Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2479

Search results for: technologies of governmentality

2479 An Examination of the Effects of Implantable Technologies on the Practices of Governmentality

Authors: Benn Van Den Ende

Abstract:

Over the last three decades, there has been an exponential increase in developments in implantable technologies such as the cardiac pacemaker, bionic prosthesis, and implantable chips. The effect of these technologies has been well researched in many areas. However, there is a lack of critical research in security studies. This paper will provide preliminary findings to an ongoing research project which aims to examine how implantable technologies effect the practices of governmentality in the context of security. It will do this by looking at the practices and techniques of governmentality along with different implantable technologies which increase, change or otherwise affect governmental practices. The preliminary research demonstrates that implantable technologies have a profound effect on the practices of governmentality, while also paving the way for further research into a potential ‘new’ form of governmentality in relation to these implantable technologies.

Keywords: critical security studies, governmentality, security theory, political theory, Foucault

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2478 Governmentality and the Norwegian Knowledge Promotion Reform

Authors: Christin Tønseth

Abstract:

The Norwegian ‘knowledge promotion reform’ was implemented in elementary schools and upper secondary schools in 2006. The goal of the reform was that all pupils should develop basic skills and competencies in order to take an active part in the knowledge society. This paper discusses how governmentality as a management principle is demonstrated through the Norwegian ‘knowledge promotion reform’. Evaluation reports and political documents are the basis for the discussion. The ‘knowledge promotion reform’ was including quality assurance for schools, teachers, and students and the authorities retained control by using curricula and national tests. The reform promoted several intentions that were not reached. In light of governmentality, it seemed that thoughts and intentions by the authorities differed from those in the world of practice. The quality assurances did not motivate the practitioners to be self-governing. The relationship between the authorities and the implementation actors was weak, and the reform was, therefore, difficult to implement in practice.

Keywords: governance, governmentality, the Norwegian knowledge promotion reform, education, politics

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2477 Exploring the Governmentality of Practice in Communication Education in Ghana

Authors: Wincharles Coker

Abstract:

This study troubles the role the state as the chief sponsor of higher education plays in shaping communication training in Ghana. Using a public university as a case study, it explores how the government of Ghana, through its regimes of control, exercises its authority over the means of production in the academy. Based on Wenger’s community of practice theory and critical theory, the research analyzes the political economy within which higher education in the country operates, focusing on the mandates of two of its bodies: the National Council for Tertiary Education (NCTE) and the National Accreditation Board (NAB). Results show that communication training in Ghana is shaped by three basic strategies of control: developmentalism, bureaucratization, and corporatization. This governmentality, the research reveals nonetheless, largely constrains the agency and practices of the community of communication faculty and administrators, and thus presents a major challenge to the exercise of intellectual freedom, and the self-critical nature of the academy. The study bears implications for further research in the political economy of communication studies, the administration of higher education, and critical/cultural studies in education.

Keywords: communication, developmentalism, educattion, governmentality

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2476 Ecological Concerns in Food Systems: An Ethnographical Approach on Vegan Impact in Governmentality

Authors: Jessica Gonzalez

Abstract:

Veganism, along with different types of vegetarianism, consists in the abstinence of animal products. Far from being only an alimentary regulation, it stands as a political posture against the food industry generating itself a set of beliefs, prohibitions, and attitudes that compel the individual to a reevaluation of his obligations towards the environment. Veganism defends animal rights and at the same time reinforces a different conception of natural resources embodying it in alimentary restrictions. These practices emerge in the context of alimentary modernity, which is characterized by bringing new concerns to the consumer. An increased skepticism towards the government ability to protect food supply; a notable distrust toward the market guaranties on providing safe food with sustainable techniques and the desire to react to the neoliberal forms of exploitation are some of its consequences of this phenomenon. This study aims to approach the concept of governmentality as a coproduced system of legitimized practices and knowledge, formed by the interaction of the different actors that are involved. In a scenario where the State seems to retreat from centralized regulation of food production giving up importance to citizens, dietary consultants, farmers, and stockbreeders, veganism plays its role on the conformation of distinctive forms of environmentalism, nature rights and responses to ecological crisis. The ethnographic method allows observing the mechanisms of interaction of consumers and discourses with the mainstream food system, providing evidence about the means of generation of new conceptions about nature and the environment. The paper focuses on how the dietary restrictions, consumption patterns and public discourses of vegans in Barcelona impact local consumption, demonstrating its relevance as a mechanism that associates particular concerns about food with political economy.

Keywords: animal rights, environmentalism, food system, governmentality, veganism

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2475 Reproductive Governmentality in Mexico: Production, Control and Regulation of Contraceptive Practices in a Public Hospital

Authors: Ivan Orozco

Abstract:

Introduction: Forced contraception constitutes part of an effort to control the life and reproductive capacity of women through public health institutions. This phenomenon has affected many Mexican women historically and still persists nowadays. The notion of reproductive governmentality refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of social actors (state institutions, churches, donor agents, NGOs, etc.) use legislative controls, economic incentives, moral mandates, direct coercion, and ethical incitements, to produce, monitor and control reproductive behaviors and practices. This research focuses on the use of these mechanisms by the Mexican State to control women's contraceptive practices in a public hospital. Method: An Institutional Ethnography was carried out, with the objective of knowing women's experiences from their own perspective, as they occur in their daily lives, but at the same time, discovering the structural elements that shape the discourses that promote women's contraception, even against their will. The fieldwork consisted in an observation of the dynamics between different participants within a public hospital and the conduction of interviews with the medical and nursing staff in charge of family planning services, as well as women attending the family planning office. Results: Public health institutions in Mexico are state tools to control and regulate reproduction. There are several strategies that are used for this purpose, for example, health personnel provide insufficient or misleading information to ensure that women agree to use contraceptives; health institutions provide economic incentives to the members of the health staff who reach certain goals in terms of contraceptive placement; young women are forced to go to the family planning service, regardless of the reason they went to the clinic; health campaigns are carried out, consisting of the application of contraceptives outside the health facilities, directly in the communities of people who visit the hospital less frequently. All these mechanisms seek for women to use contraceptives, from the women’s perspective; however, the reception of these discourses is ambiguous. While, for some women, the strategies become coercive mechanisms to use contraceptives against their will, for others, they represent an opportunity to take control over their reproductive lives. Conclusion: Since 1974, the Mexican government has implemented campaigns for the promotion of family planning methods as a means to control population growth. Although it is established in several legislations that the counselling must be carried out with a gender and human rights perspective, always respecting the autonomy of people, these research testify that health personnel uses different strategies to force some women to use contraceptive methods, thereby violating their reproductive rights.

Keywords: feminist research, forced contraception, institutional ethnography, reproductive. governmentality

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2474 A Foucauldian Analysis of Child Play: Case Study of a Preschool in the United States

Authors: Meng Wang

Abstract:

Historically, young members (children) in the society have been oppressed by adults through direct violent acts. Direct violence was evident in rampant child labor and child maltreatment cases. After acknowledging the rights of children from the United Nations, it is believed in public that children have been protected against direct physical violence. Nevertheless, at present, this paper argues from Foucauldian and disability study standpoints that similar to the old times, children are oppressed objects in the context of child play, which is constructed by adults to substitute direct violence in regulating children. Particularly, this paper suggests that on the one hand, preschool play is a new way that adults adopt to oppress preschoolers and regulate the society as a whole; on the other hand, preschoolers are taught how to play as an acquired skill and master self-regulation through play. There is a line of contemporary research that centers on child play from social constructivism perspective. Yet, current teaching practices pertaining to child play including guided child play and free play, in fact, serve the interest of adults and society at large. By acknowledging and deconstructing the prevalence of 'evidence-based best practice' in early childhood education field within western society, reconstruction of child-adult power relation could be achieved and alternative truth could be found in early childhood education. To support the argument of this paper, an on-going observational case study is conducted in a preschool setting in the United States. Age range of children is 2.5 to 4 years old. Approximately 10 children (5 boys) are participating in this case study. Observation is conducted throughout the weekdays as children follow through the classroom routine with a lead and an assistant teacher. Classroom teachers are interviewed pertaining to their classroom management strategies. Preliminary research finding of this case study suggested that preschool teachers tended to utilize scenarios from preschoolers’ dramatic play to impart core cultural values to young children. These values were pre-determined by adults. In addition, if young children have failed to follow teachers' guidance in terms of playing in a correct way, children ran the risk of being excluded from the play scenario by peers and adults. Furthermore, this study tended to indicate that through child play, preschoolers are obliged to develop an internal violence system, that is self-regulation skill to regulate their own behavior; and if this internal system is unestablished based on various assessments by adults, then potentially there will be consequences of negative labeling and disabling toward young children intended by adults. In conclusion, this paper applies Foucauldian analysis into the context of child play. At present, within preschool, child play is not free as it seems to be. Young children are expected to perform cultural tasks through their play activities designed by adults. Adults utilize child play as technologies of governmentality to further predict and regulate future society at large.

Keywords: child play, developmentally appropriate practice, DAP, poststructuralism, technologies of governmentality

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2473 Risks and Values in Adult Safeguarding: An Examination of How Social Workers Screen Safeguarding Referrals from Residential Homes

Authors: Jeremy Dixon

Abstract:

Safeguarding adults forms a core part of social work practice. The Government in England and Wales has made efforts to standardise practices through The Care Act 2014. The Act states that local authorities have duties to make inquiries in cases where an adult with care or support needs is experiencing or at risk of abuse and is unable to protect themselves from abuse or neglect. Despite the importance given to safeguarding adults within law there remains little research about how social workers conduct such decisions on the ground. This presentation reports on findings from a pilot research study conducted within two social work teams in a Local Authority in England. The objective of the project was to find out how social workers interpreted safeguarding duties as laid out by The Care Act 2014 with a particular focus on how workers assessed and managed risk. Ethnographic research methods were used throughout the project. This paper focusses specifically on decisions made by workers in the assessment team. The paper reports on qualitative observation and interviews with five workers within this team. Drawing on governmentality theory, this paper analyses the techniques used by workers to manage risk from a distance. A high proportion of safeguarding referrals came from care workers or managers in residential care homes. Social workers conducting safeguarding assessments were aware that they had a duty to work in partnership with these agencies. However, their duty to safeguard adults also meant that they needed to view them as potential abusers. In making judgments about when it was proportionate to refer for a safeguarding assessment workers drew on a number of common beliefs about residential care workers which were then tested in conversations with them. Social workers held the belief that residential homes acted defensively, leading them to report any accident or danger. Social workers therefore encouraged residential workers to consider whether statutory criteria had been met and to use their own procedures to manage risk. In addition social workers carried out an assessment of the workers’ motives; specifically whether they were using safeguarding procedures as a shortcut for avoiding other assessments or as a means of accessing extra resources. Where potential abuse was identified social workers encouraged residential homes to use disciplinary policies as a means of isolating and managing risk. The study has implications for understanding risk within social work practice. It shows that whilst social workers use law to govern individuals, these laws are interpreted against cultural values. Additionally they also draw on assumptions about the culture of others.

Keywords: adult safeguarding, governmentality, risk, risk assessment

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2472 The Impact of the Information Technologies on the Accounting Department of the Romanian Companies

Authors: Dumitru Valentin Florentin

Abstract:

The need to use high volumes of data and the high competition are only two reasons which make necessary the use of information technologies. The objective of our research is to establish the impact of information technologies on the accounting department of the Romanian companies. In order to achieve it, starting from the literature review we made an empirical research based on a questionnaire. We investigated the types of technologies used, the reasons which led to the implementation of certain technologies, the benefits brought by the use of the information technologies, the difficulties brought by the implementation and the future effects of the applications. The conclusions show that there is an evolution in the degree of implementation of the information technologies in the Romanian companies, compared with the results of other studies conducted a few years before.

Keywords: information technologies, impact, company, Romania, empirical study

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2471 The Effect of Information Technologies on Business Performance: An Application on Small Hotels

Authors: Abdullah Karaman, Kursad Sayin

Abstract:

In this research, which information technologies are used in small hotel businesses, and the information technologies-performance perception of the managers are pointed out. During the research, the questionnaire was prepared and the small scale hotel managers were interviewed face to face and they filled out the questionnaire and the answers acquired were evaluated. As the result of the research, it was obtained that the managers do not care much about the information technologies usage in practice even though they accepted that the information technologies are important in terms of performance.

Keywords: information technologies, managers, performance, small hotels

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2470 Information Technologies in Automotive Assembly Industry in Thailand

Authors: Jirarat Teeravaraprug, Usawadee Inklay

Abstract:

This paper gave an attempt in prioritizing information technologies that organizations should give concentration. The case study was organizations in the automotive assembly industry in Thailand. Data were first collected to gather all information technologies known and used in the automotive assembly industry in Thailand. Five experts from the industries were surveyed based on the concept of fuzzy DEMATEL. The information technologies were categorized into six groups, which were communication, transaction, planning, organization management, warehouse management, and transportation. The cause groups of information technologies for each group were analysed and presented. Moreover, the relationship between the used and the significant information technologies was given. Discussions based on the used information technologies and the research results are given.

Keywords: information technology, automotive assembly industry, fuzzy DEMATEL

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2469 Advances in Membrane Technologies for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Deniz Sahin

Abstract:

This study provides a literature review of the special issue on wastewater treatment technologies, especially membrane technologies. Currently, wastewater is a serious and increasing worldwide problem with an adverse effect on the environment and living organisms. For this reason, many technologies have been developed to treat wastewater before discharging it to water bodies. We have been discussed membrane technologies to remove contaminants from wastewater such as heavy metals, dyes, pesticides, etc., which represent the main pollutants in wastewater. All the properties of these technologies including performance, economics, simplicity, and operability are also compared with other wastewater treatment technologies. The conventional water treatment technologies have the disadvantages of low separation efficiency, high energy consumption, and strict operating temperature. To overcome these difficulties, membrane technologies have been developed and used in wastewater treatment. Membrane technology uses a selectively permeable membrane to remove suspended and dissolved solids from water. This membrane is a very thin film of synthetic organic or inorganic materials, that can allow a very selective separation between a mixture and its components. Examples of membrane technologies include microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO), electrodialysis (ED), gas separation, etc. Most of these technologies have been used extensively for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. For instance, wastewater that contains Cu²⁺, Cd²⁺, Pb²⁺, Zn²⁺ was treated by ultrafiltration technology. It was shown that complete removal of metal ions could be achieved.

Keywords: industrial pollution, membrane technologies, metal ions, wastewater

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2468 Acceptance of Big Data Technologies and Its Influence towards Employee’s Perception on Job Performance

Authors: Jia Yi Yap, Angela S. H. Lee

Abstract:

With the use of big data technologies, organization can get result that they are interested in. Big data technologies simply load all the data that is useful for the organizations and provide organizations a better way of analysing data. The purpose of this research is to get employees’ opinion from films in Malaysia to explore the use of big data technologies in their organization in order to provide how it may affect the perception of the employees on job performance. Therefore, in order to identify will accepting big data technologies in the organization affect the perception of the employee, questionnaire will be distributed to different employee from different Small and medium-sized enterprises (SME) organization listed in Malaysia. The conceptual model proposed will test with other variables in order to see the relationship between variables.

Keywords: big data technologies, employee, job performance, questionnaire

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2467 The Relevance of Smart Technologies in Learning

Authors: Rachael Olubukola Afolabi

Abstract:

Immersive technologies known as X Reality or Cross Reality that include virtual reality augmented reality, and mixed reality have pervaded into the education system at different levels from elementary school to adult learning. Instructors, instructional designers, and learning experience specialists continue to find new ways to engage students in the learning process using technology. While the progression of web technologies has enhanced digital learning experiences, analytics on learning outcomes continue to be explored to determine the relevance of these technologies in learning. Digital learning has evolved from web 1.0 (static) to 4.0 (dynamic and interactive), and this evolution of technologies has also advanced teaching methods and approaches. This paper explores how these technologies are being utilized in learning and the results that educators and learners have identified as effective learning opportunities and approaches.

Keywords: immersive technologoes, virtual reality, augmented reality, technology in learning

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2466 Communication Development for Development Communication: Prospects and Challenges of New Media Technologies in South East Zone, Nigeria

Authors: O. I. Ekwueme

Abstract:

New media technologies are noted for their immense contributions in various sectors of the economy which are believed to have resulted in the development of European countries. There is an assumption that we cannot have development communication without communication development, but we are not sure if new media technologies contribute to development in the South-East zone, Nigeria. The study employed mixed method and discovered that new media technologies have a very minimal relationship to development in the South-East zone, Nigeria. It was discovered that the media report on development news is basically informative instead of interactive. The South-East zone is scarcely covered unlike other zones. It argued that the communication technologies introduced in Nigeria was as a result of their struggle for independence. It was recommended that media organisations in the South-East zone should give adequate coverage to the zone, and be more interactive.

Keywords: communication, development, new media, technologies

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2465 Impact of New Media Technologies to News, Social Interactions, and Traditional Media

Authors: Ademola Bamgbose

Abstract:

The new media revolution, which encompasses a wide variety of new media technologies like blogs, social networking, visual worlds, wikis, have had a great influence on communications, traditional media and across other disciplines. This paper gives a review of the impact of new media technologies on the news, social interactions and traditional media in developing and developed countries. The study points to the fact that there is a significant impact of new media technologies on the news, social interactions and the traditional media in developing and developed countries, albeit both positively and negatively. Social interactions have been significantly affected, as well as in news production and reporting. It is reiterated that despite the pervasiveness of new media technologies, it would not bring to a total decline of traditional media. This paper contributes to the theoretical framework on the new media and will help to assess the extent of the impact of the new media in different locations.

Keywords: communication, media, news, new media technologies, social interactions, traditional media

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2464 Soil Remediation Technologies towards Green Remediation Strategies

Authors: G. Petruzzelli, F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

Abstract:

As a result of diverse industrial activities, pollution from numerous contaminant affects both groundwater and soils. Many contaminated sites have been discovered in industrialized countries and their remediation is a priority in environmental legislations. The aim of this paper is to provide the evolution of remediation from consolidated invasive technologies to environmental friendly green strategies. Many clean-up technologies have been used. Nowadays the technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on eliminating the source of pollution, but the aim of remediation includes also the recovery of soil quality. “Green remediation”, a strategy based on “soft technologies”, appears the key to tackle the issue of remediation of contaminated sites with the greatest attention to environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality.

Keywords: bioremediation, Green Remediation, phytoremediation, remediation technologies, soil

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2463 Investigating the Use of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies in the Assembly Type Manufacturing Companies in Trinidad and Tobago

Authors: Nadine Sangster, Akil James, Rondell Duke, Aaron Ameerali, Terrence Lalla

Abstract:

The market place of the 21st century is evolving into one of merging national markets, fragmented consumer markets, and rapidly changing product technologies. The use of new technologies has become vital to the manufacturing industry for their survival and sustainability. This work focused on the assembly type industry in a small developing country and aimed at identifying the use of advanced manufacturing technologies and their impact on this sector of the manufacturing industry. It was found that some technologies were being used and that they had improved the effectiveness of those companies but there was still quite a bit of room for improvements. Some of the recommendations included benchmarking against international standards, the adoption of a “made in TT” campaign and the effective utilisation of the technologies to improve manufacturing effectiveness and thus improve competitive advantages and strategies.

Keywords: advanced manufacturing technology, Trinidad and Tobago, manufacturing, industrial engineering

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2462 Precarious ID Cards - Studying Documentary Practices in India through the Lens of Internal Migration

Authors: Ambuja Raj

Abstract:

This research will attempt to understand how documents are materially indispensable civic artifacts for migrants in their encounters with the state. Documents such as ID cards are sites of mediation and bureaucratic manifestation which reveal the inherent dynamics of power between the state and a delocalized people. While ID cards allow the holder to retain a different identity and articulate their demands as a citizen, they at the same time transform subjects into ‘objects’ in the exercise of governmental power. The research is based on the study of internal migrants in India, who are ‘visible’ to the state through its host of ID documents such as the ‘Aadhaar card’, electoral IDs, Ration cards, and a variety of region-specific documents, without the possession of which, not only are they unable to access jobs, public goods and services, and accommodation, but are liable to exploitation from state forces and mediators. Through semi-structured interviews with social actors in the processes of documentation and welfare of migrants, as well as with settlements of migrants themselves located in the state of Kerala in India, the thesis will attempt to understand the salience of documentary practices in the lives of inter-state migrants who move within Indian states in the hope of bettering their economic conditions. The research will trace the material and evolving significance of ID cards in the tenacity of states dealing with these ‘illegible’ populations. It will try to bring theories of governmentality, biopolitics and Weberian bureaucracy into the migrant issue while critically grounding itself on secondary literature by scholars who have worked on South Asian ‘governments of paper’.

Keywords: migration, historiography of documents, anthropology of state, documentary practices

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2461 Empowering Minority Students Through the use of Critical Educational Technologies: Latinos in the United States

Authors: Oscar Guerra

Abstract:

Educational technologies have great potential as tools for student empowerment, particularly for members of a marginalized population such as immigrant Latino children in the American public education system. It is not merely a matter of access to the necessary technological devices; rather, it is development and implementation under a critical lens that may prompt a positive change.

Keywords: education, critical technologies, minorities, higher education

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2460 High-Value Health System for All: Technologies for Promoting Health Education and Awareness

Authors: M. P. Sebastian

Abstract:

Health for all is considered as a sign of well-being and inclusive growth. New healthcare technologies are contributing to the quality of human lives by promoting health education and awareness, leading to the prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of the symptoms of diseases. Healthcare technologies have now migrated from the medical and institutionalized settings to the home and everyday life. This paper explores these new technologies and investigates how they contribute to health education and awareness, promoting the objective of high-value health system for all. The methodology used for the research is literature review. The paper also discusses the opportunities and challenges with futuristic healthcare technologies. The combined advances in genomics medicine, wearables and the IoT with enhanced data collection in electronic health record (EHR) systems, environmental sensors, and mobile device applications can contribute in a big way to high-value health system for all. The promise by these technologies includes reduced total cost of healthcare, reduced incidence of medical diagnosis errors, and reduced treatment variability. The major barriers to adoption include concerns with security, privacy, and integrity of healthcare data, regulation and compliance issues, service reliability, interoperability and portability of data, and user friendliness and convenience of these technologies.

Keywords: big data, education, healthcare, information communication technologies (ICT), patients, technologies

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2459 Quantum Technologies, the Practical Challenges to It, and Ideas to Build an Inclusive Quantum Platform, Shoonya Ecosystem (Zero-Point Energy)

Authors: Partha Pratim Kalita

Abstract:

As sound can be converted to light, light can also be deduced to sound. There are technologies to convert light to sound, but there are not many technologies related to the field where sound can be converted to a distinct vibrational sequence of light. Like the laws under which the principles of sound work, there are principles for the light to become quantum in nature. Thus, as we move from sound to the subtler aspects of light, we are moving from 3D to 5D. Either we will be making technologies of 3D in today’s world, or we will be really interested in making technologies of the 5D, depends on our understanding of how quantum 5D works. Right now, the entire world is talking about quantum, which is about the nature and behavior of subatomic particles, which is 5D. In practice, they are using metals and machines based on atomic structures. If we talk of quantum without taking note of the technologies of 5D and beyond, we will only be reinterpreting relative theories in the name of quantum. This paper, therefore, will explore the possibilities of moving towards quantum in its real essence with the Shoonya ecosystem (zero-point energy). In this context, the author shall highlight certain working models developed by him, which are currently in discussion with the Indian government.

Keywords: quantum mechanics, quantum technologies, healthcare, shoonya ecosystem, energy, human consciousness

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2458 A Study of Key Technologies for the Realization of Smart Grid and Its Research Situation in Pakistan and Abroad

Authors: Arjmand Khaliq, Pemra Sohaib

Abstract:

In this paper smart grid technologies which converts conventional grid into smart grid has been discussed. Integration of advanced technologies including two way communication, advanced control system, sensors, smart metering system and other provide opportunity to make conventional grid a intelligent and automatic system which is named as smart grid. This paper gives the concept of smart grid and functional characteristics of smart grid technology, summed up the research progress in Pakistan and abroad and the significance of developing smart grid. Based on the analysis of the smart grid, smart grid technologies will result a reliable and energy efficient power system in the future. On the other hand smart grid technologies have been reviewed in this paper highlighting the key technologies of smart grid, and points out the problems and challenges in the realization of smart grid.

Keywords: energy, power system reliability, power system monitoring and control, sensor, smart grid, two-way communication

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2457 Approach for an Integrative Technology Assessment Method Combining Product Design and Manufacturing Process

Authors: G. Schuh, S. Woelk, D. Schraknepper, A. Such

Abstract:

The systematic evaluation of manufacturing technologies with regard to the potential for product designing constitutes a major challenge. Until now, conventional evaluation methods primarily consider the costs of manufacturing technologies. Thus, the potential of manufacturing technologies for achieving additional product design features is not completely captured. To compensate this deficit, final evaluations of new technologies are mainly intuitive in practice. Therefore, an additional evaluation dimension is needed which takes the potential of manufacturing technologies for specific realizable product designs into account. In this paper, we present the approach of an evaluation method for selecting manufacturing technologies with regard to their potential for product designing. This research is done within the Fraunhofer innovation cluster »AdaM« (Adaptive Manufacturing) which targets the development of resource efficient and adaptive manufacturing technology processes for complex turbo machinery components.

Keywords: manufacturing, product design, production, technology assessment, technology management

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2456 The Environmental Impact of Wireless Technologies in Nigeria: An Overview of the IoT and 5G Network

Authors: Powei Happiness Kerry

Abstract:

Introducing wireless technologies in Nigeria have improved the quality of lives of Nigerians, however, not everyone sees it in that light. The paper on the environmental impact of wireless technologies in Nigeria summarizes the scholarly views on the impact of wireless technologies on the environment, beaming its searchlight on 5G and internet of things in Nigeria while also exploring the theory of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The study used a qualitative research method to gather important data from relevant sources and contextually draws inference from the derived data. The study concludes that the Federal Government of Nigeria, before agreeing to any latest development in the world of wireless technologies, should weigh the implications and deliberate extensively with all stalk holders putting into consideration the confirmation it will receive from the National Assembly.  

Keywords: Internet of Things, radiofrequency, electromagnetic radiation, information and communications technology, ICT, 5G

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2455 A Paradigm Shift in Energy Policy and Use: Exergy and Hybrid Renewable Energy Technologies

Authors: Adavbiele Airewe Stephen

Abstract:

Sustainable energy use is exploiting energy resources within acceptable levels of global resource depletion without destroying the ecological balance of an area. In the context of sustainability, the rush to quell the energy crisis of the fossil fuels of the 1970's by embarking on nuclear energy technology has now been seen as a disaster. In the circumstance, action (policy) suggested in this study to avoid future occurrence is exergy maximization/entropy generation minimization and the use is renewable energy technologies that are hybrid based. Thirty-two (32) selected hybrid renewable energy technologies were assessed with respect to their energetic efficiencies and entropy generation. The results indicated that determining which of the hybrid technologies is the most efficient process and sustainable is a matter of defining efficiency and knowing which of them possesses the minimum entropy generation.

Keywords: entropy, exergy, hybrid renewable energy technologies, sustainability

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2454 Future of Electric Power Generation Technologies: Environmental and Economic Comparison

Authors: Abdulrahman A. Bahaddad, Mohammed Beshir

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate and describe eight different types of power generation technologies and to understand the history and future trends of each technology. In addition, a comparative analysis between these technologies will be presented with respect to their cost analysis and associated performance.

Keywords: conventional power generation, economic analysis, environmental impact, renewable energy power generation

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2453 Signs, Signals and Syndromes: Algorithmic Surveillance and Global Health Security in the 21st Century

Authors: Stephen L. Roberts

Abstract:

This article offers a critical analysis of the rise of syndromic surveillance systems for the advanced detection of pandemic threats within contemporary global health security frameworks. The article traces the iterative evolution and ascendancy of three such novel syndromic surveillance systems for the strengthening of health security initiatives over the past two decades: 1) The Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases (ProMED-mail); 2) The Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN); and 3) HealthMap. This article demonstrates how each newly introduced syndromic surveillance system has become increasingly oriented towards the integration of digital algorithms into core surveillance capacities to continually harness and forecast upon infinitely generating sets of digital, open-source data, potentially indicative of forthcoming pandemic threats. This article argues that the increased centrality of the algorithm within these next-generation syndromic surveillance systems produces a new and distinct form of infectious disease surveillance for the governing of emergent pathogenic contingencies. Conceptually, the article also shows how the rise of this algorithmic mode of infectious disease surveillance produces divergences in the governmental rationalities of global health security, leading to the rise of an algorithmic governmentality within contemporary contexts of Big Data and these surveillance systems. Empirically, this article demonstrates how this new form of algorithmic infectious disease surveillance has been rapidly integrated into diplomatic, legal, and political frameworks to strengthen the practice of global health security – producing subtle, yet distinct shifts in the outbreak notification and reporting transparency of states, increasingly scrutinized by the algorithmic gaze of syndromic surveillance.

Keywords: algorithms, global health, pandemic, surveillance

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2452 High-Production Laser and Plasma Welding Technologies for High-Speed Vessels Production

Authors: V. M. Levshakov, N. A. Steshenkova, N. A. Nosyrev

Abstract:

Application of hulls processing technologies, based on high-concentrated energy sources (laser and plasma technologies), allow improve shipbuilding production. It is typical for high-speed vessels construction using steel and aluminum alloys with high precision hulls required. Report describes high-performance technologies for plasma welding (using direct current of reversed polarity), laser, and hybrid laser-arc welding of hulls structures developed by JSC “SSTC”.

Keywords: flat sections, hybrid laser-arc welding, plasma welding, plasmatron

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2451 Big Data: Concepts, Technologies and Applications in the Public Sector

Authors: A. Alexandru, C. A. Alexandru, D. Coardos, E. Tudora

Abstract:

Big Data (BD) is associated with a new generation of technologies and architectures which can harness the value of extremely large volumes of very varied data through real time processing and analysis. It involves changes in (1) data types, (2) accumulation speed, and (3) data volume. This paper presents the main concepts related to the BD paradigm, and introduces architectures and technologies for BD and BD sets. The integration of BD with the Hadoop Framework is also underlined. BD has attracted a lot of attention in the public sector due to the newly emerging technologies that allow the availability of network access. The volume of different types of data has exponentially increased. Some applications of BD in the public sector in Romania are briefly presented.

Keywords: big data, big data analytics, Hadoop, cloud

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2450 Information Technologies in Human Resources Management - Selected Examples

Authors: A. Karasek

Abstract:

Rapid growth of Information Technologies (IT) has had huge influence on enterprises, and it has contributed to its promotion and increasingly extensive use in enterprises. Information Technologies have to a large extent determined the processes taking place in a enterprise; what is more, IT development has brought the need to adopt a brand new approach to human resources management in an enterprise. The use of IT in Human Resource Management (HRM) is of high importance due to the growing role of information and information technologies. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the use of information technologies in human resources management in enterprises. These practices will be presented in the following areas: Recruitment and selection, development and training, employee assessment, motivation, talent management, personnel service. Results of conducted survey show diversity of solutions applied in particular areas of human resource management. In the future, further development in this area should be expected, as well as integration of individual HRM areas, growing mobile-enabled HR processes and their transfer into the cloud. Presented IT solutions applied in HRM are highly innovative, which is of great significance due to their possible implementation in other enterprises.

Keywords: e-HR, human resources management, HRM practices, HRMS, information technologies

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