Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Ella Shoval

17 Linking Theory to Practice: An Analysis of Papers Submitted by Participants in a Teacher Mentoring Course

Authors: Varda Gil, Ella Shoval, Tussia Mira

Abstract:

Teacher mentoring is a complex practical profession whose unique characteristic is the teacher-mentors' commitment to helping teachers link theory with teaching practice in the process of decision-making and in their reflections on teaching. The aim of this research is to examine the way practicing teacher-mentors participating in a teacher mentoring course made the connection between theory and practice. The researchers analyzed 20 final papers submitted by participants in a course to train teacher mentors. The participants were all veteran high-school teachers. The course comprised 112 in-class hours in addition to mentoring novices in the field. The course covered the following topics: The teacher-mentors' perception of their role; formative and summative evaluation of the novices; tutoring strategies and tools; types of learners; and ways of communicating and dealing with novice teachers' resistance to counseling. The course participants were required to write a 4-5 page reflective summary of their field mentoring practice. In addition, they were required to link theories explicitly learned in the course to their practice in the field. A qualitative analysis of the papers led to the creation of the taxonomy of the link between theory and practice relating to four topics: The kinds of links made between theory and practice, the quality of these links, the links made between private teaching theories and official teaching theory, and the qualities of these links. This taxonomy may prove to be a useful tool in the teacher-mentor training processes.

Keywords: taxonomy, teacher-mentors, theory, practice, teacher-mentor training

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16 Robust and Real-Time Traffic Counting System

Authors: Hossam M. Moftah, Aboul Ella Hassanien

Abstract:

In the recent years the importance of automatic traffic control has increased due to the traffic jams problem especially in big cities for signal control and efficient traffic management. Traffic counting as a kind of traffic control is important to know the road traffic density in real time. This paper presents a fast and robust traffic counting system using different image processing techniques. The proposed system is composed of the following four fundamental building phases: image acquisition, pre-processing, object detection, and finally counting the connected objects. The object detection phase is comprised of the following five steps: subtracting the background, converting the image to binary, closing gaps and connecting nearby blobs, image smoothing to remove noises and very small objects, and detecting the connected objects. Experimental results show the great success of the proposed approach.

Keywords: traffic counting, traffic management, image processing, object detection, computer vision

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15 Synthesis and Characterization of Nickel and Sulphur Sensitized Zinc Oxide Structures

Authors: Ella C. Linganiso, Bonex W. Mwakikunga, Trilock Singh, Sanjay Mathur, Odireleng M. Ntwaeaborwa

Abstract:

The use of nanostructured semiconducting material to catalyze degradation of environmental pollutants still receives much attention to date. One of the desired characteristics for pollutant degradation under ultra-violet visible light is the materials with extended carrier charge separation that allows for electronic transfer between the catalyst and the pollutants. In this work, zinc oxide n-type semiconductor vertically aligned structures were fabricated on silicon (100) substrates using the chemical bath deposition method. The as-synthesized structures were treated with nickel and sulphur. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were used to characterize the phase purity, structural dimensions and elemental composition of the obtained structures respectively. Photoluminescence emission measurements showed a decrease in both the near band edge emission as well as the defect band emission upon addition of nickel and sulphur with different concentrations. This was attributed to increased charger-carrier-separation due to the presence of Ni-S material on ZnO surface, which is linked to improved charge transfer during photocatalytic reactions.

Keywords: Carrier-charge-separation, nickel, photoluminescence, sulphur, zinc oxide

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14 Improving Alginate Bioink by Recombinant Spider-Silk Biopolymer

Authors: Dean Robinson, Miriam Gublebank, Ella Sklan, Tali Tavor Re'em

Abstract:

Alginate, a natural linear polysaccharide polymer extracted from brown seaweed, is extensively applied due to its biocompatibility, all- aqueous ease of handling, and relatively low costs. Alginate easily forms a hydrogel when crosslinked with a divalent ion, such as calcium. However, Alginate hydrogel holds low mechanical properties and is cell-inert. To overcome these drawbacks and to improve alginate as a bio-ink for bioprinting, we produced a new alginate matrix combined with spider silk, one of the most resilient, elastic, strong materials known to men. Recombinant spider silk biopolymer has a sponge-like structure and is known to be biocompatible and non-immunogenic. Our results indicated that combining synthetic spider-silk into bio-printed cell-seeded alginate hydrogels resulted in improved properties compared to alginate: improved mechanical properties of the matrix, achieving a tunable gel viscosity and high printability, alongside prolonged and higher cell viability in culture, probably due to the improved cell-matrix interactions. The new bio-ink was then used for bilayer bioprinting of epithelial and stromal endometrial cells. Such a co-culture model will be used for the formation of the complex endometrial tissue for studying the embryo implantation process.

Keywords: cell culture, tissue engineering, spider silk, alginate, bioprinting

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13 Microplastic Accumulation in Native and Invasive Sea Urchin Populations on Lipsi Island (Aegean Sea)

Authors: Ella Zahra

Abstract:

Sea urchins are keystone species in many global benthic ecosystems. The concentration of microplastics (MPs) in sea urchin organs was quantified in 120 individuals of 2 different species and from 4 sites across the Greek island Lipsi, with special interest in the differences between the native Arbacia lixula and the invasive Diadema setosum. Over 93% of MPs observed in both species were fibrous. MP abundance was found to correlate with exposure to open sea and harsh prevailing winds, irrespective of proximity to urban activities. The MP abundance in the invasive species was not found to be significantly dependent on site. Interestingly, the smaller native species contained significantly larger sized MPs than the invasive, possibly as a result of a greater feeding rate in A. lixula individuals. Sexually immature urchins may also have a higher feeding rate, giving rise to the negative correlation between gonad index and MPs per individual. The size of MPs ranged from 10µm to 24210µm, heavily skewed towards smaller particles. Few differences in colour were noted between the species and sites. MPs were detected in 100% of the samples with abundance ranging from 19.27 ± 6.77 to 26.83 ± 8.15 items per individual, or 3.55 ± 3.73 to 7.34 ± 10.51 items per gram of wet organ weight. This high value could lead to health risks in East Asia and the Mediterranean, where sea urchin is widely consumed, due to toxins adsorbed to the MPs.

Keywords: microplastics, plastic pollution, invertebrate ecology, invasive marine species

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12 Merchants’ Attitudes towards Tourism Development in Mahane Yehuda Market: A Case Study

Authors: Rotem Mashkov, Noam Shoval

Abstract:

In an age when a tourist’s gaze is more focused on the daily lives of locals, it is evident that local food markets are being rediscovered. Traditional urban markets succeed in reinventing themselves as a space for consumption, recreation, and culture, enabling authentic experiences and interpersonal interactions with the local culture. Alongside this, the pressure of tourism development may result in commercialization and retail gentrification to the point of losing the sense of local identity. The issue of finding a balance between tourism development and the preservation of unique local features is at the heart of this study and is being tested using the case of the Mahane Yehuda market in Jerusalem. The research question—how merchants respond to tourism development in the Mahane Yehuda food market— focuses on local traders, a group of players who are usually absent from the research arenas, although they influence tourism development as well as influenced by it. Three main research methods were integrated into this study. The first two methods, a survey of articles survey and comparative mapping of the business mix, were used to characterize the changes in the Mahane Yehuda market both consciously and physically. The third research method, involving in-depth interviews with merchants, was used to examine the traders' attitudes and responses to tourism development. The findings indicate that there has been a turnaround in the market image over the past decade and a half. Additionally, there has been a significant physical change in the business mix, reflected by a decline of 15% in the number of stalls selling food products and delicacies. The data from the interviews on the traders’ attitudes towards tourism development were inconclusive; there were disagreements among the traders about the economic contribution of tourism development in relation to their dependence on the tourism industry. However, there was a consensus on the need for authentic elements in the marketplace. The findings of the study also indicate a strong link between the merchants’ response to tourism development and their stall ownership status as the merchant could exercise their position in various ways depending on the possession type.

Keywords: business mix, Jerusalem, local food markets, Mahane Yehuda market, merchants’ attitude, ownership status, retail gentrification, tourism development, traditional urban markets

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11 Understanding Indigenous Perspectives and Critical Knowledge in International Law

Authors: Radhika Jagtap

Abstract:

Contemporary scholarship in international legal theory is investigating new avenues of providing alternatives to dominant concepts. Indigenous peoples’ philosophies and perspectives developed through them provide a fertile ground to explore similar alternative ideas. This review paper evaluates the theorized accounts of indigenous scholarships which have contributed towards a rich body of knowledge generating alternative visions on dominant notions of ‘post coloniality’, ‘resistance’ and ‘globalization’. Further, it shall assess the relevance of such a project in shaping contemporary international legal thought. Traditional or classical international law has been opined to be highly influenced by the colonial and imperialist history which also left a mark on the way dominant discourses of resistance and globalization are read in mainstream international law. The paper shall first define what do we mean by indigenous philosophy and what kind of indigeneity is that inclusive of. Second, the paper defines the dominant discourse and then counters the same with the alternative indigenous perspective in the case of each concept that is in question. Finally, the paper shall conclude with certain theoretical findings – that the post coloniality, from indigenous perspective, lead to the further marginalization of indigeneity, especially in the third world; that human rights as the sole means of representing resistance in international law ends up making it a very state-centric discipline and last, that globalization from an indigenous, marginalised perspective is not as celebrated as it is in mainstream international law. Major scholarly works that shall be central to the discussion are those of Linda Tuiwahi Smith, Ella Shohat and David Harvey. The nature of the research shall be inductive and involve mostly theoretical review of scholarly works.

Keywords: indigenous, post colonial, globalization, perspectives

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10 Studying Together Affects Perceived Social Distance but Not Stereotypes: Nursing Students' Perception of Their Intergroup Relationship

Authors: Michal Alon-Tirosh, Dorit Hadar-Shoval

Abstract:

Social Psychology theories, such as the intergroup contact theory, content that bringing members of different social groups into contact is a promising approach for improving intergroup relations. The heterogeneous nature of the nursing profession generates encounters between members of different social groups .The social relations that nursing students develop with their peers during their years of study, and the meanings they ascribe to these contacts, may affect the success of their nursing careers. Jewish-Arab relations in Israel are the product of an ongoing conflict and are characterized by stereotyped negative perceptions and mutual suspicions. Nursing education is often the first situation in which Jewish and Arab nursing students have direct and long-term contact with people from the other group. These encounters present a significant challenge. The current study explores whether this contact between Jewish and Arab nursing students during their academic studies improves their perception of their intergroup relationship. The study explores the students' perceptions of the social relations between the two groups. We examine attribution of stereotypes (positive and negative) and willingness to engage in social interactions with individuals from the other group. The study hypothesis is that academic seniority (beginning students, advanced students) will be related to perceptions of the relations between the two groups, as manifested in attributions of positive and negative stereotypes and willingness to reduce the social distance between the two groups. Method: One hundred and eighty Jewish and Arab nursing students (111 Jewish and 69 Arab) completed questionnaires examining their perceptions of the social relations between the two groups. The questionnaires were administered at two different points in their studies (beginning students and those at more advanced stages Results: No differences were found between beginning students and advanced students with respect to stereotypes. However, advanced students expressed greater willingness to reduce social distance than did beginning students. Conclusions: The findings indicate that bringing members of different social groups into contact may improve some aspects of intergroup relations. The findings suggest that different aspects of perceptions of social relations are influenced by different contexts: the students' specific context (joint studies and joint work in the future) and the broader general context of relations between the groups. Accordingly, it is recommended that programs aimed at improving relations in a between social groups will focus on willingness to cooperate and reduce social distance rather than on attempts to eliminate stereotypes.

Keywords: nursing education, perceived social relations, social distance, stereotypes

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9 Identification of New Familial Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes: Are We There Yet?

Authors: Ian Campbell, Gillian Mitchell, Paul James, Na Li, Ella Thompson

Abstract:

The genetic cause of the majority of multiple-case breast cancer families remains unresolved. Next generation sequencing has emerged as an efficient strategy for identifying predisposing mutations in individuals with inherited cancer. We are conducting whole exome sequence analysis of germ line DNA from multiple affected relatives from breast cancer families, with the aim of identifying rare protein truncating and non-synonymous variants that are likely to include novel cancer predisposing mutations. Data from more than 200 exomes show that on average each individual carries 30-50 protein truncating mutations and 300-400 rare non-synonymous variants. Heterogeneity among our exome data strongly suggest that numerous moderate penetrance genes remain to be discovered, with each gene individually accounting for only a small fraction of families (~0.5%). This scenario marks validation of candidate breast cancer predisposing genes in large case-control studies as the rate-limiting step in resolving the missing heritability of breast cancer. The aim of this study is to screen genes that are recurrently mutated among our exome data in a larger cohort of cases and controls to assess the prevalence of inactivating mutations that may be associated with breast cancer risk. We are using the Agilent HaloPlex Target Enrichment System to screen the coding regions of 168 genes in 1,000 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative familial breast cancer cases and 1,000 cancer-naive controls. To date, our interim analysis has identified 21 genes which carry an excess of truncating mutations in multiple breast cancer families versus controls. Established breast cancer susceptibility gene PALB2 is the most frequently mutated gene (13/998 cases versus 0/1009 controls), but other interesting candidates include NPSR1, GSN, POLD2, and TOX3. These and other genes are being validated in a second cohort of 1,000 cases and controls. Our experience demonstrates that beyond PALB2, the prevalence of mutations in the remaining breast cancer predisposition genes is likely to be very low making definitive validation exceptionally challenging.

Keywords: predisposition, familial, exome sequencing, breast cancer

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8 Substituted Thiazole Analogues as Anti-Tumor Agents

Authors: Menna Ewida, Dalal Abou El-Ella, Dina Lasheen, Huessin El-Subbagh

Abstract:

Introduction: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor receptor (VEGF) is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates vasculogenesis to create new blood vessels. VEGF family binds to three trans-membrane tyrosine kinase receptors,Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an enzyme of crucial importance in medicinal chemistry. DHFR catalyzes the reduction 7,8 dihydro-folate to tetrahydrofolate and intimately couples with thymidylate synthase which is a pivotal enzyme that catalysis the reductive methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) utilizing N5,N10-methylene tetrahydrofolate as a cofactor which functions as the source of the methyl group. Purpose: Novel substituted Thiazole agents were designed as DHFR and VEGF-TK inhibitors with increased synergistic activity and decreased side effects. Methods: Five series of compounds were designed with a rational that mimic the pharmacophoric features present in the reported active compounds that target DHFR & VEGFR. These molecules were docked against Methotrexate & Sorafenib as controls. An in silico ADMET study was also performed to validate the bioavailability of the newly designed compounds. The in silico molecular docking & ADMET study were also applied to the non-classical antifolates for comparison. The interaction energy comparable to that of MTX for DHFRI and Sorafenib for VEGF-TKI activity were recorded. Results: Compound 5 exhibited the highest interaction energy when docked against Sorafenib, While Compound 9 showed the highest interaction energy when docked against MTX with the perfect binding mode. Comparable results were also obtained for the ADMET study. Most of the compounds showed absorption within (95-99) zone which varies according to the type of substituents. Conclusions: The Substituted Thiazole Analogues could be a suitable template for antitumor drugs that possess enhanced bioavailability and act as DHFR and VEGF-TK inhibitors.

Keywords: anti-tumor agents, DHFR, drug design, molecular modeling, VEGFR-TKIs

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7 On Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Secondary Distant Metastases Growth in Patients with Lymph Nodes Metastases

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

This paper is devoted to mathematical modelling of the progression and stages of breast cancer. We propose Consolidated mathematical growth model of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases (CoM-III) as a new research tool. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoM-III which reflects relations between primary tumor and secondary distant metastases; 3) analyzing the CoM-III scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. Firstly, the CoM-III includes exponential tumor growth model as a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations. Secondly, mathematical model corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. Thus, the CoM-III model and predictive software: a) detect different growth periods of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth in patients with lymph nodes metastases; b) make forecast of the period of the distant metastases appearance in patients with lymph nodes metastases; c) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; d) can improve forecasts on survival of breast cancer and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoM-III: the number of doublings for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of secondary distant metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of secondary distant metastases. The CoM-III enables, for the first time, to predict the whole natural history of primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoM-III describes correctly primary tumor and secondary distant metastases growth of IA, IIA, IIB, IIIB (T1-4N1-3M0) stages in patients with lymph nodes metastases (N1-3); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and inception of secondary distant metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical model, primary tumor, secondary metastases, survival

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6 On Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Primary Distant Metastases Growth

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

Finding algorithms to predict the growth of tumors has piqued the interest of researchers ever since the early days of cancer research. A number of studies were carried out as an attempt to obtain reliable data on the natural history of breast cancer growth. Mathematical modeling can play a very important role in the prognosis of tumor process of breast cancer. However, mathematical models describe primary tumor growth and metastases growth separately. Consequently, we propose a mathematical growth model for primary tumor and primary metastases which may help to improve predicting accuracy of breast cancer progression using an original mathematical model referred to CoM-IV and corresponding software. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoM-IV which reflects relations between PT and MTS; 3) analyzing the CoM-IV scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. The CoM-IV is based on exponential tumor growth model and consists of a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations; corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for primary metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for primary metastases. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. Thus, the CoM-IV model and predictive software: a) detect different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases; b) make forecast of the period of primary metastases appearance; c) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; d) can improve forecasts on survival of BC and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoM-IV: the number of doublings for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases. The CoM-IV enables, for the first time, to predict the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoM-IV describes correctly primary tumor and primary distant metastases growth of IV (T1-4N0-3M1) stage with (N1-3) or without regional metastases in lymph nodes (N0); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and manifestation of primary metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical modelling, primary metastases, primary tumor, survival

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5 A Comparative Study on the Development of Webquest and Online Treasure Hunt as Instructional Materials in Teaching Motion in One Dimension for Grade VII Students

Authors: Mark Anthony Burdeos, Kara Ella Catoto, Alraine Pauyon, Elesar Malicoban

Abstract:

This study sought to develop, validate, and implement the WebQuest and Online Treasure Hunt as instructional materials in teaching Motion in One Dimension for Grade 7 students and to determine its effects on the students’ conceptual learning, performance and attitude towards Physics. In the development stage, several steps were taken, such as the actual planning and developing the WebQuest and Online Treasure Hunt and making the lesson plan and achievement test. The content and the ICT(Information Communications Technology) effect of the developed instructional materials were evaluated by the Content and ICT experts using adapted evaluation forms. During the implementation, pretest and posttest were administered to determine students’ performance, and pre-attitude and post-attitude tests to investigate students’ attitudes towards Physics before and after the WebQuest and Online Treasure Hunt activity. The developed WebQuest and Online Treasure Hunt passed the validation of Content experts and ICT experts. Students acquired more knowledge on Motion in One Dimension and gained a positive attitude towards Physics after the utilization of WebQuest and Online Treasure Hunt, evidenced significantly higher scores in posttest compared to pretest and higher ratings in post-attitude than pre-attitude. The developed WebQuest and Online Treasure Hunt were proven good in quality and effective materials in teaching Motion in One Dimension and developing a positive attitude towards Physics. However, students performed better in the pretest and posttest and rated higher in the pre-attitude and post-attitude tests in the WebQuest than in the Online Treasure Hunt. This study would provide significant learning experiences to the students that would be useful in building their knowledge, in understanding concepts in a most understandable way, in exercising to use their higher-order thinking skills, and in utilizing their capabilities and abilities to relate Physics topics to real-life situations thereby, students can have in-depth learning about Motion in One Dimension. This study would help teachers to enhance the teaching strategies as the two instructional materials provide interesting, engaging, and innovative teaching-learning experiences for the learners, which are helpful in increasing the level of their motivation and participation in learning Physics. In addition, it would provide information as a reference in using technology in the classroom and to determine which of the two instructional materials, WebQuest and Online Treasure Hunt, is suitable for the teaching-learning process in Motion in One Dimension.

Keywords: ICT integration, motion in one dimension, online treasure hunt, Webquest

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4 Effects of Evening vs. Morning Training on Motor Skill Consolidation in Morning-Oriented Elderly

Authors: Maria Korman, Carmit Gal, Ella Gabitov, Avi Karni

Abstract:

The main question addressed in this study was whether the time-of-day wherein training is afforded is a significant factor for motor skill ('how-to', procedural knowledge) acquisition and consolidation into long term memory in the healthy elderly population. Twenty-nine older adults (60-75 years) practiced an explicitly instructed 5-element key-press sequence by repeatedly generating the sequence ‘as fast and accurately as possible’. Contribution of three parameters to acquisition, 24h post-training consolidation, and 1-week retention gains in motor sequence speed was assessed: (a) time of training (morning vs. evening group) (b) sleep quality (actigraphy) and (c) chronotype. All study participants were moderately morning type, according to the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire score. All participants had sleep patterns typical of age, with average sleep efficiency of ~ 82%, and approximately 6 hours of sleep. Speed of motor sequence performance in both groups improved to a similar extent during training session. Nevertheless, evening group expressed small but significant overnight consolidation phase gains, while morning group showed only maintenance of performance level attained at the end of training. By 1-week retention test, both groups showed similar performance levels with no significant gains or losses with respect to 24h test. Changes in the tapping patterns at 24h and 1-week post-training were assessed based on normalized Pearson correlation coefficients using the Fisher’s z-transformation in reference to the tapping pattern attained at the end of the training. Significant differences between the groups were found: the evening group showed larger changes in tapping patterns across the consolidation and retention windows. Our results show that morning-oriented older adults effectively acquired, consolidated, and maintained a new sequence of finger movements, following both morning and evening practice sessions. However, time-of-training affected the time-course of skill evolution in terms of performance speed, as well as the re-organization of tapping patterns during the consolidation period. These results are in line with the notion that motor training preceding a sleep interval may be beneficial for the long-term memory in the elderly. Evening training should be considered an appropriate time window for motor skill learning in older adults, even in individuals with morning chronotype.

Keywords: time-of-day, elderly, motor learning, memory consolidation, chronotype

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
3 Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Secondary Distant Metastases Growth

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

Abstract:

This study is an attempt to obtain reliable data on the natural history of breast cancer growth. We analyze the opportunities for using classical mathematical models (exponential and logistic tumor growth models, Gompertz and von Bertalanffy tumor growth models) to try to describe growth of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases of human breast cancer. The research aim is to improve predicting accuracy of breast cancer progression using an original mathematical model referred to CoMPaS and corresponding software. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoMPaS which reflects relations between the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; 3) analyzing the CoMPaS scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. The foundation of the CoMPaS is the exponential tumor growth model, which is described by determinate nonlinear and linear equations. The CoMPaS corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for the primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for the secondary distant metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for the secondary distant metastases. The CoMPaS is validated on clinical data of 10-years and 15-years survival depending on the tumor stage and diameter of the primary tumor. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer growth models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. The CoMPaS model and predictive software: a) fit to clinical trials data; b) detect different growth periods of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases; c) make forecast of the period of the secondary distant metastases appearance; d) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; e) can improve forecasts on survival of breast cancer and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoMPaS: the number of doublings for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of the secondary distant metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘non-visible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of the secondary distant metastases. The CoMPaS enables, for the first time, to predict ‘whole natural history’ of the primary tumor and the secondary distant metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on the primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoMPaS describes correctly the primary tumor growth of IA, IIA, IIB, IIIB (T1-4N0M0) stages without metastases in lymph nodes (N0); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and inception of the secondary distant metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical model, metastases in lymph nodes, primary tumor, survival

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2 The Gut Microbiome in Cirrhosis and Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Characterization of Disease-Related Microbial Signature and the Possible Impact of Life Style and Nutrition

Authors: Lena Lapidot, Amir Amnon, Rita Nosenko, Veitsman Ella, Cohen-Ezra Oranit, Davidov Yana, Segev Shlomo, Koren Omry, Safran Michal, Ben-Ari Ziv

Abstract:

Introduction: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Liver Cirrhosis is the main predisposing risk factor for the development of HCC. The factor(s) influencing disease progression from Cirrhosis to HCC remain unknown. Gut microbiota has recently emerged as a major player in different liver diseases, however its association with HCC is still a mystery. Moreover, there might be an important association between the gut microbiota, nutrition, life style and the progression of Cirrhosis and HCC. The aim of our study was to characterize the gut microbial signature in association with life style and nutrition of patients with Cirrhosis, HCC-Cirrhosis and healthy controls. Design: Stool samples were collected from 95 individuals (30 patients with HCC, 38 patients with Cirrhosis and 27 age, gender and BMI-matched healthy volunteers). All participants answered lifestyle and Food Frequency Questionnaires. 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal DNA was performed (MiSeq Illumina). Results: There was a significant decrease in alpha diversity in patients with Cirrhosis (qvalue=0.033) and in patients with HCC-Cirrhosis (qvalue=0.032) compared to healthy controls. The microbiota of patients with HCC-cirrhosis compared to patients with Cirrhosis, was characterized by a significant overrepresentation of Clostridium (pvalue=0.024) and CF231 (pvalue=0.010) and lower expression of Alphaproteobacteria (pvalue=0.039) and Verrucomicrobia (pvalue=0.036) in several taxonomic levels: Verrucomicrobiae, Verrucomicrobiales, Verrucomicrobiaceae and the genus Akkermansia (pvalue=0.039). Furthermore, we performed an analysis of predicted metabolic pathways (Kegg level 2) that resulted in a significant decrease in the diversity of metabolic pathways in patients with HCC-Cirrhosis (qvalue=0.015) compared to controls, one of which was amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, investigating the life style and nutrition habits of patients with HCC-Cirrhosis, we found significant correlations between intake of artificial sweeteners and Verrucomicrobia (qvalue=0.12), High sugar intake and Synergistetes (qvalue=0.021) and High BMI and the pathogen Campylobacter (qvalue=0.066). Furthermore, overweight in patients with HCC-Cirrhosis modified bacterial diversity (qvalue=0.023) and composition (qvalue=0.033). Conclusions: To the best of the our knowledge, we present the first report of the gut microbial composition in patients with HCC-Cirrhosis, compared with Cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. We have demonstrated in our study that there are significant differences in the gut microbiome of patients with HCC-cirrhosis compared to Cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. Our findings are even more pronounced because the significantly increased bacteria Clostridium and CF231 in HCC-Cirrhosis weren't influenced by diet and lifestyle, implying this change is due to the development of HCC. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and assess causality.

Keywords: Cirrhosis, Hepatocellular carcinoma, life style, liver disease, microbiome, nutrition

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1 Choking among Babies, Toddlers and Children with Special Needs: A Review of Mechanisms, Implications, Incidence, and Recommendations of Professional Prevention Guidelines

Authors: Ella Abaev, Shany Segal, Miri Gabay

Abstract:

Background: Choking is a blockage of airways that prevents efficient breathing and air flow to the lungs. Choking may be partial or full and is an emergency situation. Complete or prolonged choking leads to apnea, lack of oxygen in the tissues of the body and brain, and can cause death. There are three mechanisms of choking: obstruction of internal respiratory tracts by food or object aspiration, any material that blocks or covers external air passages, external pressure on the neck or trapping between objects. Children's airways are narrower than that of adults and therefore the risk of choking is greater, due to the aspiration of food and other foreign bodies into the lungs. In the Child Development Center at Safra Children’s Hospital, Tel Hashomer in Israel are treated infants, toddlers, and children aged 0-18 years with various developmental disabilities. Due to the increase in reports of ‘almost an event’ of choking in the past year and the serious consequences of choking event, it was decided to give an emphasis to the issue. Incidence and methods: The number of reports of ‘almost an event’ or a choking event was examined at the center during the years 2013-2018 and a thorough research work was conducted on the subject in order to build a prevention program. Findings: Between 2013 and 2018 the center reported about ten cases of ‘almost choking events’. In the middle of 2018 alone three cases of ‘almost an event’ were reported. Objective: Providing knowledge leads to awareness raise, change of perception, change in behavior and prevention. The center employs more than 130 staff members from various sectors so that it is the work of multi-professional teams to promote the quality and safety of the treatment. The familiarity of the staff with risk factors, prevention guidelines, identification of choking signs, and treatment are most important and significant in determining the outcome of a choking event. Conclusions and recommendations: After in-depth research work was carried out in cooperation with the Risk Management Unit on the subject of choking, which include a description of the definitions, mechanisms, risk factors, treatment methods and extensive recommendations for prevention (e.g. using treatment and stimulation accessories with standards association stamps and adjustment of the type of food and the way it is served to match to the child's age and the ability to swallow). The expected stages of development and emphasis on the population of children with special needs were taken into account. The research findings will be published by the staff and parents of the patients, professional publications, and lectures and there is an expectation to decrease the number of choking events in the next years.

Keywords: children with special needs, choking, educational system, prevention guidelines

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