Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6603

Search results for: human consciousness

6603 Constitution and Self-Consciousness in Hegel's Philosophy

Authors: Akbar Jamali

Abstract:

According to Hegel’s philosophy, constitution of any given nation is the best expression of its national Self-Consciousness. Since constitution is the place in which freedom and Universal Rights is expressed, and since the essence of Self-consciousness is freedom, the development of self-consciousness and consequently freedom, is the direct cause of the development of constitution. Self-consciousness develops in the human history according to its own internal and external dialectic; therefore, it is essentially a dynamic phenomenon. However, constitution is supposed to be a stable foundation for the legal system of state and society. Therefore, the dilemma is: how the dynamic and contradictory nature of Self-Consciousness is the foundation of constitution that supposed to be the stable base of legal system of state and society. According to Hegel’s philosophy, the contradiction between the dynamic self- consciousness and the static constitution and state has an essential role in the formation of social movements within any given state. Self-consciousness is the phenomenology of Spirit in the human history. Subjective Spirit expresses itself in the different shapes of Self-consciousness in human spirit. These different shapes of self-consciousness must be identical with its contradiction; Objective Spirit. State is the highest form of the objective Spirit. Therefore, state and its foundation namely ‘constitution’ must be identical with Self-consciousness. "Spirit cannot remain forever alienated from its expression." Hegel states. Self-consciousness is the Subjective Spirit, it freely develops according to its internal and external contradictions, but since it must be always identical with its expression namely constitution, its development results to alienation. They way by which self-consciousness became again identical with the constitution determines the nature of legal and political development of any given society and state. In the democratic states, self-consciousness shows itself partially in the public opinion. In the process of election, this public opinion changes the ruling parties that construct the government. In democracies, self-consciousness or subjective spirit is in a dialectical relationship with state or the Objective Spirit. Therefore, it cannot remain alienated with its expression that is political system and its constitution. But, in the autocracies Self-consciousness cannot easily express itself in the government and its constitution. More Self-consciousness develops more it becomes alienated with its expression that is the state and its constitution. Rebel and revolution are the symptom of alienation of Spirit (self-consciousness) with its expression (state and its constitution).

Keywords: alienation, constitution, self-consciousness, spirit

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6602 Towards a Computational Model of Consciousness: Global Abstraction Workspace

Authors: Halim Djerroud, Arab Ali Cherif

Abstract:

We assume that conscious functions are implemented automatically. In other words that consciousness as well as the non-consciousness aspect of human thought, planning, and perception, are produced by biologically adaptive algorithms. We propose that the mechanisms of consciousness can be produced using similar adaptive algorithms to those executed by the mechanism. In this paper, we propose a computational model of consciousness, the ”Global Abstraction Workspace” which is an internal environmental modelling perceived as a multi-agent system. This system is able to evolve and generate new data and processes as well as actions in the environment.

Keywords: artificial consciousness, cognitive architecture, global abstraction workspace, multi-agent system

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6601 Ecopsychological Approach to Enhance Space Consciousness Toward Environment

Authors: Tiwi Kamidin

Abstract:

After years of effort trying to integrate environmental education, studies keep revealing that Malaysian still not reached the certain level of desired commitment toward the environment. Some researchers mentioned that our planet healthy is depending on our mentally health especially our psychological and spiritual is split from the natural. Therefore, this study discussed on ecopcyhological approach in order to enhance space consciousness toward the environment. Space consciousness represents not only freedom from ego but also from dependency on the things of this world, from materialism and materiality. It is the spiritual dimension which alone can give transcendent and true meaning to this world. If pupils can balance this internal awareness will put an individual to respect the environment as part of yourself and your family against only as contributors to the continuance of human’s life. Qualitative findings showed that the informants considered their consciousness toward environment has been changed.

Keywords: ecopsychological approach, space consciousness, environmental education, environment

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6600 Structure of Consciousness According to Deep Systemic Constellations

Authors: Dmitry Ustinov, Olga Lobareva

Abstract:

The method of Deep Systemic Constellations is based on a phenomenological approach. Using the phenomenon of substitutive perception it was established that the human consciousness has a hierarchical structure, where deeper levels govern more superficial ones (reactive level, energy or ancestral level, spiritual level, magical level, and deeper levels of consciousness). Every human possesses a depth of consciousness to the spiritual level, however deeper levels of consciousness are not found for every person. It was found that the spiritual level of consciousness is not homogeneous and has its own internal hierarchy of sublevels (the level of formation of spiritual values, the level of the 'inner observer', the level of the 'path', the level of 'God', etc.). The depth of the spiritual level of a person defines the paradigm of all his internal processes and the main motives of the movement through life. At any level of consciousness disturbances can occur. Disturbances at a deeper level cause disturbances at more superficial levels and are manifested in the daily life of a person in feelings, behavioral patterns, psychosomatics, etc. Without removing the deepest source of a disturbance it is impossible to completely correct its manifestation in the actual moment. Thus a destructive pattern of feeling and behavior in the actual moment can exist because of a disturbance, for example, at the spiritual level of a person (although in most cases the source is at the energy level). Psychological work with superficial levels without removing a source of disturbance cannot fully solve the problem. The method of Deep Systemic Constellations allows one to work effectively with the source of the problem located at any depth. The methodology has confirmed its effectiveness in working with more than a thousand people.

Keywords: constellations, spiritual psychology, structure of consciousness, transpersonal psychology

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6599 Altered States of Consciousness in Narrative Cinema: Subjective Film Sound

Authors: Mladen Milicevic

Abstract:

In this paper, subjective film sound will be addressed as it gets represented in narrative cinema. First, 'meta-diegetic' sound will be briefly explained followed by transition to “oneiric” sound. The representation of oneiric sound refers to a situation where film characters are experiencing some sort of an altered state of consciousness. Looking at an antlered state of consciousness in terms of human brain processes will point out to the cinematic ways of expression, which 'mimic' those processes. Using several examples for different films will illustrate these points.

Keywords: oneiric, ASC, film, sound

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6598 The Effect of Environmental Consciousness on Firm Performance

Authors: Hossein Emari, Hossein Vazifehdoust, Hashem Nikoo Maram

Abstract:

This study aims to develop an original framework of Environmental Consciousness (EC) to explore the positive effect of environmental consciousness on financial performance through the partial mediator - green intellectual capital. A questionnaire survey on the environmental consciousness, intellectual capital, and financial performance of Iran’s manufacturing firms was conducted, and 324 samples were analyzed. This study utilizes structural equation modeling to explore the direct and indirect influences of EC on financial performance. Research results reveal that environmental consciousness had an indirect impact on financial performance through investment in green intellectual capital. It was thus known that green intellectual capital is a mediator of the relationship between environmental consciousness and financial performance. This paper may serve as a reference for firms mapping out future environmental policies and provide an input of various perspectives and arguments into the discipline of green management.

Keywords: environmental consciousness, social responsibility, green intellectual capital, financial performance

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6597 Quantitative Analysis of Presence, Consciousness, Subconsciousness, and Unconsciousness

Authors: Hooshmand Kalayeh

Abstract:

The human brain consists of reptilian, mammalian, and thinking brain. And mind consists of conscious, subconscious, and unconscious parallel neural-net programs. The primary objective of this paper is to propose a methodology for quantitative analysis of neural-nets associated with these mental activities in the neocortex. The secondary objective of this paper is to suggest a methodology for quantitative analysis of presence; the proposed methodologies can be used as a first-step to measure, monitor, and understand consciousness and presence. This methodology is based on Neural-Networks (NN), number of neuron in each NN associated with consciousness, subconsciouness, and unconsciousness, and number of neurons in neocortex. It is assumed that the number of neurons in each NN is correlated with the associated area and volume. Therefore, online and offline visualization techniques can be used to identify these neural-networks, and online and offline measurement methods can be used to measure areas and volumes associated with these NNs. So, instead of the number of neurons in each NN, the associated area or volume also can be used in the proposed methodology. This quantitative analysis and associated online and offline measurements and visualizations of different Neural-Networks enable us to rewire the connections in our brain for a more balanced living.

Keywords: brain, mind, consciousness, presence, sub-consciousness, unconsciousness, skills, concentrations, attention

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6596 Influence of Social Norms and Perceived Government Roles on Environmental Consciousness: A Multi-Socio-Economic Approach

Authors: Mona Francesca B. Dela Cruz, Katrina Marie R. Mamaril, Mariah Hannah Kassandra Salazar, Emerald Jay D. Ilac

Abstract:

One key factor that should be considered when determining sustainable solutions to various environmental problems is the potential impact of individual human beings. In order to understand an individual, there is a need to examine cognitive, emotional, dispositional, and behavioral factors which are all indicative of one’s environmental consciousness. This quantitative study explored the moderated mediation between environmental consciousness, socio-economic status, social norms as a mediator, and the perceived role of government as a moderator for 381 Filipinos, aged 25 to 65, in urban and suburban settings. Results showed social norms do not have a mediating effect between socio-economic status and environmental consciousness. This may be influenced by the collectivist culture of the Philippines and the tendency for people to copy behaviors according to the descriptive norm effect. Meanwhile, there exists a moderating effect of the perceived role of government between the relationship of social norms and environmental consciousness which can be explained by the government’s ability to impose social norms that can induce a person to think and act pro-environmentally. Practical applications of this study can be used to tap the ability of the government to strengthen their influence and control over environmental protection and to provide a basis for the development of class-specific environmental solutions that can be done by individuals depending on their socioeconomic status.

Keywords: environmental consciousness, role of government, social norms, socio-economic status

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6595 The Study of Public Consciousness of Undergraduate Students, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Nantida Otakum

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to study the level of public consciousness of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University undergraduate students. This study also compares differences in the level of public consciousness among undergraduate students who are different in sex and year of study. The research methodology employed a questionnaire as a quantitative method. The respondents were undergraduate students at Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Totally, 400 usable questionnaires were received. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. The results showed that the level of public consciousness of undergraduate students was at a good level in all aspects. The aspect of social participation was at the highest level, while the aspect of shared vision was at the lowest level. The results also indicated that undergraduate students with differences in sex and year of study were not significantly different in public consciousness level.

Keywords: participation, public consciousness, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, undergraduate students

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6594 Man-Nature relationship in Bishop’s Poetry: An Eco-Critical Reading of the Selected Poems

Authors: Khaled Abkar Alkodimi

Abstract:

This paper attempts to explore Bishop’s eco-poetics and environmental consciousness from an ecocritical perspective. It focuses on her representations of animals, environments, and natural phenomena and the connection between a broad range of human activities and flora, fauna habitats. Indeed, Bishop shows a sense of human responsibility towards the earth in her peculiar treatment of place and livestock, which appears to be more than a static growth process. Her poetry is totally contrary to egoism and egotism, and this can be easily noticed in her subjective understanding of nature and creatures. The findings show Bishop as an eco-poet who committed herself and her poetry to highlight the significance of nature and world life at large. This is obvious through her representation of natural phenomena such as seasonal cycles, weather, and physical and ecological elements, including air, earth, and water, which essentially constitute and inform the poet’s environmental thoughts. Examining Bishop’s conception of a human relationship with ‘external nature through the examination of her poetic language, this study shows how the environmental imagination can suggest social responsibility to readers.

Keywords: elizabeth bishop, eco-criticism, eco-poetry, environmental consciousness, man-nature relationship

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6593 Unraveling the Mysteries of the Anahata Nada to Achieve Supreme Consciousness

Authors: Shanti Swaroop Mokkapati

Abstract:

The unstruck sound, or the Anahata Nada, holds the key in elevating the consciousness levels of the practitioner. This has been well established by the great saints of the eastern tradition over the past few centuries. This paper intends to explore in-depth the common thread of the practice of Anahata Nada by the musical saints, examining the subtle mention in their compositions as well as demystifying their musical experiences that throw insights into elevated levels of consciousness. Mian Tansen, one of the greatest musicians in the North Indian Hindustani Classical Music tradition and who lived in the 15th century, is said to have brought rain through his singing of Raga Megh Malhar. The South Indian (Carnatic) Musical Saint Tyagaraja, who lived in the 18th Century, composed hundreds of musical pieces full of love for the Supreme Being. Many of these compositions unravel the secrets of Anahata Nada, the chakras in the human body that hold key to these practices, and the visions of elevated levels of consciousness that Saint Tyagaraja himself experienced through these practices. The spiritual practitioners of the Radhasoami Faith (Religion of Saints) in Dayalbagh, India, have adopted a practice called Surat Shabda Yoga (Meditational practices that unite the all-pervasive sound current with the spirit current and elevate levels of consciousness). The practitioners of this Yogic method submit that they have been able to hear mystic words including Om, Racing, Soham, Sat, and Radhasoami, along with instrumental sounds that accompany these mystic words in the form of a crescendo. These prolific experiences of elevated consciousness of musical saints are numerous, and this paper intends to explore more significant ones from many centuries in the past till the present day, where elevated consciousness levels of practitioners are being scientifically measured and analyzed using quantum computing.

Keywords: Anahata Nada, Nada Yoga, Tyagaraja, Radhasoami

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6592 Influence of the Popular Literature on Consciousness of the Person

Authors: Alua Temirbolat, Sergei Kibalnik, Zhuldyz Essimova

Abstract:

The article is devoted to research of influence of the modern literature on the consciousness of the person. Tendencies and features of the progress of the historical-cultural and artistic process at the end of XX–the beginning of XXI centuries are considered. The object of the analysis is the popular literature which has found last decades greater popularity among readers of different generations. In the article, such genres, as melodramas, female, espionage, criminal, pink, costume-historical novels, thrillers, elements, a fantasy are considered. During research, specific features of the popular literature, its difference from works of classics is revealed. On specific examples, its negative and positive influence on consciousness, psychology of the reader is shown, its role and value in a modern society are defined.

Keywords: the popular literature, the person, consciousness, a genre, psychology

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6591 The Concept of Path in Original Buddhism and the Concept of Psychotherapeutic Improvement

Authors: Beth Jacobs

Abstract:

The landmark movement of Western clinical psychology in the 20th century was the development of psychotherapy. The landmark movement of clinical psychology in the 21st century will be the absorption of meditation practices from Buddhist psychology. While millions of people explore meditation and related philosophy, very few people are exposed to the materials of original Buddhism on this topic, especially to the Theravadan Abhidharma. The Abhidharma is an intricate system of lists and matrixes that were used to understand and remember Buddha’s teaching. The Abhidharma delineates the first psychological system of Buddhism, how the mind works in the universe of reality and why meditation training strengthens and purifies the experience of life. Its lists outline the psychology of mental constructions, perception, emotion and cosmological causation. While the Abhidharma is technical, elaborate and complex, its essential purpose relates to the central purpose of clinical psychology: to relieve human suffering. Like Western depth psychology, the methodology rests on understanding underlying processes of consciousness and perception. What clinical psychologists might describe as therapeutic improvement, the Abhidharma delineates as a specific pathway of purified actions of consciousness. This paper discusses the concept of 'path' as presented in aspects of the Theravadan Abhidharma and relates this to current clinical psychological views of therapy outcomes and gains. The core path in Buddhism is the Eight-Fold Path, which is the fourth noble truth and the launching of activity toward liberation. The path is not composed of eight ordinal steps; it’s eight-fold and is described as opening the way, not funneling choices. The specific path in the Abhidharma is described in many steps of development of consciousness activities. The path is not something a human moves on, but something that moments of consciousness develop within. 'Cittas' are extensively described in the Abhidharma as the atomic-level unit of a raw action of consciousness touching upon an object in a field, and there are 121 types of cittas categorized. The cittas are embedded in the mental factors, which could be described as the psychological packaging elements of our experiences of consciousness. Based on these constellations of infinitesimal, linked occurrences of consciousness, citta are categorized by dimensions of purification. A path is a chain of citta developing through causes and conditions. There are no selves, no pronouns in the Abhidharma. Instead of me walking a path, this is about a person working with conditions to cultivate a stream of consciousness that is pure, immediate, direct and generous. The same effort, in very different terms, informs the work of most psychotherapies. Depth psychology seeks to release the bound, unconscious elements of mental process into the clarity of realization. Cognitive and behavioral psychologies work on breaking down automatic thought valuations and actions, changing schemas and interpersonal dynamics. Understanding how the original Buddhist concept of positive human development relates to the clinical psychological concept of therapy weaves together two brilliant systems of thought on the development of human well being.

Keywords: Abhidharma, Buddhist path, clinical psychology, psychotherapeutic outcome

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6590 From Lack of Humanity to Self-Consciousness and Vision in Lord of the Flies and Blindness

Authors: Maryam Sadeghi

Abstract:

Civilization and industrialization are two important factors that make people believe they are just depriving of savagery and brutality. But practical studies show exactly something different. How groups of people behave, when they are put in extreme situations is the very unpleasant truth about the human being in general. Both novels deal with the fragility of human society, no matter the people who are playing a role are children or grown-ups, who by definition should know better. Both novels have got beautiful plots in which no one enforces rules and laws on the characters, so they begin to show their true nature. The present study is undertaken to investigate the process of a journey from lack of humanity to a sort of self-consciousness which happens at the end of both Blindness by Saramago and Lord of the Flies by Golding. In order to get the best result the two novels have been studied precisely and lots of different articles and critical essays have been analyzed, which shows people drift into cruelty and savagery easily but can also drift out of it. In blindness losing sight, and being apart from society in a deserted tropical island in Lord of the Flies causes limitation. Limitation in any form makes people rebel. Although in the process of both novels, any kind of savagery, brutality, filth, and social collapse can be observable and both writers believe that human being has the potential of being animal images, but they both also want to show that the very nature of human being is divine. Children’s weeping at the end Lord of the Flies and Doctor’s remark at the end of Blindness “I don’t think we did go blind, I think we are blind, blind but seeing, blind people who can see but do not see”, show exactly the matter of insight at the end of the novels. The fact that divinity exists in the very nature of human being is the indubitable aim that makes this research truly valuable.

Keywords: brutality, lack of humanity, savagery, Blindness

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6589 An In-Depth Definition of the 24 Levels of Consciousness and Its Relationship to Buddhism and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: James V. Luisi

Abstract:

Understanding consciousness requires a synthesis of ideas from multiple disciplines, including obvious ones like psychology, biology, evolution, neurology, and neuroscience, as well as less obvious ones like protozoology, botany, entomology, carcinology, herpetology, mammalogy, and computer sciences. Furthermore, to incorporate the necessary backdrop, it is best presented in a theme of Eastern philosophy, specifically leveraging the teachings of Buddhism for its relevance to early thought on consciousness. These ideas are presented as a multi-level framework that illustrates the various aspects of consciousness within a tapestry of foundational and dependent building blocks as to how living organisms evolved to understand elements of their reality sufficiently to survive, and in the case of Homo sapiens, eventually move beyond meeting the basic needs of survival, but to also achieve survival of the species beyond the eventual fate of our planet. This is not a complete system of thought, but just a framework of consciousness gathering some of the key elements regarding the evolution of consciousness and the advent of free will, and presenting them in a unique way that encourages readers to continue the dialog and thought process as an experience to enjoy long after reading the last page. Readers are encouraged to think for themselves about the issues raised herein and to question every facet presented, as much further exploration is needed. Needless to say, this subject will remain a rapidly evolving one for quite some time to come, and it is probably in the interests of everyone to at least consider attaining both an ability and willingness to participate in the dialog.

Keywords: consciousness, sentience, intelligence, artificial intelligence, Buddhism

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6588 Aesthetic Preference and Consciousness in African Theatre: A Performance Appraisal of Tyrone Terrence's a Husband's Wife

Authors: Oluwatayo Isijola

Abstract:

The destructive influence of Europe on Africa has also taken a tow on the aesthetic essence of the African Art, which centres on morality and value for human life. In a parallel vein, the adverse turn of this influence on the dramaturgy of some contemporary African plays, poses impedance to audience consciousness in performance engagements. Through the spectrum of African Aesthetics, this study attempts a performance appraisal of A Husband’s wife; an unpublished play written by Tyrone Terence for the African audience. The researcher proffers two variant textual interpretations of the play to evaluate performance engagement in its default realistic mode, which holds an unresolved 'Medean-impulse', and another wherein the resolution is treated to a paradigm shift for aesthetic preference. The investigation employs the mixed method, which combines the quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Keen observation on the reactions and responses of audience members that were engaged in both performances, and on-the-spot interview with selected audience members, were the primary sources for the qualitative data. However, quantitative data was captured in an on-the-spot survey with the instrument of the questionnaire served to a sample population of the audience. The study observes that the preference for African aesthetics as exemplified in the second performance which deployed a paradigm shift did enhance audience consciousness. Hinging on performance aesthetic theory, the paper recommends that all such African plays bestowed with the shortcoming of African aesthetics, should be appropriately treated to paradigm shifts for performance engagement, in the interest of enhancing audience consciousness in the Nigerian Theatre.

Keywords: African aesthetics, audience consciousness, paradigm shift, median-impulse

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6587 The Single-Level Structure in Lucid Dreams

Authors: Jinshuo Zhang

Abstract:

Lucid dreams(LD) are the mental states in which people are aware that they are dreaming, which is a rising interdisciplinary topic among psychologists, neuroscientists and spiritual practitioners. From a phenomenological perspective, this research explores the self-consciousness structure in lucid dreams, particularly focusing on the self-reference structure between lucidity(the observer) and the dream ego(the observed). The main argument of this paper is that the self-structure in lucid dreams is a single-level paradigm. In this paper, the phenomenological characteristics of lucidity in LD are carefully unfolded. The appearance of lucidity is the most significant part of understanding the self-structure and the consciousness in dreams, which is also related to the “Six Bardos practices” in Tibetan Buddhism. In the second section, this research investigates the referential relationship between"lucidity" and "the dream ego" using the phenomenological resource of subjectivity theory, as well as referring to many cases in the psychological labs. Despite the appearance of various consciousness layers in lucid dreams, according to this paper, they are all part of a single-level consciousness paradigm. Dream ego is transparent, and dream lucidity can grasp it directly and thoroughly during LD. This research also responds to some potential criticisms and engages in current debates about the self-structure issue in lucid dreams, as well as discussing some future research prospects for dreams and lucid dreams.

Keywords: lucid dream, self-awareness, phenomenological perspective, high-order theory, one-level consciousness

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6586 Jalal-Ale-Ahmad and ‘Critical Consciousness’: A Comparative Study

Authors: Zohreh Ramin

Abstract:

One of the most important contributions that Edward Said has had in the realm of critical theory is his insistence on the worldliness of the text and the critic. By this, Said meant that the critic and the text must be considered in their ‘material’ contexts. Foregrounding the substantial role of a critic as embodying what he refers to as ‘critical consciousness’, a true critic, Said maintains, is one who can stand between the ‘dominant culture’ and ‘the totalizing forms of critical systems.’ Considered as one of Iran’s major contemporary intellectuals, Jalal Ale Ahmad is responsible for introducing the idea of ‘Westoxication’ in Iran, constructing a social paradigm of the necessity to return to tradition in contemporary Iran. The present paper intends to study Al-Ahmad’s definition of the orient versus the occident, his criticism of the ‘machination’ of contemporary Iranian society, and his solution to the problem of ‘Westoxication’. The objective of this study is to see whether Ale Ahmad can be considered as embodying the spirit of ‘critical consciousness’ as described by Said as the necessary tool in the hands of an intellectual who is simultaneously attached filitavely to his culture but can detach himself affilitavely through employing critical consciousness.

Keywords: Westoxication, filiative, affiliative, machination

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6585 World Peace and Conflict Resolution: A Solution from a Buddhist Point of View

Authors: Samitharathana R. Wadigala

Abstract:

The peace will not be established until the self-consciousness would reveal in the human beings. In this nuclear age, the establishment of a lasting peace on the earth represents the primary condition for the preservation of human civilization and survival of human beings. Nothing perhaps is so important and indispensable as the achievement and maintenance of peace in the modern world today. Peace in today’s world implies much more than the mere absence of war and violence. In the interdependent world of today the United Nations needs to be representative of the modern world and democratic in its functioning because it came into existence to save the generations from the scourge of war and conflict. Buddhism is the religion of peaceful co-existence and philosophy of enlightenment. Violence and conflict from the perspective of the Buddhist theory of interdependent origination (Paṭiccasamuppāda) are same with everything else in the world a product of causes and conditions. Buddhism is totally compatible with the congenial and peaceful global order. The canonical literature, doctrines, and philosophy of Buddhism are the best suited for inter-faith dialogue, harmony, and universal peace. Even today Buddhism can resurrect the universal brotherhood, peaceful co-existence and harmonious surroundings in the comity of nations. With its increasing vitality in regions around the world, many people today turn to Buddhism for relief and guidance at the time when peace seems to be a deferred dream more than ever. From a Buddhist point of view the roots of all unwholesome actions (Conflict) i. e. greed, hatred and delusion are viewed as the root cause of all human conflicts. Conflict often emanates from attachment to material things: pleasures, property, territory, wealth, economic dominance or political superiority. Buddhism has some particularly rich resources for deployment in dissolving conflict. Buddhism addresses the Buddhist perspective on the causes of conflict and ways to resolve conflict to realize world peace. The world has enough to satisfy every body’s needs but not every body’s greed.

Keywords: Buddhism, conflict-violence, peace, self-consciousness

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6584 Human Security and Human Trafficking Related Corruption

Authors: Ekin D. Horzum

Abstract:

The aim of the proposal is to examine the relationship between human trafficking related corruption and human security. The proposal suggests that the human trafficking related corruption is about willingness of the states to turn a blind eye to the human trafficking cases. Therefore, it is important to approach human trafficking related corruption in terms of human security and human rights violation to find an effective way to fight against human trafficking. In this context, the purpose of this proposal is to examine the human trafficking related corruption as a safe haven in which trafficking thrives for perpetrators.

Keywords: human trafficking, human security, human rights, corruption, organized crime

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6583 The Roles of Health Consciousness, Health Motivation, and Trust in the Purchase Intention of Meat with Traceability

Authors: Kawpong Polyorat, Nathamon Buaprommee

Abstract:

Food safety crises including mad cow disease and bird flu have raised consumers’ concern in meat safety. In response, the meat industry has adopted traceability systems to standardize quality and safety of their meat production. Traceability, however, is still rarely positioned as a marketing tool to persuade consumers who are meat endusers. Therefore, the present study attempts to understand consumer behaviors in the context of meat with traceability system by conducting a study in Thailand where research in this area is scant. The study results, based on structural equation modeling with AMOS, reveal that, while health motivation has a significant, positive impact on traceability trust, health consciousness does not directly affect traceability. Health consciousness, nevertheless, have a positive influence on health motivation. Finally, traceability trust has a positive impact on purchase intention of meat with traceability. Research implications and future study directions conclude the study report.

Keywords: consumer behavior, health consciousness, health motivation, traceability, trust

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6582 Representation of Master–Disciple Relationship in Rumi’s Poems: Spirituality Vis-A-Vis Collective Consciousness

Authors: Nodi Islam

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This paper critically reads Rumi’s poems in The Masnavi (Book One) and the philosophy of master-disciple relationship, as reflected as a medium to attain the higher consciousness in the poems which is considered as spiritual by the Sufi practitioners. This paper further applies the concept of collective consciousness introduced by Durkheim, which stands for a set of beliefs, ideas, moral attitudes that operate as a unifying force in a certain society, in reading Rumi’s poems. According to Sufi philosophy, in order to reach to the beloved who is the Higher Being, a lover has to be a disciple of a master and dedicate himself completely even if it means to give up the earthly desires. When the process is completed, he achieves the divinity which is the utmost happiness to be one with the beloved. As this process is considered spiritual by the Sufi practitioners, this paper suggests that, apart from being spiritual, this is a reflection of collective consciousness also. This process plays a part to construct the collectivity as a means to create masters and disciples. Collective consciousness operates in this particular belief system of Sufis who tend to follow this phenomenon as a rule of obedience and accepts the rule because this is how their particular community proceeds on. This paper offers a view of Rumi’s poems which reflect such relationship and tends to offer a general discussion on the hegemonic approach of the Sufi society especially of the Mevlevi order. Finally, this paper offers a constructive representation of Mevlevi society based upon the idea of spirituality which could be an outcome of psychological and social issues and practices.

Keywords: collective consciousness, divinity, master-disciple relationship, Mevlevi order

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6581 Shopping Behaviour of Ethnic Groups in Indian Culture

Authors: Hari Govindmishra, Sarabjot Singh

Abstract:

The study offers an approach to understand different determinants of shopping behaviour, and the effect of ethnicity on shopping behaviour. The results reveal that the Indian culture is composite in nature and because of which there is no difference between different ethnic groups in their preference for three shopping behaviour determinants, viz., status consciousness, need for touch and companion opinion. The research model investigates the relevant relationship between these constructs by using a structural equation modelling approach, which reveals that status consciousness, need for touch and companion opinion are significant determinants of shopping behaviour. Consequently, the shopping behaviour managers have to understand the collective nature of Indian ethnic consumers in their shopping behaviour.

Keywords: ethnic groups, status consciousness, companion opinion, need for touch, shopping behaviour

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6580 Temporary Autonomous Areas in Time and Space: Psytrance Rave Parties as an Expression Area of Altered States of Consciousness in Turkey

Authors: Ugur Cihat Sakarya

Abstract:

This research focuses on psychedelic trance music events in Turkey in the context of altered states of consciousness (ASC). The fieldwork that was conducted from 2018 to 2019 is the main source of the research. Participant observation method was followed in 15 selected events. To direct the musical experiences of participants, performances were also presented as a Dj. Ten of these events are open-air festivals. Five of them are indoor parties. The observations made during fieldwork and suitable answers for inference from the interviews with participants, artists, DJs, and volunteers were selected, compiled, and presented. In the result, findings showed that these activities are perceived as temporary autonomous areas by the participants both in time and space and that these activities are suitable areas for expressing themselves as a group (psyfamily) against mainstream culture. It has been observed that the elements that complement the altered states of consciousness in these events are music, visual arts, drug use, and desire to experience spiritual experiences. It is thought that this first academic study -about this topic in Turkey- will open a door for future researches.

Keywords: consciousness, psychedelic, psytrance, rave, Turkey

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6579 The Sound of Getting Closer: A Phenomenological Research of the Senses of Proximity and Touch

Authors: Marcello Lussana

Abstract:

Closer is a wireless system developed by the “Design Research Lab” of the UdK Berlin that is able to detect the proximity and touch between two (or more) persons. We have been using this system for one performance and one installation: in both cases, the proximity and touch events of the two participants have been sonified using the software Supercollider. In this paper, we are going to focus on the actual experience of the participants involved, especially related to the awareness of their body, their level of proprioception and how they felt in their body and in connection with the other person. In order to give value to the lived experience of the participant, a phenomenological method described and developed by Professor Claire Petitmengin has been used. This strategy allowed the interviewees to become aware of their subjective experience, and describe it with great precision. This is essential in order to understand the actual state of consciousness of the users. Our aim is to research the senses of proprioception, touch, and proximity: as they all involve a pre-reflective state of consciousness, they are central for the understanding of human perception. The interviews revealed how this experience could improve and increase proprioception and awareness of your body.

Keywords: interactive sound, phenomenology, pre-reflective, proprioception, subjective experience

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6578 Agency Beyond Metaphysics of Subjectivity

Authors: Erik Kuravsky

Abstract:

One of the problems with a post-structuralist account of agency is that it appears to reject the freedom of an acting subject, thus seeming to deny the very phenomenon of agency. However, this is only a problem if we think that human beings can be agents exclusively in terms of being subjects, that is, if we think agency subjectively. Indeed, we tend to understand traditional theories of human freedom (e.g., Plato’s or Kant’s) in terms of a peculiar ability of the subject. The paper suggests to de-subjectivize agency with the help of Heidegger’s later thought. To do it, ir argues that classical theories of agency may indeed be interpreted as subject-oriented (sometimes even by their authors), but do not have to be read as such. Namely, the claim is that what makes agency what it is, what is essential in agency, is not its belonginess to a subject, but its ontological configuration. We may say that agency “happens,” and that there is a very specific ontological characteristics to this happening. The argument of the paper is that we can find these characteristic in the classical accounts of agency and that these characteristics are sufficient to distinguish human freedom from other natural phenomena. In particular, it offers to think agency not as one of human characteristics, but as an ontological event in which human beings take part. Namely, agency is a (non-human) characteristic of the different modes in which the experienceable existence of beings is determined by Being. To be an agent then is to participate in such ontological determination. What enables this participation is the ways human beings non-thematically understand the ontological difference. For example, for Plato, one acts freely only if one is led by an idea of the good, while for Kant the imperative for free action is categorial. The agency of an agent is thus dependent on the differentiation between ideas/categories and beings met in experience – one is “free” from contingent sensibility in terms of what is different from it ontologically. In this light, modern dependence on subjectivity is evident in the fact that the ontological difference is thought as belonging to one’s thinking, consciousness etc. That is, it is taken subjectively. A non-subjective account of agency, on the other hand, requires thinking this difference as belonging to Being itself, and thinking human beings as a medium within which occurs the non-human force of ontological differentiation.

Keywords: Heidegger, freedom, agency, poststructuralism

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6577 Myth in Political Discourse as a Form of Linguistic Consciousness

Authors: Kuralay Kenzhekanova, Akmaral Dalelbekkyzy

Abstract:

The article is devoted to the problem of political discourse and its reflection on mass cognition. This article is dedicated to describe the myth as one of the main features of political discourse. The dominance of an expressional and emotional component in the myth is shown. Precedent phenomenon plays an important role in distinguishing the myth from the linguistic point of view. Precedent phenomena show the linguistic cognition, which is characterized by their fame and recognition. Four types of myths such as master myths, a foundation myth, sustaining myth, eschatological myths are observed. The myths about the national idea are characterized by national specificity. The main aim of the political discourse with the help of myths is to influence on the mass consciousness in order to motivate the addressee to certain actions so that the target purpose is reached owing to unity of forces.

Keywords: cognition, myth, linguistic consciousness, types of myths, political discourse, political myth, precedent phenomena

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6576 Search for EEG Correlates of Mental States Using EEG Neurofeedback Paradigm

Authors: Cyril Kaplan

Abstract:

26 participants played 4 EEG neurofeedback (NF) games encouraged to find their strategies to control the specific NF parameter. Mixed method analysis of performance in the games and post-session interviews led to the identification of states of consciousness that correlated with success in the game. We found that increase in left frontal beta activity was facilitated by evoking interest in observed surroundings, by wondering what is happening behind the window or what lies in a drawer in front.

Keywords: EEG neurofeedback, states of consciousness, frontal beta activity, mixed methods

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6575 Interpretations of Disaster: A Comparative Study on Disaster Film Cycles

Authors: Chi-Ying Yu

Abstract:

In real life, the occurrence of disasters is always dreadful and heartbreaking, yet paradoxically, disaster film is a genre that has been popular at periodic intervals in motion picture history. This study attempts to compare the disaster film cycles of the 1970s, 1990s, and the early 21st century. Two research questions are addressed: First, how this genre has responded to the existing conditions of society in different periods in terms of the disaster proposition? Second, how this genre reflects a certain eternal substance of the human mind in light of its lasting appeal? Through cinematic textual analysis and literature review, this study finds that the emergence of disaster films in the 1970s reflected the turmoil in international relations and domestic politics situation in contemporary American society, and cinema screens showed such disaster stories as shipwrecks, air accidents, and skyscraper blazes due to human negligence. The 1990s saw the fervor of millennial apocalypse legends, and the awakening of environmental consciousness, which, together with the rapid advances in digital technology, once again gave rise to a frenzy of disaster films, with natural disasters and threats from aliens as the major themes of disasters. Since the beginning of the 21st century, the 911 Incident and natural disasters around the world have generated a consciousness of imminent crisis. Cinematic images simulated actual disasters, while aesthetic techniques focused on creating a kind of ‘empathetic’ experience in their exploration of the essence of the disaster experience. At the same time, post-apocalypse films that focus on post-disaster reconstruction have become an even more popular theme. Taking the approach of Jungian/post-Jungian film study, this study also reviews and interprets the commonly exhibited subliminal feelings in the disaster films of the three different periods. The imagination of disaster seems to serve as an underlying state of the human mind.

Keywords: disaster film, Jungian/post-Jungian film studies, stimulation, sublime

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6574 An Investigation Into an Essential Property of Creativity, Which Is the First-Person Experience

Authors: Ukpaka Paschal

Abstract:

Margret Boden argues that a creative product is one that is new, surprising, and valuable as a result of the combination, exploration, or transformation involved in producing it. Boden uses examples of artificial intelligence systems that fit all of these criteria and argues that real creativity involves autonomy, intentionality, valuation, emotion, and consciousness. This paper provides an analysis of all these elements in order to try to understand whether they are sufficient to account for creativity, especially human creativity. This paper focuses on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs), which is a class of artificial intelligence algorithms that are said to have disproved the common perception that creativity is something that only humans possess. This paper will then argue that Boden’s listed properties of creativity, which capture the creativity exhibited by GANs, are not sufficient to account for human creativity, and this paper will further identify “first-person phenomenological experience” as an essential property of human creativity. The rationale behind the proposed essential property is that if creativity involves comprehending our experience of the world around us into a form of self-expression, then our experience of the world really matters with regard to creativity.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, creativity, GANs, first-person experience

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