Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 573

Search results for: ball lens

573 A Mathematical Model for 3-DOF Rotary Accuracy Measurement Method Based on a Ball Lens

Authors: Hau-Wei Lee, Yu-Chi Liu, Chien-Hung Liu


A mathematical model is presented for a system that measures rotational errors in a shaft using a ball lens. The geometric optical characteristics of the ball lens mounted on the shaft allows the measurement of rotation axis errors in both the radial and axial directions. The equipment used includes two quadrant detectors (QD), two laser diodes and a ball lens that is mounted on the rotating shaft to be evaluated. Rotational errors in the shaft cause changes in the optical geometry of the ball lens. The resulting deflection of the laser beams is detected by the QDs and their output signals are used to determine rotational errors. The radial and the axial rotational errors can be calculated as explained by the mathematical model. Results from system calibration show that the measurement error is within ±1 m and resolution is about 20 nm. Using a direct drive motor (DD motor) as an example, experimental results show a rotational error of less than 20 m. The most important features of this system are that it does not require the use of expensive optical components, it is small, very easy to set up, and measurements are highly accurate.

Keywords: ball lens, quadrant detector, axial error, radial error

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
572 Fracture Control of the Soda-Lime Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin


The effects of the contact ball-lens on the soda lime glass in laser thermal cleavage with a cw Nd-YAG laser were investigated in this study. A contact ball-lens was adopted to generate a bending force on the crack formation of the soda-lime glass in the laser cutting process. The Nd-YAG laser beam (wavelength of 1064 nm) was focused through the ball-lens and transmitted to the soda-lime glass, which was coated with a carbon film on the surface with a bending force from a ball-lens to generate a tensile stress state on the surface cracking. The fracture was controlled by the contact ball-lens and a straight cutting was tested to demonstrate the feasibility. Experimental observations on the crack propagation from the leading edge, main section and trailing edge of the glass sheet were compared with various mechanical and thermal loadings. Further analyses on the stress under various laser powers and contact ball loadings were made to characterize the innovative technology. The results show that the distributions of the side crack at the leading and trailing edges are mainly dependent on the boundary condition, contact force, cutting speed and laser power. With the increase of the mechanical and thermal loadings, the region of the side cracks might be dramatically reduced with proper selection of the geometrical constraints. Therefore, the application of the contact ball-lens is a possible way to control the fracture in laser cleavage with improved cutting qualities.

Keywords: laser cleavage, stress analysis, crack visualization, laser

Procedia PDF Downloads 369
571 Using Divergent Nozzle with Aerodynamic Lens to Focus Nanoparticles

Authors: Hasan Jumaah Mrayeh, Fue-Sang Lien


ANSYS Fluent will be used to simulate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for an efficient lens and nozzle design which will be explained in this paper. We have designed and characterized an aerodynamic lens and a divergent nozzle for focusing flow that transmits sub 25 nm particles through the aerodynamic lens. The design of the lens and nozzle has been improved using CFD for particle trajectories. We obtained a case for calculating nanoparticles (25 nm) flowing through the aerodynamic lens and divergent nozzle. Nanoparticles are transported by air, which is pumped into the aerodynamic lens through the nozzle at 1 atmospheric pressure. We have also developed a computational methodology that can determine the exact focus characteristics of aerodynamic lens systems. Particle trajectories were traced using the Lagrange approach. The simulation shows the ability of the aerodynamic lens to focus on 25 nm particles after using a divergent nozzle.

Keywords: aerodynamic lens, divergent nozzle, ANSYS Fluent, Lagrange approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
570 Preparation and Characterization of Nano-Metronidazole by Planetary Ball-Milling

Authors: Shahriar Ghammamy, Maryam Gholipoor


Metronidazole nano -powders with the average mean particle size around 90 nm were synthesized by high-energy milling using a planetary ball mill is provided. The Scattering factors, milling of time,the ball size and ball to powder ratio on the material properties powder by the Ray diffraction (XRD) study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), IR. It has been observed that the density of nano-sized grinding balls as ball to powder ratio depends. Using the dispersion factor, the density Can be reduced below the initial particle size was achieved.

Keywords: metronidazole, ball-milling, nanoparticles, characterization, XRD diffraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
569 Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of the Hydraulic L-Shaped Check Ball Behavior

Authors: Shinji Kajiwara


The spring-driven ball-type check valve is one of the most important components of hydraulic systems: it controls the position of the ball and prevents backward flow. To simplify the structure, the spring must be eliminated, and to accomplish this, the flow pattern and the behavior of the check ball in L-shaped pipe must be determined. In this paper, we present a full-scale model of a check ball made of acrylic resin, and we determine the relationship between the initial position of the ball, the position and diameter of the inflow port. The check flow rate increases in a standard center inflow model, and it is possible to greatly decrease the check-flow rate by shifting the inflow from the center.

Keywords: hydraulics, pipe flow, numerical simulation, flow visualization, check ball, L-shaped pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
568 Application of Modal Analysis for Commissioning of a Ball Screw System

Authors: T. D. Tran, H. Schlegel, R. Neugebauer


Ball screws are an important component in machine tools. In mechatronic systems and machine tools, a ball screw has to work usually at a high speed. Otherwise the axial compliance of the ball screw, in combination with the inertia of the slide, the motor, the coupling and the screw, will cause an oscillation resonance, which limits the systems bandwidth and consequently influences performance of the motion controller. In this paper, the modal analysis method by measuring and analysing the vibrating parameters of the ball screw system to determine the dynamic characteristic of existing structures is used. On the one hand, the results of this study were obtained by the theoretical analysis and the modal testing of a ball screw system test station with the help of an impact hammer, respectively using excitation by motor. The experimental study showed oscillating forms of the ball screw for each frequency and obtained eigenfrequencies of the ball screw system. On the other hand, in this research a simulation with the help of the numerical modal analysis in order to analyse the oscillation and to find the eigenfrequencies of the ball screw system is used. Furthermore, the model order reduction by modal reduction and also according to Guyan is carried out. On the basis of these results a secure and also rapid commissioning of the control loops with regard to operating in their optimal function is targeted.

Keywords: modal analysis, ball screw, controller system, machine tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
567 Highly Accurate Tennis Ball Throwing Machine with Intelligent Control

Authors: Ferenc Kovács, Gábor Hosszú


The paper presents an advanced control system for tennis ball throwing machines to improve their accuracy according to the ball impact points. A further advantage of the system is the much easier calibration process involving the intelligent solution of the automatic adjustment of the stroking parameters according to the ball elasticity, the self-calibration, the use of the safety margin at very flat strokes and the possibility to placing the machine to any position of the half court. The system applies mathematical methods to determine the exact ball trajectories and special approximating processes to access all points on the aimed half court.

Keywords: control system, robot programming, robot control, sports equipment, throwing machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
566 Developing an Intelligent Table Tennis Ball Machine with Human Play Simulation for Technical Training

Authors: Chen-Chi An, Jun-Yi He, Cheng-Han Hsieh, Chen-Ching Ting


This research has successfully developed an intelligent table tennis ball machine with human play simulate all situations of human play to take the service. It is well known; an excellent ball machine can help the table tennis coach to provide more efficient teaching, also give players the good technical training and entertainment. An excellent ball machine should be able to service all balls based on human play simulation due to the conventional competitions are today all taken place for people. In this work, two counter-rotating wheels are used to service the balls, where changing the absolute rotating speeds of the two wheels and the differences of rotating speeds between the two wheels can adjust the struck forces and the rotating speeds of the ball. The relationships between the absolute rotating speed of the two wheels and the struck forces of the ball as well as the differences rotating speeds between the two wheels and the rotating speeds of the ball are experimentally determined for technical development. The outlet speed, the ejected distance, and the rotating speed of the ball were measured by changing the absolute rotating speeds of the two wheels in terms of a series of differences in rotating speed between the two wheels for calibration of the ball machine; where the outlet speed and the ejected distance of the ball were further converted to the struck forces of the ball. In process, the balls serviced by the intelligent ball machine were based on the received calibration curves with help of the computer. Experiments technically used photosensitive devices to detect the outlet and rotating speed of the ball. Finally, this research developed some teaching programs for technical training using three ball machines and received more efficient training.

Keywords: table tennis, ball machine, human play simulation, counter-rotating wheels

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
565 Electromyographic Analysis of Trunk Muscle Activity of Healthy Individuals While Catching a Ball on Three Different Seating Surfaces

Authors: Hanan H. ALQahtani, Karen Jones


Catching a ball during sitting is a functional exercise commonly used in rehabilitation to enhance trunk muscle activity. To progress this exercise, physiotherapists incorporate a Swiss ball or change seat height. However, no study has assessed the effect of different seating surfaces on trunk muscle activity while catching a ball. Objective: To investigate the effect of catching a ball during sitting on a Swiss ball, a low seat and a high seat on trunk muscle activity. Method: A repeated-measures, counterbalanced design was used. A total of 26 healthy participants (15 female and 11 male) performed three repetitions of catching a ball on each seating surface. Using surface electromyography (sEMG), the activity of the bilateral transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA), erector spinae (ES) and lumbar multifidus (MF) was recorded. Trunk muscle activity was normalized using maximum voluntary isometric contraction and analyzed. Statistical significance was set at p ≤ .05. Results: No significant differences were observed in the activity of RA, TrA/IO, ES or MF between a low seat and a Swiss ball. However, the activity of the right and left ES on a low seat was significantly greater than on a high seat (p = .017 and p = .017, respectively). Conversely, the activity of the right and left RA on a high seat was significantly greater than on a low seat (p = .007 and p = .004, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that replacing a low seat with a Swiss ball while catching a ball is insufficient to increase trunk muscle activity, whereas changing the seat height could induce different trunk muscle activities. However, research conducted on patients is needed before translating these results into clinical settings.

Keywords: catching, electromyography, seating, trunk

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
564 Complications of Contact Lens-Associated Keratitis: A Refresher for Emergency Departments

Authors: S. Selman, T. Gout


Microbial keratitis is a serious complication of contact lens wear that can be vision and eye-threatening. Diverse presentations relating to contact lens wear include dry corneal surface, corneal infiltrate, ulceration, scarring, and complete corneal melt leading to perforation. Contact lens wear is a major risk factor and, as such, is an important consideration in any patient presenting with a red eye in the primary care setting. This paper aims to provide an overview of the risk factors, common organisms, and spectrum of contact lens-associated keratitis (CLAK) complications. It will highlight some of the salient points relevant to the assessment and workup of patients suspected of CLAK in the emergency department based on the recent literature and therapeutic guidelines. An overview of the management principles will also be provided.

Keywords: microbial keratitis, corneal pathology, contact lens-associated complications, painful vision loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
563 Trajectory Tracking Controller Based on Normalized Right Coprime Factorization Technique for the Ball and Plate System

Authors: Martins Olatunbosun Babatunde, Muhammed Bashir Muazu, Emmanuel Adewale Adedokun


This paper presents the development of a double-loop trajectory-tracking controller for the ball and plate system (BPS) using the Normalized Right Coprime Factorization (NRCF) scheme.The Linear Algebraic (LA) method is used to design the inner loop required to stabilize the ball, while H-infinity NRCF method, that involved the lead-lag compensator design approach, is used to develop the outer loop that controls the plate. Simulation results show that the plate was stabilized at 0.2989 seconds and the ball was able to settle after 0.9646 seconds, with a trajectory tracking error of 0.0036. This shows that the controller has good adaptability and robustness.

Keywords: ball and plate system, normalized right coprime factorization, linear algebraic method, compensator, controller, tracking.

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
562 Parameters Influencing the Output Precision of a Lens-Lens Beam Generator Solar Concentrator

Authors: M. Tawfik, X. Tonnellier, C. Sansom


The Lens-Lens Beam Generator (LLBG) is a Fresnel-based optical concentrating technique which provides flexibility in selecting the solar receiver location compared to conventional techniques through generating a powerful concentrated collimated solar beam. In order to achieve that, two successive lenses are used and followed by a flat mirror. Hence the generated beam emerging from the LLBG has a high power flux which impinges on the target receiver, it is important to determine the precision of the system output. In this present work, mathematical investigation of different parameters affecting the precision of the output beam is carried out. These parameters include: Deflection in sun-facing lens and its holding arm, delay in updating the solar tracking system, and the flat mirror surface flatness. Moreover, relationships that describe the power lost due to the effect of each parameter are derived in this study.

Keywords: Fresnel lens, LLBG, solar concentrator, solar tracking

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
561 Study on Angle Measurement Interferometer around Any Axis Direction Selected by Transmissive Liquid Crystal Device

Authors: R. Furutani, G. Kikuchi


Generally, the optical interferometer system is too complicated and difficult to change the measurement items, pitch, yaw, and row, etc. In this article, the optical interferometer system using the transmissive Liquid Crystal Device (LCD) as the switch of the optical path was proposed. At first, the normal optical interferometer, Michelson interferometer, was constructed to measure the pitch angle and the yaw angle. In this optical interferometer, the ball lenses with the refractive indices of 2.0 were used as the retroreflectors. After that, the transmissive LCD was introduced as the switch to select the adequate optical path. In this article, these optical systems were constructed. Pitch measurement interferometer and yaw measurement interferometer were switched by the transmissive LCD. When the LCD was open for the yaw measurement, the yaw was sufficiently measured and optical path for the pitch measurement was blocked. On the other hand, when the LCD was open for the pitch measurement, the pitch was measured and the optical path for the yaw measurement was also blocked. In this article, the results of both of pitch measurement and yaw measurement were shown, and the result of blocked yaw measurement and pitch measurement were shown. As this measurement system was based on Michelson interferometer, the other measuring items, the deviation along the optical axis, the vertical deviation to the optical axis and row angle, could be measured by the additional ball lenses and the additional switching in future work.

Keywords: any direction angle, ball lens, laser interferometer, transmissive liquid crystal device

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
560 Robust Design of a Ball Joint Considering Uncertainties

Authors: Bong-Su Sin, Jong-Kyu Kim, Se-Il Song, Kwon-Hee Lee


An automobile ball joint is a pivoting element used to allow rotational motion between the parts of the steering and suspension system. And it plays a role in smooth transmission of steering movement, also reduction in impact from the road surface. A ball joint is under various repeated loadings that may cause cracks and abrasion. This damages lead to safety problems of a car, as well as reducing the comfort of the driver's ride, and raise questions about the ball joint procedure and the whole durability of the suspension system. Accordingly, it is necessary to ensure the high durability and reliability of a ball joint. The structural responses of stiffness and pull-out strength were then calculated to check if the design satisfies the related requirements. The analysis was sequentially performed, following the caulking process. In this process, the deformation and stress results obtained from the analysis were saved. Sequential analysis has a strong advantage, in that it can be analyzed by considering the deformed shape and residual stress. The pull-out strength means the required force to pull the ball stud out from the ball joint assembly. The low pull-out strength can deteriorate the structural stability and safety performances. In this study, two design variables and two noise factors were set up. Two design variables were the diameter of a stud and the angle of a socket. And two noise factors were defined as the uncertainties of Young's modulus and yield stress of a seat. The DOE comprises 81 cases using these conditions. Robust design of a ball joint was performed using the DOE. The pull-out strength was generated from the uncertainties in the design variables and the design parameters. The purpose of robust design is to find the design with target response and smallest variation.

Keywords: ball joint, pull-out strength, robust design, design of experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
559 Human Lens Metabolome: A Combined LC-MS and NMR Study

Authors: Vadim V. Yanshole, Lyudmila V. Yanshole, Alexey S. Kiryutin, Timofey D. Verkhovod, Yuri P. Tsentalovich


Cataract, or clouding of the eye lens, is the leading cause of vision impairment in the world. The lens tissue have very specific structure: It does not have vascular system, the lens proteins – crystallins – do not turnover throughout lifespan. The protection of lens proteins is provided by the metabolites which diffuse inside the lens from the aqueous humor or synthesized in the lens epithelial layer. Therefore, the study of changes in the metabolite composition of a cataractous lens as compared to a normal lens may elucidate the possible mechanisms of the cataract formation. Quantitative metabolomic profiles of normal and cataractous human lenses were obtained with the combined use of high-frequency nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and ion-pairing high-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution mass-spectrometric detection (LC-MS) methods. The quantitative content of more than fifty metabolites has been determined in this work for normal aged and cataractous human lenses. The most abundant metabolites in the normal lens are myo-inositol, lactate, creatine, glutathione, glutamate, and glucose. For the majority of metabolites, their levels in the lens cortex and nucleus are similar, with the few exceptions including antioxidants and UV filters: The concentrations of glutathione, ascorbate and NAD in the lens nucleus decrease as compared to the cortex, while the levels of the secondary UV filters formed from primary UV filters in redox processes increase. That confirms that the lens core is metabolically inert, and the metabolic activity in the lens nucleus is mostly restricted by protection from the oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation, UV filter spontaneous decomposition, or other factors. It was found that the metabolomic composition of normal and age-matched cataractous human lenses differ significantly. The content of the most important metabolites – antioxidants, UV filters, and osmolytes – in the cataractous nucleus is at least ten fold lower than in the normal nucleus. One may suppose that the majority of these metabolites are synthesized in the lens epithelial layer, and that age-related cataractogenesis might originate from the dysfunction of the lens epithelial cells. Comprehensive quantitative metabolic profiles of the human eye lens have been acquired for the first time. The obtained data can be used for the analysis of changes in the lens chemical composition occurring with age and with the cataract development.

Keywords: cataract, lens, NMR, LC-MS, metabolome

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
558 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Ball-End Milling Process upon Residual Stresses and Cutting Forces

Authors: Belkacem Chebil Sonia, Bensalem Wacef


The majority of ball end milling models includes only the influence of cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut). Furthermore, this influence is studied in most of works on cutting force. Therefore, this study proposes an accurate ball end milling process modeling which includes also the influence of tool workpiece inclination. In addition, a characterization of residual stresses resulting of thermo mechanical loading in the workpiece was also presented. Moreover, the study of the influence of tool workpiece inclination and cutting parameters was made on residual stresses distribution. In order to achieve the predetermination of cutting forces and residual stresses during a milling operation, a thermo mechanical three-dimensional numerical model of ball end milling was developed. Furthermore, an experimental companion of ball end milling tests was realized on a 5-axis machining center to determine the cutting forces and characterize the residual stresses. The simulation results are compared with the experiment to validate the Finite Element Model and subsequently identify the optimum inclination angle and cutting parameters.

Keywords: ball end milling, cutting forces, cutting parameters, residual stress, tool-workpiece inclination

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
557 Generating Arabic Fonts Using Rational Cubic Ball Functions

Authors: Fakharuddin Ibrahim, Jamaludin Md. Ali, Ahmad Ramli


In this paper, we will discuss about the data interpolation by using the rational cubic Ball curve. To generate a curve with a better and satisfactory smoothness, the curve segments must be connected with a certain amount of continuity. The continuity that we will consider is of type G1 continuity. The conditions considered are known as the G1 Hermite condition. A simple application of the proposed method is to generate an Arabic font satisfying the required continuity.

Keywords: data interpolation, rational ball curve, hermite condition, continuity

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
556 Influence of Ball Milling Time on Mechanical Properties of Porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag Alloy

Authors: M. J. Shivaram, Shashi Bhushan Arya, Jagannath Nayak, Bharat Bhooshan Panigrahi


Titanium and its alloys have become more significant implant materials due to their mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. Biomaterials can be produce by using the powder metallurgy (PM) methods and required properties can tailored by varying the processing parameters, such as ball milling time, space holder particles, and sintering temperature. The desired properties such as, structural and mechanical properties can be obtained by powder metallurgy method.  In the present study, deals with fabrication of solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy using high energy ball milling for different times (5 and 20 h). The resultant powder particles were used to fabricate solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy by adding space holder particles (NH4HCO3). The resultant powder particles, fabricated solid and porous samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compressive strength, elastic modulus and microhardness properties were investigated. Solid and porous Ti-20Nb-5Ag alloy samples showed good mechanical properties for 20 h ball milling time as compare to 5 h ball milling.

Keywords: ball milling, compressive strengths, microstructure, porous titanium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
555 Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves

Authors: Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong, Natasha Dejdumrong


Newton-Lagrange Interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for their constructions. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), there are some polynomial curves: Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves, which have linear time complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong algorithms, first, it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP or Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange curves can be taken.

Keywords: Lagrange interpolation, linear complexity, monomial matrix, Newton interpolation

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554 Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Ti3SiC2 and the Effect of TiC on Its

Authors: Bendaoudi Seif-Eddine, Bounazef Mokhtar


Wear behaviour of Ti3SiC2 coating in contact sliding under dry condition have been investigated on different pressures (0.1-0.8 MPa) at various speeds from 5 to 60 m/s. The ball-on-disc sliding-wear test was performed in ambient air with a relative humidity of 20%. An equation has been proposed to predict wear rates and describe sliding wear caused by Corundum ball on the studied material. The results show how the wear rate, measured by mass loss, varies in the range of (0.6 – 3.8 x E-6 mm3/Nm) with normal sliding distance under various test conditions; it increases with increasing load and rapidly with speed. The influence of TiC impurities on the wear behaviours was also investigated.

Keywords: ball-on-disc, dry-sliding, Ti3SiC2, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
553 Graphene-Based Reconfigurable Lens Antenna for 5G/6G and Satellite Networks

Authors: André Lages, Victor Dmitriev, Juliano Bazzo, Gianni Portela


This work evaluates the feasibility of the graphene application to perform as a wideband reconfigurable material for lens antennas in 5G/6G and satellite applications. Based on transformation optics principles, the electromagnetic waves can be efficiently guided by modifying the effective refractive index. Graphene behavior can range between a lossy dielectric and a good conductor due to the variation of its chemical potential bias, thus arising as a promising solution for electromagnetic devices. The graphene properties and a lens antenna comprising multiples layers and periodic arrangements of graphene patches were analyzed using full-wave simulations. A dipole directivity was improved from 7 to 18.5 dBi at 29 GHz. In addition, the realized gain was enhanced 7 dB across a 14 GHz bandwidth within the Ka/5G band.

Keywords: 5G/6G, graphene, lens, reconfigurable, satellite

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
552 Cavitas Sensors into Human Cavities: Soft-Contact Lens and Mouthguard Sensors

Authors: Kohji Mitsubayashi, Takahiro Arakawa, Kohji Mitsubayashi


‘Cavitas sensors’ attached to human body cavities such as a contact lens type and a mouthguard (‘no implantable', ‘no wearable’) attracted attention as self-detachable devices for daily medicine. In this contribution, the soft contact lens glucose sensor for tear sugar monitoring will be introduced. And the mouthguard sensor with dental materials integrated with Bluetooth low energy (BLE) wireless module for real-time monitoring of saliva glucose would also be demonstrated. In the near future, those self-detachable cavitas sensors are expected to improve quality of life in view of the aging of society.

Keywords: cavitas sensor, biosensor, contact lens, mouthguard

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551 Quantitative Phase Imaging System Based on a Three-Lens Common-Path Interferometer

Authors: Alexander Machikhin, Olga Polschikova, Vitold Pozhar, Alina Ramazanova


White-light quantitative phase imaging is an effective technique for achieving sub-nanometer phase sensitivity. Highly stable interferometers based on common-path geometry have been developed in recent years to solve this task. Some of these methods also apply multispectral approach. The purpose of this research is to suggest a simple and effective interferometer for such systems. We developed a three-lens common-path interferometer, which can be used for quantitative phase imaging with or without multispectral modality. The lens system consists of two components, the first one of which is a compound lens, consisting of two lenses. A pinhole is placed between the components. The lens-in-lens approach enables effective light transmission and high stability of the interferometer. The multispectrality is easily implemented by placing a tunable filter in front of the interferometer. In our work, we used an acousto-optical tunable filter. Some design considerations are discussed and multispectral quantitative phase retrieval is demonstrated.

Keywords: acousto-optical tunable filter, common-path interferometry, digital holography, multispectral quantitative phase imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
550 Water-Controlled Fracturing with Fuzzy-Ball Fluid in Tight Gas Reservoirs of Deep Coal Measures in Sulige

Authors: Xiangchun Wang, Lihui Zheng, Maozong Gan, Peng Zhang, Tong Wu, An Chang


The deep coal measure tight gas reservoir in Sulige is usually reformed by fracturing, because the reservoir thickness is small, the water layers can be easily communicated during fracturing, which will lead to water production of gas wells and lower production of gas wells. Therefore, it is necessary to control water during fracturing in deep coal measure tight gas reservoir. Using fuzzy-ball fluid to control water fracturing can not only increase the output but also reduce the water output. The fuzzy-ball fluid was prepared indoors to carry out evaluation experiments. The fuzzy ball fluid was mixed in equal volume with the pre-fluid and formation water to test its compatibility. The core displacement device was used to test the gas and water breaking through the matrix and fractured cores blocked by fuzzy-ball fluid. The breakthrough pressure of the plunger tests its water blocking performance. The experimental results show that there is no precipitation after the fuzzy-ball fluid is mixed with the pad fluid and the formation water, respectively. The breakthrough pressure gradients of gas and water after the fuzzy-ball fluid plugged the cracks were 0.02MPa/cm and 0.04MPa/cm, respectively, and the breakthrough pressure gradients of gas and water after the matrix was plugged were 0.03MPa/cm and 0.2MPa/cm, respectively, which meet the requirements of field operation. Two wells A and B in the Sulige Gas Field were used on site to implement water control fracturing. After the pre-fluid was injected into the two wells, 50m3 of fuzzy-ball fluid was pumped to plug the water. The construction went smoothly. After water control and fracturing, the average daily output in 161 days was increased by 13.71% and 6.99% compared with that of adjacent wells in the same layer. The adjacent wells were bubbled for 3 times and 63 times respectively, while there was no effusion in A and B construction wells. The results show that fuzzy-ball fluid is a water plugging material suitable for water control fracturing in tight gas wells, and its water control mechanism can also provide a new idea for the development of water control fracturing materials.

Keywords: coal seam, deep layer, fracking, fuzzy-ball fluid, reservoir reconstruction

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
549 Finite Element Analysis of Ball-Joint Boots under Environmental and Endurance Tests

Authors: Young-Doo Kwon, Seong-Hwa Jun, Dong-Jin Lee, Hyung-Seok Lee


Ball joints support and guide certain automotive parts that move relative to the frame of the vehicle. Such ball joints are covered and protected from dust, mud, and other interfering materials by ball-joint boots made of rubber—a flexible and near-incompressible material. The boots may experience twisting and bending deformations because of the motion of the joint arm. Thus, environmental and endurance tests of ball-joint boots apply both bending and twisting deformations. In this study, environmental and endurance testing was simulated via the finite element method performed by using a commercial software package. The ranges of principal stress and principal strain values that are known to directly affect the fatigue lives of the parts were sought. By defining these ranges, the number of iterative tests and modifications of the materials and dimensions of the boot can be decreased. Therefore, instead of performing actual part tests, manufacturers can perform standard fatigue tests in trials of different materials by applying only the defined range of stress or strain values.

Keywords: boot, endurance tests, rubber, FEA

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
548 Prediction of Product Size Distribution of a Vertical Stirred Mill Based on Breakage Kinetics

Authors: C. R. Danielle, S. Erik, T. Patrick, M. Hugh


In the last decade there has been an increase in demand for fine grinding due to the depletion of coarse-grained orebodies and an increase of processing fine disseminated minerals and complex orebodies. These ores have provided new challenges in concentrator design because fine and ultra-fine grinding is required to achieve acceptable recovery rates. Therefore, the correct design of a grinding circuit is important for minimizing unit costs and increasing product quality. The use of ball mills for grinding in fine size ranges is inefficient and, therefore, vertical stirred grinding mills are becoming increasingly popular in the mineral processing industry due to its already known high energy efficiency. This work presents a hypothesis of a methodology to predict the product size distribution of a vertical stirred mill using a Bond ball mill. The Population Balance Model (PBM) was used to empirically analyze the performance of a vertical mill and a Bond ball mill. The breakage parameters obtained for both grinding mills are compared to determine the possibility of predicting the product size distribution of a vertical mill based on the results obtained from the Bond ball mill. The biggest advantage of this methodology is that most of the minerals processing laboratories already have a Bond ball mill to perform the tests suggested in this study. Preliminary results show the possibility of predicting the performance of a laboratory vertical stirred mill using a Bond ball mill.

Keywords: bond ball mill, population balance model, product size distribution, vertical stirred mill

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
547 High-Speed Cutting of Inconel 625 Using Carbide Ball End Mill

Authors: Kazumasa Kawasaki, Katsuya Fukazawa


Nickel-based superalloys are an important class of engineering material within the aerospace and power generation, due to their excellent combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties, including high-temperature applications Inconel 625 is one of such superalloys and difficult-to-machine material. In cutting of Inconel 625 superalloy with a ball end mill, the problem of adhesive wear often occurs. However, the proper cutting conditions are not known so much because of lack of study examples. In this study, the experiments using ball end mills made of carbide tools were tried to find the best cutting conditions out following qualifications. Using Inconel 625 superalloy as a work material, three kinds of experiment, with the revolution speed of 5000 rpm, 8000 rpm, and 10000 rpm, were performed under dry cutting conditions in feed speed per tooth of 0.045 mm/ tooth, depth of cut of 0.1 mm. As a result, in the case of 8000 rpm, it was successful to cut longest with the least wear.

Keywords: Inconel 625, ball end mill, carbide tool, high speed cutting, tool wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
546 Laser Light Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin


This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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545 Laser Beam Bending via Lenses

Authors: Remzi Yildirim, Fatih. V. Çelebi, H. Haldun Göktaş, A. Behzat Şahin


This study is about a single component cylindrical structured lens with gradient curve which we used for bending laser beams. It operates under atmospheric conditions and bends the laser beam independent of temperature, pressure, polarity, polarization, magnetic field, electric field, radioactivity, and gravity. A single piece cylindrical lens that can bend laser beams is invented. Lenses are made of transparent, tinted or colored glasses and used for undermining or absorbing the energy of the laser beams.

Keywords: laser, bending, lens, light, nonlinear optics

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544 Freshwater Lens Observation: Case Study of Laura Island, Majuro Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

Authors: Kazuhisa Koda, Tsutomu Kobayashi, Rebecca Lorennji, Alington Robert, Halston DeBrum, Julious Lucky, Paul Paul


Atolls are low-lying small islands with highly permeable ground that does not allow rivers and lakes to develop. As the water resources on these atolls basically rely on precipitation, groundwater becomes a very important water resource during droughts. Freshwater lenses develop as groundwater on relatively large atoll islands and play a key role in the stable water supply. Atoll islands in the Pacific Ocean sometimes suffer from drought due to El Nino. The global warming effects are noticeable, particularly on atoll islands. The Republic of the Marshall Islands in Oceania is burdened with the problems common to atoll islands. About half of its population lives in the capital, Majuro, and securing water resources for these people is a crucial issue. There is a freshwater lens on the largest, Laura Island, which serves as a water source for the downtown area. A serious drought that occurred in 1998 resulted in excessive water intake from the freshwater lens on Laura Island causing up-coning. Up-coning mixes saltwater into groundwater pumped from water-intake wells. Because up-coning makes the freshwater lens unusable, there was a need to investigate the freshwater lens on Laura Island. In this study, we observed the electrical conductivities of the groundwater at different depths in existing monitoring wells to determine the total storage volume of the freshwater lens on Laura Island from 2010 to 2013. Our results indicated that most of the groundwater that seeped into the freshwater lens had flowed out into the sea.

Keywords: Atoll islands, drought, El-Nino, freshwater lens, groundwater observation

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