morphologies and phase identification of the oxide scales. It was observed that the oxidation kinetic for all studied alloys follows the parabolic law in most experimental tests under the different oxidation temperatures. It was also found that the alloy containing 0.2 wt %Y 2O3 particles possess the lowest oxidation rate and shows great improvements in oxidation resistance compared to the alloy containing 0.2 wt % Nd2O3 particles and Al-Li base alloy. In this work, Taguchi method is performed to estimate the optimum weight gain /area (∆W/A) parameter in oxidation process of Al-Li base alloys to obtain a minimum thickness of oxidation layer. Taguchi method is used to formulate the experimental layout, to analyses the effect of each parameter (time, temperature and alloy type) on the oxidation generation and to predict the optimal choice for each parameter and analyzed the effect of these parameters on the weight gain /area (∆W/A) parameter. The analysis shows that, the temperature significantly affects on the (∆W/A) parameter.

Keywords: Al-Li base alloy, oxidation, Taguchi method, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
12288 Increase Daily Production Rate of Methane Through Pasteurization Cow Dung

Authors: Khalid Elbadawi Elshafea, Mahmoud Hassan Onsa


This paper presents the results of the experiments to measure the impact of pasteurization cows dung on important parameter of anaerobic digestion (retention time) and measure the effect in daily production rate of biogas, were used local materials in these experiments, two experiments were carried out in two bio-digesters (1 and 2) (18.0 L), volume of the mixture 16.0-litre and the mass of dry matter in the mixture 4.0 Kg of cow dung. Pasteurization process has been conducted on the mixture into the digester 2, and put two digesters under room temperature. Digester (1) produced 268.5 liter of methane in period of 49 days with daily methane production rate 1.37L/Kg/day, and digester (2) produced 302.7-liter of methane in period of 26 days with daily methane production rate 2.91 L/Kg/day. This study concluded that the use of system pasteurization cows dung speed up hydrolysis in anaerobic process, because heat to certain temperature in certain time lead to speed up chemical reactions (transfer Protein to Amino acids, Carbohydrate to Sugars and Fat to Long chain fatty acids), this lead to reduce the retention time an therefore increase the daily methane production rate with 212%.

Keywords: methane, cow dung, daily production, pasteurization, increase

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
12287 Impact of Soot on NH3-SCR, NH3 Oxidation and NH3 TPD over Cu/SSZ-13 Zeolite

Authors: Lidija Trandafilovic, Kirsten Leistner, Marie Stenfeldt, Louise Olsson


Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction (NH3 SCR), is one of the most efficient post combustion abatement technologies for removing NOx from diesel engines. In order to remove soot, diesel particulate filters (DPF) are used. Recently, SCR coated filters have been introduced, which captures soot and simultaneously is active for ammonia SCR. There are large advantages with using SCR coated filters, such as decreased volume and also better light off characteristics, since both the SCR function as well as filter function is close to the engine. The objective of this work was to examine the effect of soot, produced using an engine bench, on Cu/SSZ-13 catalysts. The impact of soot on Cu/SSZ-13 in standard SCR, NH3 oxidation, NH3 temperature programmed desorption (TPD), as well as soot oxidation (with and without water) was examined using flow reactor measurements. In all experiments, prior to the soot loading, the fresh activity of Cu/SSZ-13 was recorded with stepwise increasing the temperature from 100°C till 600°C. Thereafter, the sample was loaded with soot and the experiment was repeated in the temperature range from 100°C till 700°C. The amount of CO and CO2 produced in each experiment is used to calculate the soot oxidized at each steady state temperature. The soot oxidized during the heating to next temperature step is included, e.g. the CO+CO2 produced when increasing the temperature to 600°C is added to the 600°C step. The influence of the two factors seem to be of the most importance to soot oxidation: ammonia and water. The influence of water on soot oxidation shift the maximum of CO2 and CO production towards lower temperatures, thus water increases the soot oxidation. Moreover, when adding ammonia to the system it is clear that the soot oxidation is lowered in the presence of ammonia, resulting in larger integrated COx at 500°C for O2+H2O, while opposite results at 600 °C was received where more was oxidised for O2+H2O+NH3 case. To conclude the presence of ammonia reduces the soot oxidation, which is in line with the ammonia TPD results where we found ammonia storage on the soot. Interestingly, during ammonia SCR conditions the activity for soot oxidation is regained at 500°C. At this high temperature the SCR zone is very short, thus the majority of the catalyst is not exposed to ammonia and therefore the inhibition effect of ammonia is not observed.

Keywords: NH3-SCR, Cu/SSZ-13, soot, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
12286 Investigation of the NO2 Formation in the Exhaust Duct of a Dual Fuel Test Engine

Authors: Ehsan Arabian, Thomas Sattelmayer


The formation of nitrogen dioxide NO2 in the exhaust duct of a MAN dual fuel test engine has been investigated numerically. The dual fuel engine concept with premixed lean methane combustion ignited through diesel pilot flames reveals high potential for the abatement of the NOx formation. The drawback of this combustion method, however, is the high NO2 formation due to the increasing concentration of unburned hydrocarbons. This promotes the conversion of NO to NO2, which is toxic and characterized through its yellow color. The results presented in this paper cover a wide range of engine operation points from full load to part load for different air to fuel ratios. The effects of temperature, pressure and concentrations of unburned methane and nitric oxide on NO2 formation in the exhaust duct has been investigated on the basis of a zero-dimensional well stirred reactor model implemented in Cantera, which calculates the steady state of a uniform composition for a certain residence time. It can be shown that the simulated conversion of NO to NO2 match the experimental results fairly well. The partial oxidation of methane followed by CO production can be predicted as well. It can also be concluded that the lower temperature limit for which no conversion takes place, depends mainly on the concentration of the unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust.

Keywords: cantera, dual fuel engines, exhaust tract, numerical modeling of NO2 formation, well stirred reactor

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12285 Kinetic Rate Comparison of Methane Catalytic Combustion of Palladium Catalysts Impregnated onto ɤ-Alumina and Bio-Char

Authors: Noor S. Nasri, Eric C. A. Tatt, Usman D. Hamza, Jibril Mohammed, Husna M. Zain


Climate change has becoming a global environmental issue that may trigger irreversible changes in the environment with catastrophic consequences for human, animals and plants on our planet. Methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide are the greenhouse gases (GHG) and as the main factor that significantly contributes to the global warming. Mainly carbon dioxide be produced and released to atmosphere by thermal industrial and power generation sectors. Methane is dominant component of natural gas releases significant of thermal heat, and the gaseous pollutants when homogeneous thermal combustion takes place at high temperature. Heterogeneous catalytic Combustion (HCC) principle is promising technologies towards environmental friendly energy production should be developed to ensure higher yields with lower pollutants gaseous emissions and perform complete combustion oxidation at moderate temperature condition as comparing to homogeneous high thermal combustion. Hence the principle has become a very interesting alternative total oxidation for the treatment of pollutants gaseous emission especially NOX product formation. Noble metals are dispersed on a support-porous HCC such as γ- Al2O3, TiO2 and ThO2 to increase thermal stability of catalyst and to increase to effectiveness of catalytic combustion. Support-porous HCC material to be selected based on factors of the surface area, porosity, thermal stability, thermal conductivity, reactivity with reactants or products, chemical stability, catalytic activity, and catalyst life. γ- Al2O3 with high catalytic activity and can last longer life of catalyst, is commonly used as the support for Pd catalyst at low temperatures. Sustainable and renewable support-material of bio-mass char was derived from agro-industrial waste material and used to compare with those the conventional support-porous material. The abundant of biomass wastes generated in palm oil industries is one potential source to convert the wastes into sustainable material as replacement of support material for catalysts. Objective of this study was to compare the kinetic rate of reaction the combustion of methane on Palladium (Pd) based catalyst with Al2O3 support and bio-char (Bc) support derived from shell kernel. The 2wt% Pd was prepared using incipient wetness impregnation method and the HCC performance was accomplished using tubular quartz reactor with gas mixture ratio of 3% methane and 97% air. Material characterization was determined using TGA, SEM, and BET surface area. The methane porous-HCC conversion was carried out by online gas analyzer connected to the reactor that performed porous-HCC. BET surface area for prepared 2 wt% Pd/Bc is smaller than prepared 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3 due to its low porosity between particles. The order of catalyst activity based on kinetic rate on reaction of catalysts in low temperature is prepared 2wt% Pd/Bc > calcined 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3 > prepared 2wt% Pd/ Al2O3 > calcined 2wt% Pd/Bc. Hence the usage of agro-industrial bio-mass waste material can enhance the sustainability principle.

Keywords: catalytic-combustion, environmental, support-bio-char material, sustainable and renewable material

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
12284 Modeling of Hydrogen Production by Inductively Coupled Methane Plasma for Input Power Pin=700W

Authors: Abdelatif Gadoum, Djilali Benyoucef, Mouloudj Hadj, Alla Eddine Toubal Maamar, Mohamed Habib Allah Lahoual


Hydrogen occurs naturally in the form of chemical compounds, most often in water and hydrocarbons. The main objective of this study is 2D modeling of hydrogen production in inductively coupled plasma in methane at low pressure. In the present model, we include the motions and the collisions of both neutral and charged particles by considering 19 species (i.e in total ; neutrals, radicals, ions, and electrons), and more than 120 reactions (electron impact with methane, neutral-neutral, neutral-ions and surface reactions). The results show that the rate conversion of methane reach 90% and the hydrogen production is about 30%.

Keywords: hydrogen production, inductively coupled plasma, fluid model, methane plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
12283 Quantification of Methane Emissions from Solid Waste in Oman Using IPCC Default Methodology

Authors: Wajeeha A. Qazi, Mohammed-Hasham Azam, Umais A. Mehmood, Ghithaa A. Al-Mufragi, Noor-Alhuda Alrawahi, Mohammed F. M. Abushammala


Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposed in landfill sites decompose under anaerobic conditions and produce gases which mainly contain carbon dioxide (CO₂) and methane (CH₄). Methane has the potential of causing global warming 25 times more than CO₂, and can potentially affect human life and environment. Thus, this research aims to determine MSW generation and the annual CH₄ emissions from the generated waste in Oman over the years 1971-2030. The estimation of total waste generation was performed using existing models, while the CH₄ emissions estimation was performed using the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) default method. It is found that total MSW generation in Oman might be reached 3,089 Gg in the year 2030, which approximately produced 85 Gg of CH₄ emissions in the year 2030.

Keywords: methane, emissions, landfills, solid waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
12282 Reaction Rate Behavior of a Methane-Air Mixture over a Platinum Catalyst in a Single Channel Catalytic Reactor

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Catalytic combustion is an environmentally friendly technique to combust fuels in gas turbines. In this paper, the behavior of surface reaction rate on catalytic combustion is studied with respect to the heterogeneous oxidation of methane-air mixture in a catalytic reactor. Plug flow reactor (PFR), the simplified single catalytic channel assists in investigating the catalytic combustion phenomenon over the Pt catalyst by promoting the desired chemical reactions. The numerical simulation with multi-step elementary surface reactions is governed by the availability of free surface sites onto the catalytic surface and thereby, the catalytic combustion characteristics are demonstrated by examining the rate of the reaction for lean fuel mixture. Further, two different surface reaction mechanisms are adopted and compared for surface reaction rates to indicate the controlling heterogeneous reaction for better fuel conversion. The performance of platinum catalyst under heterogeneous reaction is analyzed under the same temperature condition, where the catalyst with the higher kinetic rate of reaction would have a maximum catalytic activity for enhanced methane catalytic combustion.

Keywords: catalytic combustion, heterogeneous reaction, plug flow reactor, surface reaction rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
12281 Calculation of Methane Emissions from Wetlands in Slovakia via IPCC Methodology

Authors: Jozef Mindas, Jana Skvareninova


Wetlands are a main natural source of methane emissions, but they also represent the important biodiversity reservoirs in the landscape. There are about 26 thousands hectares of wetlands in Slovakia identified via the wetlands monitoring program. Created database of wetlands in Slovakia allows to analyze several ecological processes including also the methane emissions estimate. Based on the information from the database, the first estimate of the methane emissions from wetlands in Slovakia has been done. The IPCC methodology (Tier 1 approach) has been used with proposed emission factors for the ice-free period derived from the climatic data. The highest methane emissions of nearly 550 Gg are associated with the category of fens. Almost 11 Gg of methane is emitted from bogs, and emissions from flooded lands represent less than 8 Gg.

Keywords: bogs, methane emissions, Slovakia, wetlands

Procedia PDF Downloads 145