Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 85

Search results for: Ashish Kapoor

85 Effect of Waste Foundry Slag and Alccofine on Durability Properties of High Strength Concrete

Authors: Devinder Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Ajay Goyal, Ashish Kapoor

Abstract:

The present research paper discussed the durability properties of high strength concrete (HSC) using Foundry Slag(FD) as partial substitute for fine aggregates (FA) and Alccofine (AF) in addition to portland pozzolana (PPC) cement. Specimens of Concrete M100 grade with water/binder ratio 0.239, with Foundry Slag (FD) varying from 0 to 50% and with optimum quantity of AF(15%) were casted and tested for durability properties such as Water absorption, water permeability, resistance to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. Substitution of fine aggregates (FA) with up to 45% of foundry slag(FD) content and cement with 15% substitution and addition of alccofine showed an excellent resistance against durability properties at all ages but showed a decrease in these properties with 50% of FD contents. Loss of weight in concrete samples due to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 365 days was compared with loss in compressive strength. Correlation between loss in weight and loss in compressive strength in all the tests was found to be excellent.

Keywords: alccofine, alkali attack, foundry slag, high strength concrete, nitrate attack, water absorption, water permeability

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84 An Efficient Discrete Chaos in Generalized Logistic Maps with Applications in Image Encryption

Authors: Ashish Ashish

Abstract:

In the last few decades, the discrete chaos of difference equations has gained a massive attention of academicians and scholars due to its tremendous applications in each and every branch of science, such as cryptography, traffic control models, secure communications, weather forecasting, and engineering. In this article, a generalized logistic discrete map is established and discrete chaos is reported through period doubling bifurcation, period three orbit and Lyapunov exponent. It is interesting to see that the generalized logistic map exhibits superior chaos due to the presence of an extra degree of freedom of an ordered parameter. The period doubling bifurcation and Lyapunov exponent are demonstrated for some particular values of parameter and the discrete chaos is determined in the sense of Devaney's definition of chaos theoretically as well as numerically. Moreover, the study discusses an extended chaos based image encryption and decryption scheme in cryptography using this novel system. Surprisingly, a larger key space for coding and more sensitive dependence on initial conditions are examined for encryption and decryption of text messages, images and videos which secure the system strongly from external cyber attacks, coding attacks, statistic attacks and differential attacks.

Keywords: chaos, period-doubling, logistic map, Lyapunov exponent, image encryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
83 Creation and Management of Knowledge for Organization Sustainability and Learning

Authors: Deepa Kapoor, Rajshree Singh

Abstract:

This paper appreciates the emergence and growing importance as a new production factor makes the development of technologies, methodologies and strategies for measurement, creation, and diffusion into one of the main priorities of the organizations in the knowledge society. There are many models for creation and management of knowledge and diverse and varied perspectives for study, analysis, and understanding. In this article, we will conduct a theoretical approach to the type of models for the creation and management of knowledge; we will discuss some of them and see some of the difficulties and the key factors that determine the success of the processes for the creation and management of knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge creation, knowledge management, organizational development, organization learning

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82 Modeling the Three - Echelon Repairable Parts Inventory System under (S-1, S) Policy

Authors: Rohit Kapoor

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt is made to formulate 3-echelon repairable parts inventory system under (S-1, S) policy. This analytical model is the extension of an exact formulation of two - echelon repairable parts inventory system, already reported in the established literature. In the present paper, we try to formulate the total cost expression consisting of two components, viz., system investment cost and expected backorder cost.

Keywords: (S-1, S) inventory policy, multi-echelon inventory system, repairable parts

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81 Evaluating the Evolution of Public Art across the World and Exploring Its Growth in Urban India

Authors: Mitali Kedia, Parul Kapoor

Abstract:

Public Art is a tool with the power to enrich and enlighten any place; it has been accepted and welcomed effortlessly by many cultures around the World. In this paper, we discuss the implications Public Art has had on the society and how it has evolved over the years, and how in India, art in this aspect is still overlooked and treated as an accessory. Urban aesthetics are still substantially limited to the installation of deities, political figures, and so on. The paper also discusses various possibilities and opportunities on how Public Art can boost a society; it also suggests a framework that can be incorporated in the legal system of the country to make it a part of the city development process.

Keywords: public art, urban fabric, placemaking, community welfare, public art program, imageability

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80 Analysis of Structural Phase Stability of Strontium Sulphide under High Pressure

Authors: Shilpa Kapoor, Namrata Yaduvanshi, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh

Abstract:

A Three Body Interaction Potential (TBIP) model is developed to study the high pressure phase transition of SrS having NaCl (B1) structure at room temperature. This model includes the long range Columbic, three body interaction forces, short range overlap forces operative up to next nearest neighbors and zero point energy effects. We have investigated the phase transition with pressure, volume collapse and second order elastic constants and found results well suited with available experimental data.

Keywords: phase transition, second order elastic constants, three body interaction forces, volume collapses

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79 Pressure Induced Phase Transition and Elastic Properties of Cerium Mononitride

Authors: Namrata Yaduvanshi, Shilpa Kapoor, Pooja Pawar, Sadhna Singh

Abstract:

In the present paper, we have investigated the high-pressure structural phase transition and elastic properties of cerium mononitride. We studied theoretically the structural properties of this compound (CeN) by using the Improved Interaction Potential Model (IIPM) approach. This compound exhibits first order crystallographic phase transition from NaCl (B1) to tetragonal (BCT) phase at 37 GPa. The phase transition pressures and associated volume collapse obtained from present potential model (IIPM) show a good agreement with available theoretical data.

Keywords: phase transition, volume collapse, elastic constants, three body interaction

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78 Faridabad: Urban Growth Pattern and Opportunities Lies Within

Authors: Rajat Kapoor

Abstract:

India is a developing country and has experienced a rapid and tumultuous urban growth in the 20th century. The total urban population of the city increased ten-fold between 1901 and 2001. The share of urban population to the total population increased from less than 11 percent to over 28 percent in the same period. Except few examples, most of the Indian cities have grown in a haphazard manner; concentration of population followed by the planning exercises. In this era of global competitiveness and rapid urbanization there is no scope for malpractices in development strategies. It is expected that the Indian cities shall be planned comprehensively and holistically. The study reveals the land transformations the city of Faridabad is witnessing due to development which is largely boosted by the virtue of its location in the Delhi NCR.

Keywords: Delhi NCR, Faridabad, urban growth patterns, India

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77 Urban Sustainability and Move to Low Carbon Development

Authors: I. P. Singh, Ajesh Kumar Kapoor

Abstract:

Rapid globalization have led to a change towards massive uncontrolled urbanization. Whereas during initial years negligence was there in the name of development, growth and vision toward healthier and better tomorrow. Considering the scenario of developing nations (India) where 70% of their population is living on 30% (urban areas) of their total land available. The need of an hour is to consider the ethical values of each and every person living in urban fringes, whereby the sustainable urban development is promoted which encompasses the move toward low carbon developments. It would help reviving a city lung space and reducing carbon credits as per Kyoto Protocol 1991. This paper would provide an overview about Indian scenario of current urban areas, ongoing developments, series of regulatory policy measures, materials innovative use and policies framed and opted for low carbon development.

Keywords: urban sustainability, indicators for sustainable development, low carbon development, Indian Policies toward low carbon development

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76 Image Steganography Using Least Significant Bit Technique

Authors: Preeti Kumari, Ridhi Kapoor

Abstract:

 In any communication, security is the most important issue in today’s world. In this paper, steganography is the process of hiding the important data into other data, such as text, audio, video, and image. The interest in this topic is to provide availability, confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data. The steganographic technique that embeds hides content with unremarkable cover media so as not to provoke eavesdropper’s suspicion or third party and hackers. In which many applications of compression, encryption, decryption, and embedding methods are used for digital image steganography. Due to compression, the nose produces in the image. To sustain noise in the image, the LSB insertion technique is used. The performance of the proposed embedding system with respect to providing security to secret message and robustness is discussed. We also demonstrate the maximum steganography capacity and visual distortion.

Keywords: steganography, LSB, encoding, information hiding, color image

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75 Eresa, Hospital General Universitario de Elche

Authors: Ashish Kumar Singh, Mehak Gulati, Neelam Verma

Abstract:

Arginine majorly acts as a substrate for the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS) for the production of nitric oxide, a strong vasodilator. Current study demonstrated a novel amperometric approach for estimation of arginine using nitric oxide synthase. The enzyme was co-immobilized in carbon paste electrode with NADP+, FAD and BH4 as cofactors. The detection principle of the biosensor is enzyme NOS catalyzes the conversion of arginine into nitric oxide. The developed biosensor could able to detect up to 10-9M of arginine. The oxidation peak of NO was observed at 0.65V. The developed arginine biosensor was used to monitor arginine content in fruit juices.

Keywords: arginine, biosensor, carbon paste elctrode, nitric oxide

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74 Firm's Growth Leading Dimensions of Blockchain Empowered Information Management System: An Empirical Study

Authors: Umang Varshney, Amit Karamchandani, Rohit Kapoor

Abstract:

Practitioners and researchers have realized that Blockchain is not limited to currency. Blockchain as a distributed ledger can ensure a transparent and traceable supply chain. Due to Blockchain-enabled IoTs, a firm’s information management system can now take inputs from other supply chain partners in real-time. This study aims to provide empirical evidence of dimensions responsible for blockchain implemented firm’s growth and highlight how sector (manufacturing or service), state's regulatory environment, and choice of blockchain network affect the blockchain's usefulness. This post-adoption study seeks to validate the findings of pre-adoption studies done on the blockchain. Data will be collected through a survey of managers working in blockchain implemented firms and analyzed through PLS-SEM.

Keywords: blockchain, information management system, PLS-SEM, firm's growth

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73 Performance Analysis of Hybrid Solar Photovoltaic-Thermal Collector with TRANSYS Simulator

Authors: Ashish Lochan, Anil K. Dahiya, Amit Verma

Abstract:

The idea of combining photovoltaic and solar thermal collector to provide electrical and heat energy is not new, however, it is an area of limited attention. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermals have become a focus point of interest in the field of solar energy. Integration of both (photovoltaic and thermal collector) provide greater opportunity for the use of renewable solar energy. This system converts solar energy into electricity and heat energy simultaneously. Theoretical performance analyses of hybrid PV/Ts have been carried out. Also, the temperature of water (as a heat carrier) have been calculated for different seasons with the help of TRANSYS.

Keywords: photovoltaic-thermal, solar energy, seasonal performance analysis, TRANSYS

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72 Effect of Pulp Density on Biodesulfurization of Mongolian Lignite Coal

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Byoung-Gon Kim

Abstract:

Biological processes based on oxidation of sulfur compounds by chemolithotrophic microorganisms are emerging as an efficient and eco-friendly technique for removal of sulfur from the coal. In the present article, study was carried out to investigate the potential of biodesulfurization process in removing the sulfur from lignite coal sample collected from a Mongolian coal mine. The batch biodesulfurization experiments were conducted in 2.5 L borosilicate baffle type reactors at 35 ºC using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The effect of pulp density on efficiency of biodesulfurization was investigated at different solids concentration (1-10%) of coal. The results of the present study suggested that the rate of desulfurization was retarded at higher coal pulp density. The optimum pulp density found 5% at which about 48% of the total sulfur was removed from the coal.

Keywords: biodesulfurization, bioreactor, coal, pyrite

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71 Comparision of Bioleaching of Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus Ferrooxidans and Acidthiobacillus Thiooxidans

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Ashish Pathak, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee

Abstract:

The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. The spent catalyst used in the present study was pretreated with acetone to remove the oily hydrocarbons. FESEM and XPS analysis indicated the presence of metals in sulfide and oxide forms in spent catalyst. Both At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans were found to be highly effective in producing the acid. Bioleaching with At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans led to higher recovery of metals compare to control. During bioleaching similar recoveries of metals were obtained using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. This might be due to the presence of metals as soluble oxides and sulphides in the spent catalyst. At the end of bioleaching, about 87-90% Ni, 34% Al, 65-73% Mo and 92-97% V were leached using above bacteria. It is elucidated that bioleaching with At. thiooxidans is comparatively more advantageous due to lower cost of sulphur.

Keywords: At. ferrooxidans, bioleaching, metal recovery, spent catalyst

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70 Medium Design and Optimization for High Β-Galactosidase Producing Microbial Strains from Dairy Waste through Fermentation

Authors: Ashish Shukla, K. P. Mishra, Pushplata Tripathi

Abstract:

This paper investigates the production and optimization of β-galactosidase enzyme using synthetic medium by isolated wild strains (S1, S2) mutated strains (M1, M2) through SSF and SmF. Among the different cell disintegration methods used, the highest specific activity was obtained when the cells were permeabilized using isoamyl alcohol. Wet lab experiments were performed to investigate the effects of carbon and nitrogen substrates present in Vogel’s medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains through SSF. SmF experiments were performed for effects of carbon and nitrogen sources in YLK2Mg medium on β-galactosidase enzyme activity using S1, S2 and M1, M2 strains. Effect of pH on β-galactosidase enzyme production was also done using S1, S2, and M1, M2 strains. Results were found to be very appreciable in all the cases.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, cell disintegration, permeabilized, SSF, SmF

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69 Hydrogen Storage in Carbonized Coconut Meat (Kernel)

Authors: Viney Dixit, Rohit R. Shahi, Ashish Bhatnagar, P. Jain, T. P. Yadav, O. N. Srivastava

Abstract:

Carbons are being widely investigated as hydrogen storage material owing to their light weight, fast hydrogen absorption kinetics and low cost. However, these materials suffer from low hydrogen storage capacity at room temperature. The aim of the present study is to synthesize carbon based material which shows moderate hydrogen storage at room temperature. For this purpose, hydrogenation characteristics of natural precursor coconut kernel is studied in this work. The hydrogen storage measurement reveals that the as-synthesized materials have good hydrogen adsorption and desorption capacity with fast kinetics. The synthesized material absorbs 8 wt.% of hydrogen at liquid nitrogen temperature and 2.3 wt.% at room temperature. This could be due to the presence of certain elements (KCl, Mg, Ca) which are confirmed by TEM.

Keywords: coconut kernel, carbonization, hydrogenation, KCl, Mg, Ca

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68 Optimization of Process Parameters by Using Taguchi Method for Bainitic Steel Machining

Authors: Vinay Patil, Swapnil Kekade, Ashish Supare, Vinayak Pawar, Shital Jadhav, Rajkumar Singh

Abstract:

In recent days, bainitic steel is used in automobile and non-automobile sectors due to its high strength. Bainitic steel is difficult to machine because of its high hardness, hence in this paper machinability of bainitic steel is studied by using Taguchi design of experiments (DOE) approach. Convectional turning experiments were done by using L16 orthogonal array for three input parameters viz. cutting speed, depth of cut and feed. The Taguchi method is applied to study the performance characteristics of machining parameters with surface roughness (Ra), cutting force and tool wear rate. By using Taguchi analysis, optimized process parameters for best surface finish and minimum cutting forces were analyzed.

Keywords: conventional turning, Taguchi method, S/N ratio, bainitic steel machining

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67 Fundamental Research Dissension between Hot and Cold Chamber High Pressure Die Casting

Authors: Sahil Kumar, Surinder Pal, Rahul Kapoor

Abstract:

This paper is focused on to define the basic difference between hot and cold chamber high pressure die casting process which is not fully defined in a research before paper which we have studied. The pressure die casting is basically defined into two types (1) Hot chamber Die Casting (2) Cold chamber Die Casting. Cold chamber die casting is used for casting alloys that require high pressure and have a high melting temperature, such as brass, aluminum, magnesium, copper based alloys and other high melting point nonferrous alloys. Hot chamber die casting is suitable for casting zinc, tin, lead, and low melting point alloys. In hot chamber die casting machine, the molten metal is an integral pan of the machine. It mainly consists of hot chamber and gooseneck type metal container made of cast iron. This machine is mainly used for low melting alloys and alloys of metals like zinc, lead etc. Metals and alloys having a high melting point and those which are having an affinity for iron cannot be cast by this machine, which could otherwise attack the shot sleeve and damage the machine.

Keywords: hot chamber die casting, cold chamber die casting, metals and alloys, casting technology

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66 Iontophoretic Drug Transport: An Non-Invasive Transdermal Approach

Authors: Ashish Jain, Shivam Tayal

Abstract:

There has been great interest in the field of Iontophoresis since few years due to its great applications in the field of controlled transdermal drug delivery system. It is an technique which is used to enhance the transdermal permeation of ionized high molecular weight molecules across the skin membrane especially Peptides & Proteins by the application of direct current of 1-4 mA for 20-40 minutes whereas chemical must be placed on electrodes with same charge. Iontophoresis enhanced the delivery of drug into the skin via pores like hair follicles, sweat gland ducts etc. rather than through stratum corneum. It has wide applications in the field of experimental, Therapeutic, Diagnostic, Dentistry etc. Medical science is using it to treat Hyperhidrosis (Excessive sweating) in hands and feet and to treat other ailments like hypertension, Migraine etc. Nowadays commercial transdermal iontophoretic patches are available in the market to treat different ailments. Researchers are keen to research in this field due to its vast applications and advantages.

Keywords: iontophoresis, novel drug delivery, transdermal, permeation enhancer

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65 Post Growth Annealing Effect on Deep Level Emission and Raman Spectra of Hydrothermally Grown ZnO Nanorods Assisted by KMnO4

Authors: Ashish Kumar, Tejendra Dixit, I. A. Palani, Vipul Singh

Abstract:

Zinc oxide, with its interesting properties such as large band gap (3.37eV), high exciton binding energy (60 meV) and intense UV absorption has been studied in literature for various applications viz. optoelectronics, biosensors, UV-photodetectors etc. The performance of ZnO devices is highly influenced by morphologies, size, crystallinity of the ZnO active layer and processing conditions. Recently, our group has shown the influence of the in situ addition of KMnO4 in the precursor solution during the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanorods (NRs) on their near band edge (NBE) emission. In this paper, we have investigated the effect of post-growth annealing on the variations in NBE and deep level (DL) emissions of as grown ZnO nanorods. These observed results have been explained on the basis of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic analysis, which clearly show that improved crystalinity and quantum confinement in ZnO nanorods.

Keywords: ZnO, nanorods, hydrothermal, KMnO4

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64 Depyritization of US Coal Using Iron-Oxidizing Bacteria: Batch Stirred Reactor Study

Authors: Ashish Pathak, Dong-Jin Kim, Haragobinda Srichandan, Byoung-Gon Kim

Abstract:

Microbial depyritization of coal using chemoautotrophic bacteria is gaining acceptance as an efficient and eco-friendly technique. The process uses the metabolic activity of chemoautotrophic bacteria in removing sulfur and pyrite from the coal. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in removing the pyritic sulfur and iron from high iron and sulfur containing US coal. The experiment was undertaken in 8 L bench scale stirred tank reactor having 1% (w/v) pulp density of coal. The reactor was operated at 35ºC and aerobic conditions were maintained by sparging the air into the reactor. It was found that at the end of bio-depyritization process, about 90% of pyrite and 67% of pyritic sulfur was removed from the coal. The results indicate that the bio-depyritization process is an efficient process in treating the high pyrite and sulfur containing coal.

Keywords: At.ferrooxidans, batch reactor, coal desulfurization, pyrite

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63 Dispersion-Less All Reflective Split and Delay Unit for Ultrafast Metrology

Authors: Akansha Tyagi, Mehar S. Sidhu, Ankur Mandal, Sanjay Kapoor, Sunil Dahiya, Jan M. Rost, Thomas Pfeifer, Kamal P. Singh

Abstract:

An all-reflective split and delay unit is designed for dispersion free measurement of broadband ultrashort pulses using a pair of reflective knife edge prism for splitting and recombining of the measuring pulse. It is based on symmetrical wavefront splitting of the measuring pulse having two separate arms to independently shape both split parts. We have validated our delay line with NIR –femtosecond pulse measurement centered at 800 nm using second harmonic-Interferometric frequency resolved optical gating (SH-IFROG). The delay line is compact, easy to align and provides attosecond stability and precision and thus make it more versatile for wide range of applications in ultrafast measurements. We envision that the present delay line will find applications in IR-IR controlling for high harmonic generation (HHG) and attosecond IR-XUV pump-probe measurements with solids and gases providing attosecond resolution and wide delay range.

Keywords: HHG, nonlinear optics, pump-probe spectroscopy, ultrafast metrology

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62 Feasibility of Deployable Encasing for a CVDR (Cockpit Voice and Data Recorder) in Commercial Aircraft

Authors: Vishnu Nair, Rohan Kapoor

Abstract:

Recent commercial aircraft crashes demand a paradigm shift in how the CVDRs are located and recovered, particularly if the aircraft crashes in the sea. CVDR (Cockpit Voice and Data Recorder) is most vital component out of the entire wreckage that can be obtained in order to investigate the sequence of events leading to the crash. It has been a taxing and exorbitantly expensive process locating and retrieving the same in the massive water bodies as it was seen in the air crashes in the recent past, taking the unfortunate Malaysia airlines MH-370 crash into account. The study aims to provide an aid to the persisting problem by improving the buoyant as-well-as the aerodynamic properties of the proposed CVDR encasing. Alongside this the placement of the deployable CVDR on the surface of the aircraft and floatability in case of water submersion are key factors which are taken into consideration for a better resolution to the problem. All of which results into the Deployable-CVDR emerging to the surface of the water-body. Also the whole system is designed such that it can be seamlessly integrated with the current crop of commercial aircraft. The work is supported by carrying out a computational study with the help Ansys-Fluent combination.

Keywords: encasing, buoyancy, deployable CVDR, floatability, water submersion

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61 Historical Metaphors in Insurance: A Journey

Authors: Anjuman Antil, Anuj Kapoor, Neha Saini

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the evolution of insurance in India and the world. The paper also traced the historical basis of life insurance in the world and how it emerged as a major sector in India’s economy. The promotional strategies and distribution channel of top three companies in the Indian insurance sector are also discussed. Design/methodology/approach: The paper examined the secondary data which includes the reports issued by Insurance Regulatory Authority of India, websites of companies, books, and journals relevant to the study. Findings: The paper argued the role and importance of insurance in an emerging economy. The challenges and opportunities of the insurance sector are briefed out. The emerging areas in the insurance sector in terms of promotional strategies and distribution channel are also listed. Implications: The historical evolution can be studied by companies while formulating their strategies. It will help them analyse the insurance sector, how things have changed and how to change with the changing times. Originality/value: This paper gives comprehensive data regarding the background of the insurance sector. Along with historical perspective, marketing and distribution, current and future trends have been discussed.

Keywords: insurance, evolution, life insurance, marketing, distribution channels

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60 Effect of Post Hardening on PVD Coated Tools

Authors: Manjinder Bajwa, Mahipal Singh, Ashish Tulli

Abstract:

In the research, the effect of varying cutting parameters, design parameters and heat treatment processes were studied on the cutting performance (Tool life) of a PVD coated tool. Thus, in a quest for these phenomenon comparison, a single coated tool and a multicoated tool were analyzed after suitable heat treatment process. TNMG shaped insert with single coating of TiCN and multi-coating of TiAlN/TiN were developed on tungsten carbide substrate. These coated inserts were then successfully annealed and normalized for a temperature of 350°C for 30 minutes and their cutting performance was evaluated as per the flank wear obtained after turning of mild steel. The results showed that heat treatment had a suitable impact on the tool life of the coated insert and also led to increase in the micro-hardness of the tool coatings and decrease in the wear rate.

Keywords: PVD coatings, flank wear, micro-hardness, annealing, normalizing

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59 Speed Characteristics of Mixed Traffic Flow on Urban Arterials

Authors: Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra

Abstract:

Speed and traffic volume data are collected on different sections of four lane and six lane roads in three metropolitan cities in India. Speed data are analyzed to fit the statistical distribution to individual vehicle speed data and all vehicles speed data. It is noted that speed data of individual vehicle generally follows a normal distribution but speed data of all vehicle combined at a section of urban road may or may not follow the normal distribution depending upon the composition of traffic stream. A new term Speed Spread Ratio (SSR) is introduced in this paper which is the ratio of difference in 85th and 50th percentile speed to the difference in 50th and 15th percentile speed. If SSR is unity then speed data are truly normally distributed. It is noted that on six lane urban roads, speed data follow a normal distribution only when SSR is in the range of 0.86 – 1.11. The range of SSR is validated on four lane roads also.

Keywords: normal distribution, percentile speed, speed spread ratio, traffic volume

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58 Treatment of Rice Industry Waste Water by Flotation-Flocculation Method

Authors: J. K. Kapoor, Shagufta Jabin, H. S. Bhatia

Abstract:

Polyamine flocculants were synthesized by poly-condensation of diphenylamine and epichlorohydrin using 1, 2-diaminoethane as modifying agent. The polyelectrolytes were prepared by taking epichlohydrin-diphenylamine in a molar ratio of 1:1, 1.5:1, 2:1, and 2.5:1. The flocculation performance of these polyelectrolytes was evaluated with rice industry waste water. The polyelectrolytes have been used in conjunction with alum for coagulation- flocculation process. Prior to the coagulation- flocculation process, air flotation technique was used with the aim to remove oil and grease content from waste water. Significant improvement was observed in the removal of oil and grease content after the air flotation technique. It has been able to remove 91.7% oil and grease from rice industry waste water. After coagulation-flocculation method, it has been observed that polyelectrolyte with epichlohydrin-diphenylamine molar ratio of 1.5:1 showed best results for the removal of pollutants from rice industry waste water. The highest efficiency of turbidity and TSS removal with polyelectrolyte has been found to be 97.5% and 98.2%, respectively. Results of these evaluations also reveal 86.8% removal of COD and 87.5% removal of BOD from rice industry waste water. Thus, we demonstrate optimization of coagulation–flocculation technique which is appropriate for waste water treatment.

Keywords: coagulation, flocculation, air flotation technique, polyelectrolyte, turbidity

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57 Occupational Health Hazards of Itinerant Waste Buyers (IWBs) in Kathmandu, Nepal

Authors: Ashish Khanal, Suja Giri

Abstract:

The scrap collection work is associated with multiple health hazards. Cut and scratches during collection and transportation of scraps are common. IWBs purchase the scraps mainly papers, cartoons, glass bottles and metals from the households. This study was conducted in Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. The location was chosen because Kathmandu is the biggest city of Nepal with highest number of IWBs. The research used a case study strategy to examine the occupational health hazards of IWBs. The only mode of collecting and transporting of scraps in Kathmandu is the bicycle. They have to do this regular work even during the scorching sun and chilled winter. The musculoskeletal and gastrointestinal disorders are the common health problem shared by IWBs in Kathmandu, Nepal. Despite of these problems, IWBs don’t take it seriously and rarely goes for the health check-up. There is need of personal protective equipment and guidance for safety of IWBs. IWBs need to wear closed shoes and use gloves to avoid cuts during the collection and transportation of the recyclables.

Keywords: itinerant waste buyers, Kathmandu, occupational health, scrap

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56 Efficient Reduction of Organophosphate Pesticide from Fruits and Vegetables Using Cost Effective Neutralizer

Authors: Debjani Dasgupta, Aman Zalawadia, Anuj Thapa, Pranjali Sing, Ashish Dabade

Abstract:

Organophosphate group pesticides are common pesticide group, which gain entry into food product due to incomplete removal of pesticide residues. The current food industry raw material handling process is not sufficient to eliminate pesticide residues. A neutralizer was used to neutralize the residues of pesticide on Vitis vinifera (Grapes). The water based dilution of neutralizer was demonstrated on fruits like grapes. Analysis for pesticides in water wash and neutralizer wash was carried out using GCMS. Fruits washed with neutralizer exhibited 72.95% removal of pesticides compared with normal water wash method. An economical chemical neutralizer can be used to remove such residues in raw material handling at industrial scale with minor modification in process to achieve minimum pesticide entry into final food products.

Keywords: GCMS, organophosphate, raw material handling, Vitis vinifera, pesticide neutralizer

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