Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Ertan Akman

13 Smart Irrigation System

Authors: Levent Seyfi, Ertan Akman, Tuğrul C. Topak


In this study, irrigation automation with electronic sensors and its control with smartphones were aimed. In this context, temperature and soil humidity measurements of the area irrigated were obtained by temperature and humidity sensors. A micro controller (Arduino) was utilized for accessing values of these parameters and controlling the proposed irrigation system. The irrigation system could automatically be worked according to obtained measurement values. Besides, a GSM module used together with Arduino provided that the irrigation system was in connection to smartphones. Thus, the irrigation system can be remotely controlled. Not only can we observe whether the irrigation system is working or not via developed special android application but also we can see temperature and humidity measurement values. In addition to this, if desired, the irrigation system can be remotely and manually started or stopped regardless of measured sensor vales thanks to the developed android application. In addition to smartphones, the irrigation system can be alternatively controlled via the designed website (

Keywords: smartphone, Android Operating System, sensors, irrigation System, arduino

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12 Exploring Solutions in Extended Horava-Lifshitz Gravity

Authors: Aziza Altaibayeva, Ertan Güdekli, Ratbay Myrzakulov


In this letter, we explore exact solutions for the Horava-Lifshitz gravity. We use of an extension of this theory with first order dynamical lapse function. The equations of motion have been derived in a fully consistent scenario. We assume that there are some spherically symmetric families of exact solutions of this extended theory of gravity. We obtain exact solutions and investigate the singularity structures of these solutions. Specially, an exact solution with the regular horizon is found.

Keywords: quantum gravity, Horava-Lifshitz gravity, black hole, spherically symmetric space times

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11 Effects of Ingredients Proportions on the Friction Performance of a Brake Pad Material

Authors: Rukiye Ertan


In this study, a brake friction material composition was investigated experimentally related to the effects of the friction modifiers and abrasive proportions on the tribological properties. The investigation was based on a simple experimental formulation, consisting of seven friction materials with different proportions of abrasives (ZrSiO4 and Fe2O3) and friction modifiers (cashew dust). The friction materials were evaluated using a Chase friction tester. The tribological properties, such as the wear resistance and friction stability, depending on the test temperature and the number of braking were obtained related to the friction material ingredient proportions. The results showed that the tribological properties of the brake pad were greatly affected by the abrasive and then cashew dust proportion.

Keywords: brake pad, friction, wear, abrasives

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10 Optimum Design of Attenuator of Spun-Bond Production System

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Abdullah Bolek, Oktay Yilmaz, Ertan Oznergiz, Hikmet Kocabas, Safak Yilmaz


Nanofibers are effective material which have frequently been investigated to produce high quality air filters. As an environmental approach our aim is to achieve nanofibers by melting. In spun-bond systems extruder, spin-pump, nozzle package and attenuator are used. Molten polymer which flows from extruder is made steady by spin-pump. Regular melt passes through nozzle holes and forms fibers under high pressure. The fibers pulled from nozzle are shrunk to micron size by an attenuator, after solidification they are collected on a conveyor. In this research different designs of attenuator system have been studied and also CFD analysis have been done on them. Afterwards, one of these designs tested and finally some optimizations have been done to reduce pressure loss and increase air velocity.

Keywords: attenuator, nanofiber, spun-bond, extruder

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9 Functional Electrical Stimulator and Neuromuscular Electro Stimulator System Analysis for Foot Drop

Authors: Gül Fatma Türker, Hatice Akman


Portable muscle stimulators for real-time applications has first introduced by Liberson in 1961. Now these systems has been advanced. In this study, FES (Functional Electrical Stimulator) and NMES (Neuromuscular Electrostimulator) systems are analyzed through their hardware and their quality of life improvements for foot drop patients. FES and NMES systems are used for people whose leg muscles and leg neural connections are healty but not able to walk properly because of their injured central nervous system like spinal cord injuries. These systems are used to stimulate neurons or muscles by getting information from other movements and programming these stimulations to get natural walk and it is accepted as a rehabilitation method for the correction of drop foot. This systems support person to approach natural form of walking. Foot drop is characterized by steppage gait. It is a gait abnormality. This systems helps to person for plantar and dorse reflection movements which are hard to done for foot drop patients.

Keywords: FES, foot drop, NMES, stimulator

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8 Fibers Presence Effects on Air Flow of Attenuator of Spun-Bond Production System

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Abdullah Bolek, Oktay Yilmaz, Ertan Oznergiz, Hikmet Kocabas, Safak Yilmaz


High quality air filters production using nanofibers, as a functional material, has frequently been investigated. As it is more environmentally friendly, melting method has been selected to produce nanofibers. Spun-bond production systems consist of extruder, spin-pump, nozzle package and attenuators. Spin-pump makes molten polymer steady, which flows through extruder. Fibers are formed by regular melts passing through nuzzle holes under high pressure. Attenuator prolongs fibers to micron size to be collected on a conveyor. Different designs of attenuator systems have been studied in this research; new analysis have been done on existed designs considering fibers effect on air flow; it was comprehended that, at fibers presence, there is an air flow which agglomerates fibers as a negative effect. So some new representations have been designed and CFD analysis have been done on them. Afterwards, one of these representations selected as the most optimum and effective design which is brought in this paper.

Keywords: attenuator, CFD, nanofiber, spun-bond

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7 Root Biomass Growth in Different Growth Stages of Wheat and Barley Cultivars

Authors: H. Akman, A. Topal


This work was conducted in greenhouse conditions in order to investigate root biomass growth of two bread wheat, two durum wheat and two barley cultivars that were grown in irrigated and dry lands, respectively. This work was planned with four replications at a Completely Randomized Block Design in 2011-2012 growing season. In the study, root biomass growth was evaluated at stages of stem elongation, complete of anthesis and full grain maturity. Results showed that there were significant differences between cultivars grown at dry and irrigated lands in all growth stages in terms of root biomass (P < 0.01). According to research results, all of growth stages, dry typed-bread and durum wheats generally had higher root biomass than irrigated typed-cultivars, furthermore that dry typed-barley cultivar, had higher root biomass at GS 31 and GS 69, however lower at GS 92 than Larende. In all cultivars, root biomass increased between GS 31 and GS 69 so that dry typed-cultivars had more root biomass increase than irrigated typed-cultivars. Root biomass of bread wheat increased between GS 69 and GS 92, however root biomass of barley and durum wheat decreased.

Keywords: bread and durum wheat, barley, root biomass, different growth stage

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6 An Investigation of the Science Process Skills of 48-66 Months Old Children

Authors: Nilüfer Kuru, Berrin Akman


In this study, science process skills of children with ages varying between 48-months and 66-months are analyzed. Science process skills of children are investigated in terms of factors including gender of children, attendance of children to the previous educational institution and duration of their attendance, educational background of their parents, ages of children and teachers, professional experience of teachers, educational background, and department of graduation of teachers, type of pre-school education institution of teachers and children. Sample of research consists of 250 children aged between 48-months and 66-months who attend state and private kindergartens under the Ministry of National Education, nursery classes of elementary schools and kindergartens of establishments in central districts of Ankara and 50 teachers who serve in these children’s classes. Science Observation Form, reached from the website of Alaska Department of Education & Early, are analyzed in terms of language, content, construct validity, and reliability by the researchers. Additionally, Personal Information Form is also developed by the researchers. Data obtained in the study are analyzed with SPSS 16.0 package program to obtain percentage and frequency, Kruskal Wallis H-test, and Mann- Whitney U test, which are one of the non-parametric tests, are used. Within the context of this study it has been seen that independent variables of age, type of school attending and status of attendance to pre-school education, educational background of children’s father are meaningful expositive in gaining science process skills for children. It has been seen that period of service of teachers, duration of attendance to pre-school education for children, gender of children and educational background of children’s mother are not meaningful expositive in gaining science process skills for children.

Keywords: preschool, science process skills, early childhood education, science

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5 Responses to Germination and Seedling Emergence Capacity of Durum Wheat Cultivars in Long Term Storage

Authors: S. Ahmet Bagci, Hayati Akman


This study was conducted at the research laboratory and greenhouse conditions to determine the effect on germination and emergency values of long-term stored seed (7 years) and non-stored seed (control) of nine durum wheat varieties. Three replicates of 20 seeds were germinated between double layered rolled germination papers in the Petri plates. Seeds were allowed to germinate at 20±1°C in the dark for 8 days. The seeds were counted on the 8th day as per ISTA rules and calculated in percent to determine germination capacity. Seedling emergency values were determined by testing 20 seeds placed into the sands with three replications of pots. Plants were counted on the 7th day and 12th day to determined seedling emergency rate and capacity, respectively. According to results, there are significant differences among the varieties in terms of germination capacity, seedling emergency rate and capacity of long-term stored and non-stored seeds. Germination capacity values declined from 100% to 93,3% of non-stored seeds whereas they were from 96,7% to 71,7% of long-term stored seeds. Percentage of seedling emergency capacity varied from 65,0% to 93,3% for non-stored seeds, however, the percentage of it was between 11,7 and 86,7% for long-term stored seeds. Results indicate that germination and emergence values responses to long-term stored condition varied significantly among durum wheat cultivars. Research results showed that the long-term-storage resulted in significant decrease with 13.5 % for germination, 36.4 % for emergence on the seventh day and 32.4 % for emergence on the twelfth day. Germination values ranged from 93.3 to 100.0 % for control and 71.7 to 96.7 % for storage. Emergence values in seventh day varied between 51.7 % and 90.0 % for control and 75.0 % and 10.0 % for storage, however values in twelfth day were between 93.3 % and 65.0 % for control and 86.7 % and 11.7 % for storage. According to research results, germination and emergence responses to long-term storage condition varied significantly among durum wheat cultivars.

Keywords: germination, emergence, long-term-storage, durum wheat

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4 Monitoring the Thin Film Formation of Carrageenan and PNIPAm Microgels

Authors: Selim Kara, Ertan Arda, Fahrettin Dolastir, Önder Pekcan


Biomaterials and thin film coatings play a fundamental role in medical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Carrageenan is a linear sulfated polysaccharide extracted from algae and seaweeds. To date, such biomaterials have been used in many smart drug delivery systems due to their biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity properties. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) gels and copolymers have also been used in medical applications. PNIPAm shows lower critical solution temperature (LCST) property at about 32-34 °C which is very close to the human body temperature. Below and above the LCST point, PNIPAm gels exhibit distinct phase transitions between swollen and collapsed states. A special class of gels are microgels which can react to environmental changes significantly faster than microgels due to their small sizes. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement technique is one of the attractive techniques which has been used for monitoring the thin-film formation process. A sensitive QCM system was designed as to detect 0.1 Hz difference in resonance frequency and 10-7 change in energy dissipation values, which are the measures of the deposited mass and the film rigidity, respectively. PNIPAm microgels with the diameter around few hundred nanometers in water were produced via precipitation polymerization process. 5 MHz quartz crystals with functionalized gold surfaces were used for the deposition of the carrageenan molecules and microgels in the solutions which were slowly pumped through a flow cell. Interactions between charged carrageenan and microgel particles were monitored during the formation of the film layers, and the Sauerbrey masses of the deposited films were calculated. The critical phase transition temperatures around the LCST were detected during the heating and cooling cycles. It was shown that it is possible to monitor the interactions between PNIPAm microgels and biopolymer molecules, and it is also possible to specify the critical phase transition temperatures by using a QCM system.

Keywords: carrageenan, phase transitions, PNIPAm microgels, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)

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3 Biodegradation of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid by Rhodanobacter sp. PCA2 Proceeds via Decarboxylation and Cleavage of Nitrogen-Containing Ring

Authors: Miaomiao Zhang, Sabrina Beckmann, Haluk Ertan, Rocky Chau, Mike Manefield


Phenazines are a large class of nitrogen-containing aromatic heterocyclic compounds, which are almost exclusively produced by bacteria from diverse genera including Pseudomonas and Streptomyces. Phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) as one of 'core' phenazines are converted from chorismic acid before modified to other phenazine derivatives in different cells. Phenazines have attracted enormous interests because of their multiple roles on biocontrol, bacterial interaction, biofilm formation and fitness of their producers. However, in spite of ecological importance, degradation as a part of phenazines’ fate only have extremely limited attention now. Here, to isolate PCA-degrading bacteria, 200 mg L-1 PCA was supplied as sole carbon, nitrogen and energy source in minimal mineral medium. Quantitative PCR and Reverse-transcript PCR were employed to study abundance and activity of functional gene MFORT 16269 in PCA degradation, respectively. Intermediates and products of PCA degradation were identified with LC-MS/MS. After enrichment and isolation, a PCA-degrading strain was selected from soil and was designated as Rhodanobacter sp. PCA2 based on full 16S rRNA sequencing. As determined by HPLC, strain PCA2 consumed 200 mg L-1 (836 µM) PCA at a rate of 17.4 µM h-1, accompanying with significant cells yield from 1.92 × 105 to 3.11 × 106 cells per mL. Strain PCA2 was capable of degrading other phenazines as well, including phenazine (4.27 µM h-1), pyocyanin (2.72 µM h-1), neutral red (1.30 µM h-1) and 1-hydroxyphenazine (0.55 µM h-1). Moreover, during the incubation, transcript copies of MFORT 16269 gene increased significantly from 2.13 × 106 to 8.82 × 107 copies mL-1, which was 2.77 times faster than that of the corresponding gene copy number (2.20 × 106 to 3.32 × 107 copies mL-1), indicating that MFORT 16269 gene was activated and played roles on PCA degradation. As analyzed by LC-MS/MS, decarboxylation from the ring structure was determined as the first step of PCA degradation, followed by cleavage of nitrogen-containing ring by dioxygenase which catalyzed phenazine to nitrosobenzene. Subsequently, phenylhydroxylamine was detected after incubation for two days and was then transferred to aniline and catechol. Additionally, genomic and proteomic analyses were also carried out for strain PCA2. Overall, the findings presented here showed that a newly isolated strain Rhodanobacter sp. PCA2 was capable of degrading phenazines through decarboxylation and cleavage of nitrogen-containing ring, during which MFORT 16269 gene was activated and played important roles.

Keywords: decarboxylation, MFORT16269 gene, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid degradation, Rhodanobacter sp. PCA2

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2 Investigation of Preschool Children's Mathematics Concept Acquisition in Terms of Different Variables

Authors: Hilal Karakuş, Berrin Akman


Preschool years are considered as critical years because of shaping the future lives of individuals. All of the knowledge, skills, and concepts are acquired during this period. Also, basis of academic skills is based on this period. As all of the developmental areas are the fastest in that period, the basis of mathematics education should be given in this period, too. Mathematics is seen as a difficult and abstract course by the most people. Therefore, the enjoyable side of mathematics should be presented in a concrete way in this period to avoid any bias of children for mathematics. This study is conducted to examine mathematics concept acquisition of children in terms of different variables. Screening model is used in this study which is carried out in a quantity way. The study group of this research consists of total 300 children, selected from each class randomly in groups of five, who are from public and private preschools in Çankaya, which is district of Ankara, in 2014-2015 academic year and attending children in the nursery classes and preschool institutions are connected to the Ministry of National Education. The study group of the research was determined by stage sampling method. The schools, which formed study group, are chosen by easy sampling method and the children are chosen by simple random method. Research data were collected with Bracken Basic Concept Scale–Revised Form and Child’s Personal Information Form generated by the researcher in order to get information about children and their families. Bracken Basic Concept Scale-Revised Form consists of 11 sub-dimensions (color, letter, number, size, shape, comparison, direction-location, and quantity, individual and social awareness, building- material) and 307 items. Subtests related to the mathematics were used in this research. In the “Child Individual Information Form” there are items containing demographic information as followings: age of children, gender of children, attending preschools educational intuitions for children, school attendance, mother’s and father’s education levels. At the result of the study, while it was found that children’s mathematics skills differ from age, state of attending any preschool educational intuitions , time of attending any preschool educational intuitions, level of education of their mothers and their fathers; it was found that it does not differ by the gender and type of school they attend.

Keywords: preschool education, preschool period children, mathematics education, mathematics concept acquisitions

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1 Examining the Drivers of Engagement in Social Media Brand Communities

Authors: Rania S. Hussein


This research mainly focuses on examining engagement in social media brand communities. Engagement in social media has become a main focus in literature affirming that the role of social media in our daily lives is growing. (Akman and Mishra, 2017;Prado-Gascó et al., 2017). Social media has also become a key medium for brand communication and brand building relationships(Frimpong and McLean,2018;Dimitriu and Guesalaga, 2017). Engagement on social media has become a main focus of many researchers who tried to understand this concept further and draw a link between engagement and various social media activities (Cvijikj and Michahelles;2013), Andre,2015; Wang et al., 2015). According to Felix et al. (2017), the internet and social media have provided better digital resources to improve brand loyalty and customer interactions, thus leading to social media engagement within brand communities. The aim of this research is to highlight the importance of social media and why it is important to maintain engagement within social media. While the term ‘engagement’ is widely used in scholarly literature, there isn’t a common consensus about what the term exactly entails, according to Kidd, (2011). On one hand, it was seen as something that includes factors such as participation, activation, empowerment, devotion, trust, and productivity (Zhang et al, andBenyoucef, M. (2016), ). Other scholars held different viewpoints. For example, Lim et al. (2015) has chosen to break down engagement into three types: operational engagement, emotional engagement, and relational engagement. Chandler and Lusch (2015) further studied engagement as a means to measure commitment to a brand. Fernandes&Remelhe (2016) had a more technical view, measuring engagement through comments, following, subscribing, sharing, enjoying, writing, etc., in the social media context. ustomer engagement has become a research focus for understanding how consumer relationships are developed, retained, and improved within a digital context. Based on previous literature, it is evident that many customer engagement related studies are limited to the interaction between firms and consumers on social media. There is a clear gap in the literature regarding consumer-to-consumer interaction and user-generated content and its significance. While some researchers, such as Alversia et al. (2016), touched upon the importance of customer-based engagement, a gap still remains: there is no consistent and well-tested method for defining the factors that affect consumer interaction. Moreover, few scholarly research papers such as (Case, 2019; Riley, 2020;Habibi, 2014) provided to assist businesses understand their customers' interaction habits as well as the best ways to develop customer loyalty. Additionally, the majority of research on brand pages concentrated on the drivers of Consumer engagement, with just a few studies example, Lamberton, Cc(2016), Poorrezaei, (2016). (Jayasingh, 2019), looking into the implications. This study focuses on understanding the concept of engagement and its importance, specifically engagement within social media brand communities. It examines drivers as well as consequences of engagement, including brand knowledge, brand trust, entertainment, and brand page interactivity. Brand engagement is also expected to affect brand loyalty and word of the mouth.

Keywords: engagement, social media, brand communities, drivers

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