Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: C. A. Alexandru

22 Big Data: Concepts, Technologies and Applications in the Public Sector

Authors: A. Alexandru, C. A. Alexandru, D. Coardos, E. Tudora


Big Data (BD) is associated with a new generation of technologies and architectures which can harness the value of extremely large volumes of very varied data through real time processing and analysis. It involves changes in (1) data types, (2) accumulation speed, and (3) data volume. This paper presents the main concepts related to the BD paradigm, and introduces architectures and technologies for BD and BD sets. The integration of BD with the Hadoop Framework is also underlined. BD has attracted a lot of attention in the public sector due to the newly emerging technologies that allow the availability of network access. The volume of different types of data has exponentially increased. Some applications of BD in the public sector in Romania are briefly presented.

Keywords: big data, big data analytics, Hadoop, cloud

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21 Spatial Resilience of the Ageing Population in the Romanian Functional Urban Areas

Authors: Marinela Istrate, Ionel Muntele, Alexandru Bănică


The authors propose the identification, analysis and prognosis of the quantitative and qualitative evolution of the elderly population in the functional urban areas. The present paper takes into account the analysis of some representative indicators (the weight of the elderly population, ageing index, dynamic index of economic ageing of productive population etc.) and the elaboration of an integrated indicator that would help differentiate the population ageing forms in the 48 functional urban areas that were defined based on demographic and social-economic criteria for all large and medium cities in Romania.

Keywords: ageing, demographic transition, functional urban areas, spatial resilience

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20 Simulink Library for Reference Current Generation in Active DC Traction Substations

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu


This paper is focused on the reference current calculation in the compensation mode of the active DC traction substations. The so-called p-q theory of the instantaneous reactive power is used as theoretical foundation. The compensation goal of total compensation is taken into consideration for the operation under both sinusoidal and nonsinusoidal voltage conditions, through the two objectives of unity power factor and perfect harmonic cancelation. Four blocks of reference current generation implement the conceived algorithms and they are included in a specific Simulink library, which is useful in a DSP dSPACE-based platform working under Matlab/Simulink. The simulation results validate the correctness of the implementation and fulfillment of the compensation tasks.

Keywords: active power filter, DC traction, p-q theory, Simulink library

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19 Wireless Optic Last Mile Multi-Gbit/s Communication System

Authors: Manea Viorel, Puscoci Sorin, Stoichescu Dan Alexandru


Free Space Optics (FSO) is an optical telecommunication system that uses laser beam to transmit data at high bit rates via terrestrial atmosphere. This article describes a method to obtain higher bit rates, under unfavorable weather conditions using multiple optical beams, which carry information with low optical power. Optical link quality assessment is given by the attenuation on different weather conditions. The goal of this paper is to compare two transmission techniques: mono and multi beam, both affected by atmospheric attenuation, using OOK and L-PPM modulation. Link availability is evaluated using eye-diagram that provides information about the overall bit error rate of the system.

Keywords: free space optics, wireless optic, laser communication, spatial diversity

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18 The Influence of Emotional Intelligence Skills on Innovative Start-Ups Coaching: A Neuro-Management Approach

Authors: Alina Parincu, Giuseppe Empoli, Alexandru Capatina


The purpose of this paper is to identify the most influential predictors of emotional intelligence skills, in the case of 20 business innovation coaches, on the co-creation of knowledge through coaching services delivered to innovative start-ups from Europe, funded through Horizon 2020 – SME Instrument. We considered the emotional intelligence skills (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills) as antecedent conditions of the outcome: the quality of coaching services, perceived by the entrepreneurs who received funding within SME instrument, using fuzzy-sets qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA) approach. The findings reveal that emotional intelligence skills, trained with neuro-management techniques, were associated with increased goal-focused business coaching skills.

Keywords: neuro-management, innovative start-ups, business coaching, fsQCA

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17 Integrating Human Preferences into the Automated Decisions of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Arwa Khannoussi, Alexandru-Liviu Olteanu, Pritesh Narayan, Catherine Dezan, Jean-Philippe Diguet, Patrick Meyer, Jacques Petit-Frere


Due to the nature of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) missions, it is important that the decisions of a UAV stay consistent with the priorities of an operator, while at the same time allowing them to be easily audited and explained. We propose a multi-layer decision engine that integrates the operator (human) preferences by using the Multi-Criteria Decision Aiding (MCDA) methods. A software implementation of a UAV simulator and of the decision engine is presented to highlight the advantage of using such techniques on high-level decisions. We demonstrate that, with such a preference-based decision engine, the decisions of the UAV are compatible with the priorities of the operator, which in turn increases her/his confidence in its autonomous behavior.

Keywords: autonomous UAV, multi-criteria decision aiding, multi-layers decision engine, operator's preferences, traceable decisions, UAV simulation

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16 Some Conjectures and Programs about Computing the Detour Index of Molecular Graphs of Nanotubes

Authors: Shokofeh Ebrtahimi


Let G be the chemical graph of a molecule. The matrix D = [dij ] is called the detour matrix of G, if dij is the length of longest path between atoms i and j. The sum of all entries above the main diagonal of D is called the detour index of G.Chemical graph theory is the topology branch of mathematical chemistry which applies graph theory to mathematical modelling of chemical phenomena.[1] The pioneers of the chemical graph theory are Alexandru Balaban, Ante Graovac, Ivan Gutman, Haruo Hosoya, Milan Randić and Nenad TrinajstićLet G be the chemical graph of a molecule. The matrix D = [dij ] is called the detour matrix of G, if dij is the length of longest path between atoms i and j. The sum of all entries above the main diagonal of D is called the detour index of G. In this paper, a new program for computing the detour index of molecular graphs of nanotubes by heptagons is determineded. Some Conjectures about detour index of Molecular graphs of nanotubes is included.

Keywords: chemical graph, detour matrix, Detour index, carbon nanotube

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15 Numerical Investigations on the Coanda Effect

Authors: Florin Frunzulica, Alexandru Dumitrache, Octavian Preotu


The Coanda effect consists of the tendency of a jet to remain attached to a sufficiently long/large convex surface. Flows deflected by a curved surface have caused great interest during last fifty years a major interest in the study of this phenomenon is caused by the possibility of using this effect to aircraft with short take-off and landing, for thrust vectoring. It is also used in applications involving mixing two of more fluids, noise attenuation, ventilation, etc. The paper proposes the numerical study of an aerodynamic configuration that can passively amplify the Coanda effect. On a wing flaps with predetermined configuration, a channel is applied between two particular zones, a low-pressure one and a high-pressure another one, respectively. The secondary flow through this channel yields a gap between the jet and the convex surface, maintaining the jet attached on a longer distance. The section altering-based active control of the secondary flow through the channel controls the attachment of the jet to the surface and automatically controls the deviation angle of the jet. The numerical simulations have been performed in Ansys Fluent for a series of wing flaps-channel configurations with varying jet velocity. The numerical results are in good agreement with experimental results.

Keywords: blowing jet, CFD, Coanda effect, circulation control

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14 Numerical Analysis of the Coanda Effect on the Classical Interior Ejectors

Authors: Alexandru Dumitrache, Florin Frunzulica, Octavian Preotu


The flow mitigation detachment problem near solid surfaces, resulting in improved globally aerodynamic performance by exploiting the Coanda effect on surfaces, has been addressed extensively in the literature, since 1940. The research is carried on and further developed, using modern means of calculation and new experimental methods. In this paper, it is shown interest in the detailed behavior of a classical interior ejector assisted by the Coanda effect, used in propulsion systems. For numerical investigations, an implicit formulation of RANS equations for axisymmetric flow with a shear stress transport k- ω (SST model) turbulence model is used. The obtained numerical results emphasize the efficiency of the ejector, depending on the physical parameters of the flow and the geometric configuration. Furthermore, numerical investigations are carried out regarding the evolution of the Reynolds number when the jet is attached to the wall, considering three geometric configurations: sudden expansion, open cavity and sudden expansion with divergent at the inlet. Therefore, further insight into complexities involving issues such as the variety of flow structure and the related bifurcation and flow instabilities are provided. Thus, the conditions and the limits within which one can benefit from the advantages of Coanda-type flows are determined.

Keywords: Coanda effect, Coanda ejector, CFD, stationary bifurcation, sudden expansion

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13 Hunting Ban, Unfortunate Decisions for the Bear Population in Romania

Authors: Alexandru Gridan, Georgeta Ionescu, Ovidiu Ionescu, Ramon Jurj, George Sirbu, Mihai Fedorca


The Brown Bear population size in Romania is approximately 7300-7600 individuals, which is projected to be 3000 individuals over the ecological carrying capacity. The Habitats Directive imposed certain protection rules on European Union (EU) Member States with Brown Bear populations. These however allow countries like Sweden, Croatia, Slovakia, Estonia to hunting as management tool, harvesting up to 10% of the surplus bear population annually. From the point Romania joined the EU to 2016, active conservation management has contributed to maintaining the highest and most genetically diverse Brown Bear population in Europe. Importantly, there has been good coexistence between people and bears and low levels of human-bear conflict. After social pressure and campaigning by some non-governmental organisations citing issues over monitoring, the environment minister decided in September 2016 to stop the use of hunting as a management tool for bears. Against this background, this paper provides a set of recommendations to resolve the current conflict in Romania. These include the need for collaborative decision-making to reduce conflicts between stakeholders and mechanisms to reduce current human-bear conflicts, which have increased by 50 percent in the past year.

Keywords: bear, bear population, bear management, wildlife conflict

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12 The Ultimate Challenge of Teaching Nursing

Authors: Crin N. Marcean, Mihaela A. Alexandru, Eugenia S. Cristescu


By definition, nursing means caring. It is a profession within the health care sector focused on the care of individuals, families, and communities so they may attain, maintain or recover optimal health and quality of life. However, there is a subtle difference between the two: nursing is widely considered as an art and a science, wherein caring forms the theoretical framework of nursing. Nursing and caring are grounded in a relational understanding, unity, and connection between the professional nurse and the patient. Task-oriented approaches challenge nurses in keeping care in nursing. This challenge is on-going as professional nurses strive to maintain the concept, art, and act of caring as the moral centre of the nursing profession. Keeping the care in nursing involves the application of art and science through theoretical concepts, scientific research, conscious commitment to the art of caring as an identity of nursing, and purposeful efforts to include caring behaviours during each nurse-patient interaction. The competencies, abilities, as well as the psycho-motor, cognitive, and relational skills necessary for the nursing practice are conveyed and improved by the nursing teachers’ art of teaching. They must select and use the teaching methods which shape the personalities of the trainers or students, enabling them to provide individualized, personalized care in real-world context of health problems. They have the ultimate responsibility of shaping the future health care system by educating skilful nurses.

Keywords: art of nursing, health care, teacher-student relationship, teaching innovations

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11 Gas Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry Qualitative Determination of Pesticides Found in Tea Infusions

Authors: Mihai-Alexandru Florea, Veronica Drumea, Roxana Nita, Cerasela Gird, Laura Olariu


The aim of this study was to investigate the residues of pesticide found in tea water infusions. A multi-residues method to determine 147 pesticides has been developed using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, Safe) procedure and dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) for the cleanup the pesticides from complex matrices such as plants and tea. Sample preparation was carefully optimized for the efficient removal of coextracted matrix components by testing more solvent systems. Determination of pesticides was performed using GC-MS/MS (100 of pesticides) and LC-MS/MS (47 of pesticides). The selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode was chosen to achieve low detection limits and high compounds selectivity and sensitivity. Overall performance was evaluated and validated according to DG-SANTE Guidelines. To assess the pesticide residue transfer rate (qualitative) from dried tea in infusions the samples (tea) were spiked with a mixture of pesticides at the maximum residues level accepted for teas and herbal infusions. In order to investigate the release of the pesticides in tea preparations, the medicinal plants were prepared in four ways by variation of water temperature and the infusion time. The pesticides from infusions were extracted using two methods: QuEChERS versus solid-phase extraction (SPE). More that 90 % of the pesticides studied was identified in infusion.

Keywords: tea, solid-phase extraction (SPE), selected reaction monitoring (SRM), QuEChERS

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10 Trading off Accuracy for Speed in Powerdrill

Authors: Filip Buruiana, Alexander Hall, Reimar Hofmann, Thomas Hofmann, Silviu Ganceanu, Alexandru Tudorica


In-memory column-stores make interactive analysis feasible for many big data scenarios. PowerDrill is a system used internally at Google for exploration in logs data. Even though it is a highly parallelized column-store and uses in memory caching, interactive response times cannot be achieved for all datasets (note that it is common to analyze data with 50 billion records in PowerDrill). In this paper, we investigate two orthogonal approaches to optimize performance at the expense of an acceptable loss of accuracy. Both approaches can be implemented as outer wrappers around existing database engines and so they should be easily applicable to other systems. For the first optimization we show that memory is the limiting factor in executing queries at speed and therefore explore possibilities to improve memory efficiency. We adapt some of the theory behind data sketches to reduce the size of particularly expensive fields in our largest tables by a factor of 4.5 when compared to a standard compression algorithm. This saves 37% of the overall memory in PowerDrill and introduces a 0.4% relative error in the 90th percentile for results of queries with the expensive fields. We additionally evaluate the effects of using sampling on accuracy and propose a simple heuristic for annotating individual result-values as accurate (or not). Based on measurements of user behavior in our real production system, we show that these estimates are essential for interpreting intermediate results before final results are available. For a large set of queries this effectively brings down the 95th latency percentile from 30 to 4 seconds.

Keywords: big data, in-memory column-store, high-performance SQL queries, approximate SQL queries

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9 Internet of Health Things as a Win-Win Solution for Mitigating the Paradigm Shift inside Senior Patient-Physician Shared Health Management

Authors: Marilena Ianculescu, Adriana Alexandru


Internet of Health Things (IoHT) has already proved to be a persuasive means to support a proper assessment of the living conditions by collecting a huge variety of data. For a customized health management of a senior patient, IoHT provides the capacity to build a dynamic solution for sustaining the shift inside the patient-physician relationship by allowing a real-time and continuous remote monitoring of the health status, well-being, safety and activities of the senior, especially in a non-clinical environment. Thus, is created a win-win solution in which both the patient and the physician enhance their involvement and shared decision-making, with significant outcomes. Health monitoring systems in smart environments are becoming a viable alternative to traditional healthcare solutions. The ongoing “Non-invasive monitoring and health assessment of the elderly in a smart environment (RO-SmartAgeing)” project aims to demonstrate that the existence of complete and accurate information is critical for assessing the health condition of the seniors, improving wellbeing and quality of life in relation to health. The researches performed inside the project aim to highlight how the management of IoHT devices connected to the RO-SmartAgeing platform in a secure way by using a role-based access control system, can allow the physicians to provide health services at a high level of efficiency and accessibility, which were previously only available in hospitals. The project aims to identify deficient aspects in the provision of health services tailored to a senior patient’s specificity and to offer a more comprehensive perspective of proactive and preventive medical acts.

Keywords: health management, internet of health things, remote monitoring, senior patient

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8 Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Complex Injuries of the Limbs

Authors: Mihail Nagea, Olivera Lupescu, Nicolae Ciurea, Alexandru Dimitriu, Alina Grosu


Introduction: As severe open injuries are more and more frequent in modern traumatology, threatening not only the integrity of the affected limb but even the life of the patients, new methods desired to cope with the consequences of these traumas were described. Vacuum therapy is one such method which has been described as enhancing healing in trauma with extensive soft-tissue injuries, included those with septic complications. Material and methods: Authors prospectively analyze 15 patients with severe lower limb trauma with MESS less than 6, with considerable soft tissue loss following initial debridement and fracture fixation. The patients needed serial debridements and vacuum therapy was applied after delayed healing due to initial severity of the trauma, for an average period of 12 days (7 - 23 days).In 7 cases vacuum therapy was applied for septic complications. Results: Within the study group, there were no local complications; secondary debridements were performed for all the patients and vacuum system was re-installed after these debridements. No amputations were needed. Medical records were reviewed in order to compare the outcome of the patients: the hospital stay, anti-microbial therapy, time to healing of the bone and soft tissues (there is no standard group to be compared with) and the result showed considerable improvements in the outcome of the patients. Conclusion: Vacuum therapy improves healing of the soft tissues, including those infected; hospital stay and the number of secondary necessary procedures are reduced. Therefore it is considered a valuable support in treating trauma of the limbs with severe soft tissue injuries.

Keywords: complex injuries, negative pressure, open fractures, wound therapy

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7 Medical versus Non-Medical Students' Opinions about Academic Stress Management Using Unconventional Therapies

Authors: Ramona-Niculina Jurcau, Ioana-Marieta Jurcau, Dong Hun Kwak, Nicolae-Alexandru Colceriu


Background: Stress management (SM) is a topic of great academic interest and equally a task to accomplish. In addition, it is recognized the beneficial role of unconventional therapies (UCT) in stress modulation. Aims: The aim was to evaluate medical (MS) versus non-medical students’ (NMS) opinions about academic stress management (ASM) using UCT. Methods: MS (n=103, third year males and females) and NMS (n=112, males and females, from humanities faculties, different years of study), out of their academic program, voluntarily answered to a questionnaire concerning: a) Classification of the four most important academic stress factors; b) The extent to which their daily life influences academic stress; c) The most important SM methods they know; d) Which of these methods they are applying; e) the UCT they know or about which they have heard; f) Which of these they know to have stress modulation effects; g) Which of these UCT, participants are using or would like to use for modulating stress; and if participants use UTC for their own choose or following a specialist consultation in those therapies (SCT); h) If they heard about the following UCT and what opinion they have (using visual analogue scale) about their use (following CST) for the ASM: Phytotherapy (PT), apitherapy (AT), homeopathy (H), ayurvedic medicine (AM), traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), music therapy (MT), color therapy (CT), forest therapy (FT). Results: Among the four most important academic stress factors, for MS more than for NMS, are: busy schedule, large amount of information taught; high level of performance required, reduced time for relaxing. The most important methods for SM that MS and NMS know, hierarchically are: listen to music, meeting friends, playing sport, hiking, sleep, regularly breaks, seeing positive side, faith; of which, NMS more than MS, are partially applying to themselves. UCT about which MS and less NMS have heard, are phytotherapy, apitherapy, acupuncture, reiki. Of these UTC, participants know to have stress modulation effects: some plants, bee’s products and music; they use or would like to use for ASM (the majority without SCT) certain teas, honey and music. Most of MS and only some NMS heard about PT, AT, TCM, MT and much less about H, AM, CT, TT. NMS more than MS, would use these UCT, following CST. Conclusions: 1) Academic stress is similarly reflected in MS and NMS opinions. 2) MS and NMS apply similar but very few UCT for stress modulation. 3) Information that MS and NMS have about UCT and their ASM application is reduced. 4) It is remarkable that MS and especially NMS, are open to UCT use for ASM, following an SCT.

Keywords: academic stress, stress management, stress modulation, medical students, non-medical students, unconventional therapies

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6 Effect of Xenobiotic Bioactive Compounds from Grape Waste on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Pigs

Authors: Ionelia Taranu, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Mihai Alexandru Gras, Mihai Laurentiu Palade, Mariana Stancu, Veronica Sanda Chedea


In the last decade bioactive compounds from grape waste are investigated as new therapeutic agents for the inhibition of carcinogenesis and other diseases. The objective of this study was to characterize several bioactive compounds (polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids) of a dried grape pomace (GP) derived from a Romanian winery and further to evaluate their effect on inflammation and oxidative markers in liver of pig used as animal model. The total polyphenol concentration of pomace was 36.2g gallic acid equiv /100g. The pomace was rich in polyphenols from the flavonoids group, the main class being flavanols (epicatechins, catechin, epigallocatechin, procyanidins) and antocyanins (Malvidin 3-O-glucoside). The highest concentration was recorded for epicatechin (51.96g/100g) and procyanidin dimer (22.79g/100g). A high concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) especially ω-6 fatty acids (59.82 g/100g fat) was found in grape pomace. 20 crossbred TOPIG hybrid fattening pigs were randomly assigned (n = 10) to two experimental treatments: a normal diet (control group) and a diet included 5% grape pomace (GP group) for 24 days. The GP diet lowered the gene expression and protein concentration of IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α and IFN-γ cytokines in liver suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect of GP diet. Concentration of hepatic TBARS also decreased, but the total antioxidant capacity (liver TEAC) and activity and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) did not differ between the GP and control diet. The results showed that GP diet exerted an anti-inflammatory effect, but the 5% dietary inclusion modulated only partially the oxidative stress.

Keywords: animal model, inflammation, grape waste, immune organs

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5 Research Related to the Academic Learning Stress, Reflected into PubMed Website Publications

Authors: Ramona-Niculina Jurcau, Ioana-Marieta Jurcau, Dong Hun Kwak, Nicolae-Alexandru Colceriu


Background: Academic environment led, in time, to the birth of some research subjects concluded with many publications. One of these issues is related to the learning stress. Thus far, the PubMed website displays an impressive number of papers related to the academic stress. Aims: Through this study, we aimed to evaluate the research concerning academic learning stress (ALS), by a retrospective analysis of PubMed publications. Methods: We evaluated the ALS, considering: a) different keywords as - ‘academic stress’ (AS), ‘academic stressors’ (ASs), ‘academic learning stress’ (ALS), ‘academic student stress’ (ASS), ‘academic stress college’ (ASC), ‘medical academic stress’ (MAS), ‘non-medical academic stress’ (NMAS), ‘student stress’ (SS), ‘nursing student stress’ (NS), ‘college student stress’ (CSS), ‘university student stress’ (USS), ‘medical student stress’ (MSS), ‘dental student stress’ (DSS), ‘non-medical student stress’ (NMSS), ‘learning students stress’ (LSS), ‘medical learning student stress’ (MLSS), ‘non-medical learning student stress’ (NMLSS); b) the year average for decades; c) some selection filters provided by PubMed website: Article types - Journal Article (JA), Clinical Trial (CT), Review (R); Species - Humans (H); Sex - Male (M) and Female (F); Ages - 13-18, 19-24, 19-44. Statistical evaluation was made on the basis of the Student test. Results: There were differences between keywords, referring to all filters. Nevertheless, for all keywords were noted the following: the majority of studies have indicated that subjects were humans; there were no important differences between the number of subjects M and F; the age of participants was mentioned only in some studies, predominating those with teenagers and subjects between 19-24 years. Conclusions: 1) PubMed publications document that concern for the research field of academic stress, lasts for 56 years and was materialized in more than 5.010 papers. 2) Number of publications in the field of academic stress varies depending on the selected keywords: those with a general framing (AS, ASs, ALS, ASS, SS, USS, LSS) are more numerous than those with a specific framing (ASC, MAS, NMAS, NS, CSS, MSS, DSS, NMSS, MLSS, NMLSS); those concerning the academic medical environment (MAS, NS, MSS, DSS, MLSS) prevailed compared to the non-medical environment (NMAS, NMSS, NMLSS). 3) Most of the publications are included at JA, of which a small percentage are CT and R. 4) Most of the academic stress studies were conducted with subjects both M and F, most aged under 19 years and between 19-24 years.

Keywords: academic stress, student stress, academic learning stress, medical student stress

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4 Posterior Acetabular Fractures-Optimizing the Treatment by Enhancing Practical Skills

Authors: Olivera Lupescu, Taina Elena Avramescu, Mihail Nagea, Alexandru Dimitriu


Acetabular fractures represent a real challenge due to their impact upon the long term function of the hip joint, and due to the risk of intra- and peri-operative complications especially that they affect young, active people. That is why treating these fractures require certain skills which must be exercised, regarding the pre-operative planning, as well as the execution of surgery.The authors retrospectively analyse 38 cases with acetabular fractures operated using the posterior approach in our hospital between 01.01.2013- 01.01.2015 for which complete medical records ensure a follow-up of 24 months, in order to establish the main causes of potential errors and to underline the methods for preventing them. This target is included in the Erasmus + project ‘Collaborative learning for enhancing practical skills for patient-focused interventions in gait rehabilitation after orthopedic surgery COR-skills’. This paper analyses the pitfalls revealed by these cases, as well as the measures necessary to enhance the practical skills of the surgeons who perform acetabular surgery. Pre-op planning matched the intra and post-operative outcome in 88% of the analyzed points, from 72% at the beginning to 94% in the last case, meaning that experience is very important in treating this injury. The main problems detected for the posterior approach were: nervous complications - 3 cases, 1 of them a complete paralysis of the sciatic nerve, which recovered 6 months after surgery, and in other 2 cases intra-articular position of the screws was demonstrated by post-operative CT scans, so secondary screw removal was necessary in these cases. We analysed this incident, too, due to lack of information about the relationship between the screws and the joint secondary to this approach. Septic complications appeared in 3 cases, 2 superficial and 1 profound (requiring implant removal). The most important problems were the reduction of the fractures and the positioning of the screws so as not to interfere with the the articular space. In posterior acetabular fractures, pre-op complex planning is important in order to achieve maximum treatment efficacy with minimum of risk; an optimal training of the surgeons insisting on the main points of potential mistakes ensure the success of the procedure, as well as a favorable outcome for the patient.

Keywords: acetabular fractures, articular congruency, surgical skills, vocational training

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3 Evolving Credit Scoring Models using Genetic Programming and Language Integrated Query Expression Trees

Authors: Alexandru-Ion Marinescu


There exist a plethora of methods in the scientific literature which tackle the well-established task of credit score evaluation. In its most abstract form, a credit scoring algorithm takes as input several credit applicant properties, such as age, marital status, employment status, loan duration, etc. and must output a binary response variable (i.e. “GOOD” or “BAD”) stating whether the client is susceptible to payment return delays. Data imbalance is a common occurrence among financial institution databases, with the majority being classified as “GOOD” clients (clients that respect the loan return calendar) alongside a small percentage of “BAD” clients. But it is the “BAD” clients we are interested in since accurately predicting their behavior is crucial in preventing unwanted loss for loan providers. We add to this whole context the constraint that the algorithm must yield an actual, tractable mathematical formula, which is friendlier towards financial analysts. To this end, we have turned to genetic algorithms and genetic programming, aiming to evolve actual mathematical expressions using specially tailored mutation and crossover operators. As far as data representation is concerned, we employ a very flexible mechanism – LINQ expression trees, readily available in the C# programming language, enabling us to construct executable pieces of code at runtime. As the title implies, they model trees, with intermediate nodes being operators (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) or mathematical functions (sin, cos, abs, round, etc.) and leaf nodes storing either constants or variables. There is a one-to-one correspondence between the client properties and the formula variables. The mutation and crossover operators work on a flattened version of the tree, obtained via a pre-order traversal. A consequence of our chosen technique is that we can identify and discard client properties which do not take part in the final score evaluation, effectively acting as a dimensionality reduction scheme. We compare ourselves with state of the art approaches, such as support vector machines, Bayesian networks, and extreme learning machines, to name a few. The data sets we benchmark against amount to a total of 8, of which we mention the well-known Australian credit and German credit data sets, and the performance indicators are the following: percentage correctly classified, area under curve, partial Gini index, H-measure, Brier score and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, respectively. Finally, we obtain encouraging results, which, although placing us in the lower half of the hierarchy, drive us to further refine the algorithm.

Keywords: expression trees, financial credit scoring, genetic algorithm, genetic programming, symbolic evolution

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2 The Importance and Necessity for Acquiring Pedagogical Skills by the Practice Tutors for the Training of the General Nurses

Authors: Maria Luiza Fulga, Georgeta Truca, Mihaela Alexandru, Andriescu Mariana, Crin Marcean


The significance of nursing as a subject in the post-secondary healthcare curriculum is a major. We aimed to enable our students to assess the patient's risk, to establish prevention measures and to adapt to a specific learning context, in order to acquire the skills and abilities necessary for the nursing profession. In order to achieve these objectives, during the three years of study, teachers put an emphasis on acquiring communication skills, because in our country after the first cycle of hospital accreditation concluded in 2016, the National Authority for Quality of Health Management has introduced the criteria for the implementation and application of the nursing process according to the accreditation standards. According to these requirements, the nurse has to carry out the nursing assessment, based on communication as a distinct component, so that they can identify nursing diagnoses and implement the nursing plan. In this respect, we, the teachers, have refocused, by approaching various teaching strategies and preparing students for the real context of learning and applying what they learn. In the educational process, the tutors in the hospitals have an important role to play in acquiring professional skills. Students perform their activity in the hospital in accordance with the curriculum, in order to verify the practical applicability of the theoretical knowledge acquired in the school classes and also have the opportunity to acquire their skills in a real learning context. In clinical education, the student nurse learns in the middle of a guidance team which includes a practice tutor, who is a nurse that takes responsibility for the practical/clinical learning of the students in their field of activity. In achieving this objective, the tutor's abilities involve pedagogical knowledge, knowledge for the good of the individual and nursing theory, in order to be able to guide clinical practice in accordance with current requirements. The aim of this study is to find out the students’ confidence level in practice tutors in hospitals, the students’ degree of satisfaction in the pedagogical skills of the tutors and the practical applicability of the theoretical knowledge. In this study, we used as a method of investigation a student satisfaction questionnaire regarding the clinical practice in the hospital and the sample of the survey consisted of 100 students aged between 20 and 50 years, from the first, second and third year groups, with the General Nurse specialty (nurses responsible for general care), from 'Fundeni' Healthcare Post-Secondary School, Bucharest, Romania. Following the analysis of the data provided, we arrived the conclusion that the hospital tutor needs to improve his/her pedagogical skills, the knowledge of nursing diagnostics, and the implementation of the nursing plan, so that the applicability of the theoretical notions would be increased. Future plans include the pedagogical training of the medical staff, as well as updating the knowledge needed to implement the nursing process in order to meet current requirements.

Keywords: clinical training, nursing process, pedagogical skills, tutor

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1 Synthesis of Smart Materials Based on Polyaniline Coated Fibers

Authors: Mihaela Beregoi, Horia Iovu, Cristina Busuioc, Alexandru Evanghelidis, Elena Matei, Monica Enculescu, Ionut Enculescu


Nanomaterials field is very attractive for all researchers who are attempting to develop new devices with the same or improved properties than the micro-sized ones, while reducing the reagents and power consumptions. In this way, a wide range of nanomaterials were fabricated and integrated in applications for electronics, optoelectronics, solar cells, tissue reconstruction and drug delivery. Obviously, the most appealing ones are those dedicated to the medical domain. Different types of nano-sized materials, such as particles, fibers, films etc., can be synthesized by using physical, chemical or electrochemical methods. One of these techniques is electrospinning, which enable the production of fibers with nanometric dimensions by pumping a polymeric solution in a high electric field; due to the electrostatic charging and solvent evaporation, the precursor mixture is converted into nonwoven meshes with different fiber densities and mechanical properties. Moreover, polyaniline is a conducting polymer with interesting optical properties, suitable for displays and electrochromic windows. Otherwise, polyaniline is an electroactive polymer that can contract/expand by applying electric stimuli, due to the oxidation/reduction reactions which take place in the polymer chains. These two main properties can be exploited in order to synthesize smart materials that change their dimensions, exhibiting in the same time good electrochromic properties. In the context aforesaid, a poly(methyl metacrylate) solution was spun to get webs composed of fibers with diameter values between 500 nm and 1 µm. Further, the polymer meshes were covered with a gold layer in order to make them conductive and also appropriate as working electrode in an electrochemical cell. The gold shell was deposited by DC sputtering. Such metalized fibers can be transformed into smart materials by covering them with a thin layer of conductive polymer. Thus, the webs were coated with a polyaniline film by the electrochemical route, starting from and aqueous solution of aniline and sulfuric acid, where sulfuric acid acts as oxidant agent. For the polymerization of aniline, a saturated calomel electrode was employed as reference, a platinum plate as counter electrode and the gold covered webs as working electrode. Chronoamperometry was selected as deposition method for polyaniline, by modifying the deposition time. Metalized meshes with different fiber densities were used, the transmission ranging between 70 and 80 %. The morphological investigation showed that polyaniline layer has a granular structure for all deposition experiments. As well, some preliminary optical tests were done by using sulfuric acid as electrolyte, which revealed the modification of polyaniline colour from green to dark blue when applying a voltage. In conclusion, new multilayered materials were obtained by a simple approach: the merge of the electrospinning method benefits with polyaniline chemistry. This synthesis method allows the fabrication of structures with reproducible characteristics, suitable for display or tissue substituents.

Keywords: electrospinning, fibers, smart materials, polyaniline

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