Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 125

Search results for: augmentation

125 Robust Barcode Detection with Synthetic-to-Real Data Augmentation

Authors: Xiaoyan Dai, Hsieh Yisan


Barcode processing of captured images is a huge challenge, as different shooting conditions can result in different barcode appearances. This paper proposes deep-based barcode detection using synthetic-to-real data augmentation. Comparisons with previous works and evaluations with original data show that this approach achieves state-of-the-art performance in various real images. In addition, the system uses hybrid resolution for barcode “scan” and is applicable to real-time applications.

Keywords: barcode detection, data augmentation, deep learning, image-based processing

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124 Gluteal Augmentation: A Historical Perspective on Society's Fascination with Buttock Size

Authors: Shane R. Jackson


Gluteal augmentation with fat grafting, commonly referred to as the Brazilian Butt Lift, is the fastest-growing cosmetic surgical procedure, despite the risks and controversy that surrounds it. While many commentators attribute this rise in popularity with current societal trends towards public sharing of private life, the fascination with buttock size is in fact a much older human trait. By searching beyond medical literature and delving into historical sources, from ancient civilisations, through the Renaissance and Victorian eras to the ‘Instagram generation’ of the present day, this paper examines the differences – and similarities – in society’s ideal buttock shape and size. Furthermore, the ways in which these various cultures have altered their appearance to achieve this ideal are also examined, looking at the influence of the broader historical context. A deeper understanding of the historical, cultural and psychosocial factors that influence a patient’s desire for buttock augmentation allows the clinician to formulate a well-rounded surgical plan.

Keywords: augmentation, Brazilian butt lift, buttock, fat graft, gluteal

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123 Indications and Results of the Use of Facial Fat Grafting and Fillers in Complications of Cosmetic Facial Augmentation

Authors: Jose A. Foppiani, Valeria P. Bustos, Nathalia Hassel, Samuel J. Lin


Introduction: Non-surgical cosmetic procedures have risen in popularity in the last decades. However, despite its popularity, a comprehensive comparison of the safety of fillers versus fat grafting has not been made. Therefore, this study aims to review the complication rate in the use of fat grafting and fillers in cosmetic facial augmentation. Methods: A systematic review of several databases was performed. Random-effect meta-analysis of proportions was conducted to assess the overall prevalence of fillers and fat grafting complications. Results: A total of 33 studies were included, pooling 9,537,299 patients with a range of ages between 18 and 85. Of those patients, 2,625 (0.03%) underwent fat grafting and 9,534,674 (99.97%) fillers for cosmetic facial augmentation. Both fat grafting and fillers for facial augmentation had similar complication rates. The most common complication found among papers in fillers were erythema/skin discoloration 15 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5-19%), bruising 10% (95%CI 5-18%), and discomfort/pain 10% (95%CI 2-21%). Conclusion: Based on this review, fat grafting and fillers were found to have similar safety profiles and be widely studied. We believe this study highlights the improvement made in techniques and product composition, as well as patient selection. However, the high heterogeneity found across the studies is a call for further studies to implement standardized treatment protocol and uniform definition of complications.

Keywords: facial augmentation, injectables, fat grafting, dermal filler, complications

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122 The Implication of Augmentation Cystoplasty with Mitrofanoff Channel on Reproduction Age Group and Outcome of Pregnancy

Authors: Amal A. Qedrah, Sofia A. Malik, Madiha Akbar


The aim of this article is to share a rare clinical case of pregnancy and surgical delivery in a patient who has undergone augmentation cystoplasty with mitrofanoff channel in the past. Methods: This case report is about a woman who conceived naturally at the age of 27, previously underwent augmentation cystoplasty at the age of 10 years with mitrofanoff procedure using self-clean intermittent catheterization. Furthermore, this pregnancy was complicated by the presence of preeclampsia diagnosed at term and PROM. Following the failure of induction for intrapartum preeclampsia, the patient delivered a healthy baby via low transverse cesarean section at 38 weeks done at Latifa Hospital, Dubai. Conclusion: The procedure is done at a pediatric or young age, after which most patients reach reproductive age. There is no contraindication to pregnancy vaginally or surgically; however, this case was complicated by preeclampsia, due to which this patient was taken for a cesarean section. It is advisable to consult a urologist frequently along with taking regular bacteriological urine samples and blood samples with renal ultrasonography for the evaluation of the kidney. Antibacterial treatment or prophylaxis should be used during pregnancy if necessary and intermittent self-catherization is mostly performed routinely. It is also important to have a urologist on standby during the surgery in order to avoid and/or fix any complications that might come forth.

Keywords: augmentation cystoplasty, cesarean section, delivery, mitrofanoff channel

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121 Medical Image Augmentation Using Spatial Transformations for Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Trupti Chavan, Ramachandra Guda, Kameshwar Rao


The lack of data is a pain problem in medical image analysis using a convolutional neural network (CNN). This work uses various spatial transformation techniques to address the medical image augmentation issue for knee detection and localization using an enhanced single shot detector (SSD) network. The spatial transforms like a negative, histogram equalization, power law, sharpening, averaging, gaussian blurring, etc. help to generate more samples, serve as pre-processing methods, and highlight the features of interest. The experimentation is done on the OpenKnee dataset which is a collection of knee images from the openly available online sources. The CNN called enhanced single shot detector (SSD) is utilized for the detection and localization of the knee joint from a given X-ray image. It is an enhanced version of the famous SSD network and is modified in such a way that it will reduce the number of prediction boxes at the output side. It consists of a classification network (VGGNET) and an auxiliary detection network. The performance is measured in mean average precision (mAP), and 99.96% mAP is achieved using the proposed enhanced SSD with spatial transformations. It is also seen that the localization boundary is comparatively more refined and closer to the ground truth in spatial augmentation and gives better detection and localization of knee joints.

Keywords: data augmentation, enhanced SSD, knee detection and localization, medical image analysis, openKnee, Spatial transformations

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120 Self-Inflating Soft Tissue Expander Outcome for Alveolar Ridge Augmentation a Randomized Controlled Clinical and Histological Study

Authors: Alaa T. Ali, Nevine H. Kheir El Din, Ehab S. Abdelhamid, Ahmed E. Amr


Objective: Severe alveolar bone resorption is usually associated with a deficient amount of soft tissues. soft tissue expansion is introduced to provide an adequate amount of soft tissue over the grafted area. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of sub-periosteal self-inflating osmotic tissue expanders used as preparatory surgery before horizontal alveolar ridge augmentation using autogenous onlay block bone graft. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial was performed. Sixteen partially edentulous patients demanding horizontal bone augmentation in the anterior maxilla were randomly assigned to horizontal ridge augmentation with autogenous bone block grafts harvested from the mandibular symphysis. For the test group, soft tissue expanders were placed sub-periosteally before horizontal ridge augmentation. Impressions were taken before and after STE, and the cast models were optically scanned and superimposed to be used for volumetric analysis. Horizontal ridge augmentation was carried out after STE completion. For the control group, a periosteal releasing incision was performed during bone augmentation procedures. Implants were placed in both groups at re-entry surgery after six months period. A core biopsy was taken. Histomorphometric assessment for newly formed bone surface area, mature collagen area fraction, the osteoblasts count, and blood vessel count were performed. The change in alveolar ridge width was evaluated through bone caliper and CBCT. Results: Soft tissue expander successfully provides a Surplus amount of soft tissues in 5 out of 8 patients in the test group. Complications during the expansion period were perforation through oral mucosa occurred in two patients. Infection occurred in one patient. The mean soft tissue volume gain was 393.9 ± 322mm. After 6 months. The mean horizontal bone gains for the test and control groups were 3.14 mm and 3.69 mm, respectively. Conclusion: STE with a sub-periosteal approach is an applicable method to achieve an additional soft tissue and to reduce bone block graft exposure and wound dehiscence.

Keywords: soft tissue expander, ridge augmentation, block graft, symphysis bone block

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119 Deep Feature Augmentation with Generative Adversarial Networks for Class Imbalance Learning in Medical Images

Authors: Rongbo Shen, Jianhua Yao, Kezhou Yan, Kuan Tian, Cheng Jiang, Ke Zhou


This study proposes a generative adversarial networks (GAN) framework to perform synthetic sampling in feature space, i.e., feature augmentation, to address the class imbalance problem in medical image analysis. A feature extraction network is first trained to convert images into feature space. Then the GAN framework incorporates adversarial learning to train a feature generator for the minority class through playing a minimax game with a discriminator. The feature generator then generates features for minority class from arbitrary latent distributions to balance the data between the majority class and the minority class. Additionally, a data cleaning technique, i.e., Tomek link, is employed to clean up undesirable conflicting features introduced from the feature augmentation and thus establish well-defined class clusters for the training. The experiment section evaluates the proposed method on two medical image analysis tasks, i.e., mass classification on mammogram and cancer metastasis classification on histopathological images. Experimental results suggest that the proposed method obtains superior or comparable performance over the state-of-the-art counterparts. Compared to all counterparts, our proposed method improves more than 1.5 percentage of accuracy.

Keywords: class imbalance, synthetic sampling, feature augmentation, generative adversarial networks, data cleaning

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118 Camera Model Identification for Mi Pad 4, Oppo A37f, Samsung M20, and Oppo f9

Authors: Ulrich Wake, Eniman Syamsuddin


The model for camera model identificaiton is trained using pretrained model ResNet43 and ResNet50. The dataset consists of 500 photos of each phone. Dataset is divided into 1280 photos for training, 320 photos for validation and 400 photos for testing. The model is trained using One Cycle Policy Method and tested using Test-Time Augmentation. Furthermore, the model is trained for 50 epoch using regularization such as drop out and early stopping. The result is 90% accuracy for validation set and above 85% for Test-Time Augmentation using ResNet50. Every model is also trained by slightly updating the pretrained model’s weights

Keywords: ​ One Cycle Policy, ResNet34, ResNet50, Test-Time Agumentation

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117 Content-Aware Image Augmentation for Medical Imaging Applications

Authors: Filip Rusak, Yulia Arzhaeva, Dadong Wang


Machine learning based Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) is gaining much popularity in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. However, it requires a large amount of high quality and labeled training image datasets. The training images may come from different sources and be acquired from different radiography machines produced by different manufacturers, digital or digitized copies of film radiographs, with various sizes as well as different pixel intensity distributions. In this paper, a content-aware image augmentation method is presented to deal with these variations. The results of the proposed method have been validated graphically by plotting the removed and added seams of pixels on original images. Two different chest X-ray (CXR) datasets are used in the experiments. The CXRs in the datasets defer in size, some are digital CXRs while the others are digitized from analog CXR films. With the proposed content-aware augmentation method, the Seam Carving algorithm is employed to resize CXRs and the corresponding labels in the form of image masks, followed by histogram matching used to normalize the pixel intensities of digital radiography, based on the pixel intensity values of digitized radiographs. We implemented the algorithms, resized the well-known Montgomery dataset, to the size of the most frequently used Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) dataset and normalized our digital CXRs for testing. This work resulted in the unified off-the-shelf CXR dataset composed of radiographs included in both, Montgomery and JSRT datasets. The experimental results show that even though the amount of augmentation is large, our algorithm can preserve the important information in lung fields, local structures, and global visual effect adequately. The proposed method can be used to augment training and testing image data sets so that the trained machine learning model can be used to process CXRs from various sources, and it can be potentially used broadly in any medical imaging applications.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis, image augmentation, lung segmentation, medical imaging, seam carving

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116 Intraoperative Inter Pectoral and Sub Serratus Nerve Blocks Reduce Post Operative Opiate Requirements in Breast Augmentation Surgery

Authors: Conor Mccartney, Mark Lee


Background: An essential component in ambulatory breast augmentation surgery is good analgesia. The demographic undergoing this operation is usually fit, low risk with few comorbidities. These patients do not require long-term hospitalization and do not want to spend excessive time in the hospital for financial reasons. Opiate analgesia can have significant side effects such as nausea, vomiting and sedation. Reducing volumes of postoperative opiates allows faster ambulation and discharge from day surgery. We have developed two targeted nerve blocks that can be applied by the operating surgeon in a matter of seconds under direct vision, not requiring imaging. Anecdotally we found that these targeted nerve blocks reduced opiate requirements and allowed accelerated discharge and faster return to normal activities. This was then tested in a prospective randomized, double-blind trial. Methods: 20 patients were randomized into saline (n = 10) or Ropivicaine adrenaline solution (n = 10). The operating surgeon and anesthetist were blinded to the solution. All patients were closely followed up and morphine equivalents were accurately recorded. Follow-up pain scores were recorded using the Overall Benefit of Analgesia pain questionnaire. Findings: The Ropivicaine nerve blocks significantly reduced opiate requirements postoperatively (p<0.05). Pain scores were significantly decreased in the study group (p<0.05). There were no side effects attributable to the nerve blocks. Conclusions: Intraoperative targeted nerve blocks significantly reduce postoperative opiate requirements in breast augmentation surgery. This results in faster recovery and higher patient satisfaction.

Keywords: breast augmentation, nerve block, postoperative recovery, opiate analgesia, inter pectoral block, sub serratus block

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115 Heat Transfer Correlations for Exhaust Gas Flow

Authors: Fatih Kantas


Exhaust systems are key contributors to ground vehicles as a heat source. Understanding heat transfer in exhaust systems is related to defining effective parameter on heat transfer in exhaust system. In this journal, over 20 Nusselt numbers are investigated. This study shows advantages and disadvantages of various Nusselt numbers in different range Re, Pr and pulsating flow amplitude and frequency. Also (CAF) Convective Augmentation Factors are defined to correct standard Nusselt number for geometry and location of exhaust system. Finally, optimum Nusselt number and Convective Augmentation Factors are recommended according to Re, Pr and pulsating flow amplitude and frequency, geometry and location effect of exhaust system.

Keywords: exhaust gas flow, heat transfer correlation, Nusselt, Prandtl, pulsating flow

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114 Bias Prevention in Automated Diagnosis of Melanoma: Augmentation of a Convolutional Neural Network Classifier

Authors: Kemka Ihemelandu, Chukwuemeka Ihemelandu


Melanoma remains a public health crisis, with incidence rates increasing rapidly in the past decades. Improving diagnostic accuracy to decrease misdiagnosis using Artificial intelligence (AI) continues to be documented. Unfortunately, unintended racially biased outcomes, a product of lack of diversity in the dataset used, with a noted class imbalance favoring lighter vs. darker skin tone, have increasingly been recognized as a problem.Resulting in noted limitations of the accuracy of the Convolutional neural network (CNN)models. CNN models are prone to biased output due to biases in the dataset used to train them. Our aim in this study was the optimization of convolutional neural network algorithms to mitigate bias in the automated diagnosis of melanoma. We hypothesized that our proposed training algorithms based on a data augmentation method to optimize the diagnostic accuracy of a CNN classifier by generating new training samples from the original ones will reduce bias in the automated diagnosis of melanoma. We applied geometric transformation, including; rotations, translations, scale change, flipping, and shearing. Resulting in a CNN model that provided a modifiedinput data making for a model that could learn subtle racial features. Optimal selection of the momentum and batch hyperparameter increased our model accuracy. We show that our augmented model reduces bias while maintaining accuracy in the automated diagnosis of melanoma.

Keywords: bias, augmentation, melanoma, convolutional neural network

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113 Stem Cell Augmentation Therapy for Cardiovascular Risk in Ankylosing Spondylitis: STATIN-as Study

Authors: Ashit Syngle, Nidhi Garg, Pawan Krishan


Objective: Bone marrow derived stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), protect against atherosclerotic vascular damage. However, EPCs are depleted in AS and contribute to the enhanced cardiovascular risk. Statins have a protective effect in CAD and diabetes by enhancing the proliferation, migration and survival of EPCs. Therapeutic potential of augmenting EPCs to treat the heightened cardiovascular risk of AS has not yet been exploited. We aimed to investigate the effect of rosuvastatin on EPCs population and inflammation in AS. Methods: 30 AS patients were randomized to receive 6 months of treatment with rosuvastatin (10 mg/day, n=15) and placebo (n=15) as an adjunct to existing stable anti-rheumatic drugs. EPCs (CD34+/CD133+) were quantified by Flow Cytometry. Inflammatory measures (BASDAI, BASFI, CRP and ESR), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1) and lipids were measured at baseline and after treatment. Results: At baseline, inflammatory measures and pro-inflammatory cytokines were elevated and EPCs depleted among both groups. EPCs increased significantly (p < 0.01) after treatment with rosuvastatin. At 6 months, BASDAI, BASFI, ESR, CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 improved significantly in rosuvastatin group. Significant negative correlation was observed between EPCs and BASDAI, CRP and IL-6 after rosuvastatin treatment. Conclusion: First study to show that rosuvastatin augments EPCs population in AS. This defines a novel mechanism of rosuvastatin treatment in AS: the augmentation of EPCs with improvement in proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory disease activity. The augmentation of EPCs by rosuvastatin may provide a novel strategy to prevent cardiovascular events in AS.

Keywords: ankylosing spondylitis, Endothelial Progenitor Cells, inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines, rosuvastatin

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112 Infrastructure Project Management and Implementation: A Case Study Of the Mokolo-Crocodile Water Augmentation Project in South Africa

Authors: Elkington Sibusiso Mnguni


The Mokolo-Crocodile Water Augmentation Project (MCWAP) is located in the Limpopo Province in the northern-western part of South Africa. Its purpose is to increase water supply by 30 million cubic meters per year to meet current and future demand for users, including power stations, mining houses, and the local municipality in the Lephalale area. This paper documents the planning and implementation aspects of the MCWAP infrastructure project. The study will add to the body of knowledge with respect to bulk water infrastructure development in water-scarce regions. The method used to gather and collate relevant data and information was the desktop study. The key finding was that the project was successfully completed in 2015 using conventional project management and construction methods. The project is currently being operated and maintained by the National Department of Water and Sanitation.

Keywords: construction, contract management, infrastructure project, project management

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111 Oncoplastic Augmentation Mastopexy: Aesthetic Revisional Surgery in Breast Conserving Therapy

Authors: Bar Y. Ainuz, Harry M. Salinas, Aleeza Ali, Eli B. Levitt, Austin J. Pourmoussa, Antoun Bouz, Miguel A. Medina


Introduction: Breast conservation therapy remains the mainstay surgical treatment for early breast cancer. Oncoplastic techniques, in conjunction with lumpectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy, have been demonstrated to achieve good aesthetic results without adversely affecting cancer outcomes in the treatment of patients with macromastia or significant ptosis. In our patient population, many women present for breast conservation with pre-existing cosmetic implants or with breast volumes too small for soft tissue, only oncoplastic techniques. Our study evaluated a consecutive series of patients presenting for breast conservation undergoing concomitant oncoplastic-augmentation-mastopexy (OAM) with a contralateral augmentation-mastopexy for symmetry. Methods: OAM surgical technique involves simultaneous lumpectomy with exchange or placement of implants, oncoplastic mastopexy, and concomitant contralateral augmentation mastopexy for symmetry. Patients undergoing lumpectomy for breast conservation as outpatients were identified via retrospective chart review at a high volume private academic affiliated community-based cancer center. Patients with ptosis and either pre-existing breast implants or insufficient breast volume undergoing oncoplastic implant placement (or exchange) and mastopexy were included in the study. Operative details, aesthetic outcomes, and complications were assessed. Results: Over a continuous three-year period, with a two-surgeon cohort, 30 consecutive patients (56 breasts, 4 unilateral procedures) were identified. Patients had an average age of 52.5 years and an average BMI of 27.5, with 40% smokers or former smokers. The average operative time was 2.5 hours, the average implant size removed was 352 cc, and the average implant size placed was 300 cc. All new implants were smooth silicone, with the majority (92%) placed in a retropectoral fashion. 40% of patients received chemotherapy, and 80% of patients received whole breast adjuvant photon radiotherapy with a total radiation dose of either 42.56 or 52.56 Gy. The average and median length of follow-up were both 8.2 months. Of the 24 patients that received radiotherapy, 21% had asymmetry due to capsular contracture. A total of 7 patients (29.2%) underwent revisions for either positive margins (12.5%), capsular contracture (8.3%), implant loss (4.2%), or cosmetic concerns (4.2%). One patient developed a pulmonary embolism in the acute postoperative period and was treated with anticoagulant therapy. Conclusion: Oncoplastic augmentation mastopexy is a safe technique with good aesthetic outcomes and acceptable complication rates for ptotic patients with breast cancer and a paucity of breast volume or pre-existing implants who wish to pursue breast-conserving therapy. The revision rates compare favorably with single-stage cosmetic augmentation procedures as well as other oncoplastic techniques described in the literature. The short-term capsular contracture rates seem lower than the rates in patients undergoing radiation after mastectomy and implant-based reconstruction. Long term capsular contractures and revision rates are too early to know in this cohort.

Keywords: breast conserving therapy, oncoplastic augmentation mastopexy, capsular contracture, breast reconstruction

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110 Heat Transfer Augmentation in a Channel with Delta Winglet Type Vortex Generators at Different Blade Angles

Authors: Nirmal Kant Singh, Anshuman Pratap Singh


In this study the augmentation of heat transfer in a channel with delta winglet type vortex generators is evaluated. Three-dimensional numerical simulations are performed in a rectangular channel with longitudinal triangular vortex generators (LVGs). The span wise averaged Nusselt number and mean temperature are compared with and without vortex generators in the channel. The effect of variation of blade angle (15°, 30°, 45°, and 60°) is studied at a Reynolds number of 10000. The numerical results indicate that the application of LVGs effectively enhances heat transfer in the channel. The Nusselt number and mean outlet temperature were found to be greater using LVGs than in the channel without LVGs. It is observed that heat transfer increases with increase in blade angle at the same Reynolds number.

Keywords: heat transfer, rectangular channel, longitudinal vortex generators, effect of blade angle

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109 Aerodynamic Bicycle Torque Augmentation with a Wells Turbine in Wheels

Authors: Tsuyoshi Yamazaki, Etsuo Morishita


Cyclists often run through a crosswind and sometimes we experience the adverse pressure. We came to an idea that Wells turbine can be used as power augmentation device in the crosswind something like sails of a yacht. Wells turbine always rotates in the same direction irrespective of the incoming flow direction, and we use it in the small-scale power generation in the ocean where waves create an oscillating flow. We incorporate the turbine to the wheel of a bike. A commercial device integrates strain gauges in the crank of a bike and transmitted force and torque applied to the pedal of the bike as an e-mail to the driver’s mobile phone. We can analyze the unsteady data in a spreadsheet sent from the crank sensor. We run the bike with the crank sensor on the rollers at the exit of a low-speed wind tunnel and analyze the effect of the crosswind to the wheel with a Wells turbine. We also test the aerodynamic characteristics of the turbine separately. Although power gain depends on the flow direction, several Watts increase might be possible by the Wells turbine incorporated to a bike wheel.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Wells turbine, bicycle, wind engineering

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108 Evaluation of Intraoral Complications of Buccal Mucosa Graft in Augmentation Urethroplasty

Authors: Dahna Alkahtani, Faryal Suraya, Fadah Alanazi


Background: Buccal mucosal graft for urethral augmentation has surpassed other grafting options, and is now considered the standard of choice for substitution Urethroplasty. The graft has gained its popularity due to its excellent short and long-term results, easy harvesting as well as its ability in withstanding wet environments. However, although Buccal mucosal grafts are an excellent option, it is not free of complications, potential intraoral complications are bleeding, pain, swelling, injury to the nerve resulting in numbness, lip deviation or retraction. Objectives: The current study aims to evaluate the intraoral complications of buccal mucosa grafts harvested from one cheek, and used in Augmentation Urethroplasty. Methodology: The study was conducted retrospectively using the medical records of patients who underwent open augmentation urethroplasty with a buccal mucosa graft at King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Data collection of demographics included the type of graft used, presence or absence of strictures and its etiological factors. Pre-operative and post-operative evaluations were carried out on the subjects including the medical history, physical examination, uroflowmetry, retrograde urethrography, voiding cystourethrography and urine cultures were also noted. Further, the quality of life and complications of the procedure including the presence or occurrence of bleeding within 3-days post-procedure, the severity of pain, oral swelling after grafting, length of return to normal daily diet, painful surgical site, intake of painkillers, presence or absence of speech disturbance, numbness in the cheeks and lips were documented. Results: Thirty-two male subjects with ages ranging from 15 years to 72 years were included in the current study. Following the procedure, a hundred percent of the subjects returned to their normal daily diet by the sixth postoperative day. Further, the majority of the patients reported experiencing mild pain accounting for 61.3%, and 90.3% of the subjects reported using painkillers to control the pain. Surgical wound Pain was reportedly more common at the perineal site as 48.4% of the subjects experienced it; on the other hand, 41.9% of the patients experienced pain in the oral mucosa. The presence of speech disorders, as assessed through medical history, was found to be present in 3.2% of patients. The presence of numbness in the cheeks and lips was found in 3.2% of patients. Other complications such as parotid duct injury, delayed wound healing, non-healing wound and suture granuloma were rare as 90.3% of the subjects denied experiencing any of them, there were nonetheless reports of parotid duct injury by 6.5% of the patients, and non-healing wound by the 3.2% of patients. Conclusion: Buccal Mucosa Graft in Augmentation Urethroplasty is an ideal source of allograft, although not entirely painless; it is considerably safe with minimal intra-oral complication and undetectable strain on the patients’ quality of life.

Keywords: augmentation, buccal, graft, oral

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107 Characterization of Bovine SERPIN- Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT)

Authors: Sharique Ahmed, Khushtar Anwar Salman


Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a major plasma serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN). Hereditary AAT deficiency is one of the common diseases in some part of the world. AAT is mainly produced in the liver and functions to protect the lung against proteolytic damage (e.g., from neutrophil elastase) acting as the major inhibitor for neutrophil elastase. α (1)-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an under recognized genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in 2,000 to 1 in 5,000 individuals and predisposes to liver disease and early-onset emphysema. Not only does α-1-antitrypsin deficiency lead to disabling syndrome of pulmonary emphysema, there are other disorders too which include ANCA (antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody) positive Wegener's granulomatosis, diffuse bronchiectasis, necrotizing panniculitis in α-1-antitrypsin phenotype (S), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and steroid dependent asthma. Augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) from human plasma has been available for specific treatment of emphysema due to AAT deficiency. Apart from this several observations have also suggested a role for endogenous suppressors of HIV-1, alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) has been identified to be one of those. In view of its varied important role in humans, serum from a mammalian source was chosen for the isolation and purification. Studies were performed on the homogeneous fraction. This study suggests that the buffalo serum α-1-antritrypsin has characteristics close to ovine, dog, horse and more importantly to human α-1-antritrypsin in terms of its hydrodynamic properties such as molecular weight, carbohydrate content, etc. The similarities in the hydrodynamic properties of buffalo serum α-1-antitrypsin with other sources of mammalian α-1-antitrypsin mean that it can be further studied and be a potential source for "augmentation therapy", as well as a source of AAT replacement therapy to raise serum levels above the protective threshold. Other parameters like the amino acid sequence, the effect of denaturants, and the thermolability or thermostability of the inhibitor will be the interesting basis of future studies on buffalo serum alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT).

Keywords: α-1-antitrypsin, augmentation therapy , hydrodynamic properties, serine protease inhibitor

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106 Data Augmentation for Automatic Graphical User Interface Generation Based on Generative Adversarial Network

Authors: Xulu Yao, Moi Hoon Yap, Yanlong Zhang


As a branch of artificial neural network, deep learning is widely used in the field of image recognition, but the lack of its dataset leads to imperfect model learning. By analysing the data scale requirements of deep learning and aiming at the application in GUI generation, it is found that the collection of GUI dataset is a time-consuming and labor-consuming project, which is difficult to meet the needs of current deep learning network. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a semi-supervised deep learning model that relies on the original small-scale datasets to produce a large number of reliable data sets. By combining the cyclic neural network with the generated countermeasure network, the cyclic neural network can learn the sequence relationship and characteristics of data, make the generated countermeasure network generate reasonable data, and then expand the Rico dataset. Relying on the network structure, the characteristics of collected data can be well analysed, and a large number of reasonable data can be generated according to these characteristics. After data processing, a reliable dataset for model training can be formed, which alleviates the problem of dataset shortage in deep learning.

Keywords: GUI, deep learning, GAN, data augmentation

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105 Combination of Lamotrigine and Duloxetine: A Potential Approach for the Treatment of Acute Bipolar Depression

Authors: Kedar S. Prabhavalkar, Nimmy Baby Poovanpallil


Lamotrigine is approved for maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. However, its role in the treatment of acute bipolar depression is not well clear. Its efficacy in the treatment of major depressive disorders including refractory unipolar depression suggested the use of lamotrigine as an augmentation drug for acute bipolar depression. The present study aims to evaluate and perform a comparative analysis of the therapeutic effects of lamotrigine, an epileptic mood stabilizer, when used alone and in combination with duloxetine in treating acute bipolar depression at different doses of lamotrigine. Male swiss albino mice were used. For evaluation of efficacy of combination, immobility period was analyzed 30 min after the treatment from forced swim and tail suspension tests. Further amount of sucrose consumed in sucrose preference test was estimated. The combination of duloxetine and lamotrigine showed potentiation of antidepressant activity in acute models. Decrease in immobility time and increase in the amount of sucrose consumption in stressed mice were higher in combined group compared to lamotrigine monotherapy group. Brain monoamine levels were also attenuated more with combination compared to monotherapy. Results of the present study suggest potential role of lamotrigine and duloxetine combination in the treatment of acute bipolar depression.

Keywords: lamotrigine, duloxetine, acute bipolar depression, augmentation

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104 Experimental Analysis on Heat Transfer Enhancement in Double Pipe Heat Exchanger Using Al2O3/Water Nanofluid and Baffled Twisted Tape Inserts

Authors: Ratheesh Radhakrishnan, P. C. Sreekumar, K. Krishnamoorthy


Heat transfer augmentation techniques ultimately results in the reduction of thermal resistance in a conventional heat exchanger by generating higher convective heat transfer coefficient. It also results in reduction of size, increase in heat duty, decrease in approach temperature difference and reduction in pumping power requirements for heat exchangers. Present study deals with compound augmentation technique, which is not widely used. The study deals with the use of Alumina (Al2O3)/water nanofluid and baffled twisted tape inserts in double pipe heat exchanger as compound augmentation technique. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient and friction factor for the flow through the inner tube of heat exchanger in turbulent flow range (8000Keywords: enhancement, heat transfer coefficient, friction factor, twisted tape, nanofluid

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103 DLCCDP: A Deep Learning Approach for the Classification of Car Damage Parts

Authors: Michael Abebe Berwo, Yong Fang, Jabar Mahmood


Car damaged parts classification is an important discipline with a wide range of computer applications that classifies car parts based on input images. However, the success of the car’s damaged parts evaluation is dependent on the technician’s ability and knowledge to carry out the inspection. Automatic classification utilizing Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (DCNNs) can help improve the speed with which these damaged parts are repaired. Transfer learning of DCNN pre-trained models such as DenseNet-121, DenseNet-161, DenseNet-169, DenseNet-201, ResNet-50, and ResNet-101 was performed using various measures: fine-tuning (FT) with learned parameters and generated images, and FT with learned parameters and generated images. The FT with data augmentation achieved great outcomes in pre-trained networks. The ResNet-50 outstanding-performing neural network was chosen for car damage part classification, with an AUC, accuracy, recall, F-Score, and precision of 98.97%, 99.31%, 98.16%, 98.15%, and 98.18%, respectively, for the test dataset, which was independently preserved. A deep model-based transfer learning architecture can assist car insurance and rental companies, as well as professionals, in inspecting parts related to damage in car images. So, this quick method can help save time and money and cut down on delays in processing claims.

Keywords: car damage part classification, data augmentation, deep learning, pre-trained models, transfer learning

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102 WILCKO-PERIO, Periodontally Accelerated Orthodontics

Authors: Kruttika Bhuse


Aim: Synergism between periodontists and orthodontists (periodontal accelerated osteogenic orthodontics- PAOO) creates crucial opportunities to enhance clinical outcomes of combined therapies regarding both disciplines and has made adult orthodontics a reality. Thus, understanding the biomechanics of bone remodelling may increase the clinical applications of corticotomy facilitated orthodontics with or without alveolar augmentation. Wilckodontics can be an attractive treatment option and be a “win-win” situation for both the dental surgeon and patient by reducing the orthodontic treatment time in adults. Materials and methods: In this review, data related to the clinical aspects, steps of procedure, biomechanics of bone, indications and contraindications and final outcome of wilckodontic shall be discussed. 50 supporting articles from various international journals and 70 clinical cases were reviewed to get a better understanding to design this wilckodontic - meta analysis. Various journals like the Journal Of Clinical And Diagnostic Research, Journal Of Indian Society Of Periodontology, Journal Of Periodontology, Pubmed, Boston Orthodontic University Journal, Good Practice Orthodontics Volume 2, have been referred to attain valuable information on wilckodontics which was then compiled in this single review study. Result: As a promising adjuvant technique based on the transient nature of demineralization-remineralisation process in healthy tissues, wilckodontics consists of regional acceleratory phenomenon by alveolar corticotomy and bone grafting of labial and palatal/lingual surfaces, followed by orthodontic force. The surgical wounding of alveolar bone potentiates tissue reorganization and healing by a way of transient burst of localized hard and soft tissue remodelling.This phenomenon causes bone healing to occur 10-50 times faster than normal bone turnover. Conclusion: This meta analysis helps understanding that the biomechanics of bone remodelling may increase the clinical applications of corticotomy facilitated orthodontics with or without alveolar augmentation. The main benefits being reduced orthodontic treatment time, increased bone volume and post-orthodontic stability.

Keywords: periodontal osteogenic accelerated orthodontics, alveolar corticotomy, bone augmentation, win-win situation

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101 Topical Negative Pressure for Autologous Fat Grafting in Breast Augmentation

Authors: Mohamed Eftal Bin Mohamed Ebrahim, Alexander Varey


Aim: Topical negative pressure has been shown to enhance angiogenesis during wound healing, both for open and closed wounds. Since angiogenesis is a key requirement for successful fat grafting, there may be a role for topical negative pressure as a means of enhancing the take rate during autologous fat grafting to breasts. Here we present a systematic review of the literature on this topic. Methods: Ovid and Embase were utilized, with searches ranging between 1960 – 2019. Terms (“Liposculpting” OR “Fat grafting” OR “Lipofilling” OR “Lipograft” OR “Fat transfer”) AND (“Negative Pressure” OR “Brava” OR “Kiwi”) AND (“Breast”) were merged as keywords. Inclusion criteria were females, autologous fat graft to breast with topical negative pressure prior to the procedure. Studies were excluded if there was no primary endpoint or non-original article. Results: Upon reviewing 219 articles, 2 met inclusion criteria. A total of 565 and 46 breasts in each article were treated respectively using the negative pressure device BRAVA®, with each cohort having different pre-and post-operative pressure settings. Khouri et al. cohort had higher graft survival (79%) compared to Del Vecchio et al. cohort (64%); however, the latter had fewer complications compared to Khouri’s cohort, e.g., fat necrosis, pneumothorax and infection. Conclusion: There is limited evidence regarding the use of topical negative pressure for fat grafting to the breasts. However, in the two studies published, the reported rates of success are high, suggesting there may be a benefit. Consequently, a randomized controlled trial on this area is required.

Keywords: fat grafting, lipograft, negative pressure, breast, breast augmentation, brava

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100 Gender Differences in Walking Capacity and Cardiovascular Regulation in Patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease

Authors: Gabriel Cucato, Marilia Correia, Wagner Domingues, Aline Palmeira, Paulo Longano, Nelson Wolosker, Raphael Ritti-Dias


Women with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) present lower walking capacity in comparison with men. However, whether cardiovascular regulation is also different between genders is unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare walking capacity and cardiovascular regulation between men and women with PAD. A total of 23 women (66±7 yrs) and 31 men (64±9 yrs) were recruited. Patients performed a 6-minute test and the onset claudication distance and total walking distance were measured. Additionally, cardiovascular regulation was assessed by arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity and augmentation index) and heart rate variability (frequency domain). Independent T test or Mann-Whitney U test were performed. In comparison with men, women present lower onset claudication distance (108±66m vs. 143±50m; P=0.032) and total walking distance (286±83m vs. 361±91 m, P=0.007). Regarding cardiovascular regulation, there were no differences in heart rate variability SDNN (72±160ms vs. 32±22ms, P=0.587); RMSSD (75±209 vs. 25±22ms, P=0.726); pNN50 (11±17ms vs. 8±14ms, P=0.836) in women and men, respectively. Moreover, there were no difference in augmentation index (39±10% vs. 34±11%, P=0.103); pulse pressure (59±17mmHg vs. 56±19mmHg, P=0.593) and pulse wave velocity (8.6±2.6m\s vs. 9.0±2.7m/s, P=0.580). In conclusion, women have impaired walking capacity compared to men. However, sex differences were not observed on cardiovascular regulation in patients with PAD.

Keywords: exercise, intermittent claudication, cardiovascular load, arterial stiffness

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99 Defect Classification of Hydrogen Fuel Pressure Vessels using Deep Learning

Authors: Dongju Kim, Youngjoo Suh, Hyojin Kim, Gyeongyeong Kim


Acoustic Emission Testing (AET) is widely used to test the structural integrity of an operational hydrogen storage container, and clustering algorithms are frequently used in pattern recognition methods to interpret AET results. However, the interpretation of AET results can vary from user to user as the tuning of the relevant parameters relies on the user's experience and knowledge of AET. Therefore, it is necessary to use a deep learning model to identify patterns in acoustic emission (AE) signal data that can be used to classify defects instead. In this paper, a deep learning-based model for classifying the types of defects in hydrogen storage tanks, using AE sensor waveforms, is proposed. As hydrogen storage tanks are commonly constructed using carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite (CFRP), a defect classification dataset is collected through a tensile test on a specimen of CFRP with an AE sensor attached. The performance of the classification model, using one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1-D CNN) and synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) data augmentation, achieved 91.09% accuracy for each defect. It is expected that the deep learning classification model in this paper, used with AET, will help in evaluating the operational safety of hydrogen storage containers.

Keywords: acoustic emission testing, carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite, one-dimensional convolutional neural network, smote data augmentation

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98 Factors Affecting Employee Decision Making in an AI Environment

Authors: Yogesh C. Sharma, A. Seetharaman


The decision-making process in humans is a complicated system influenced by a variety of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Human decisions have a ripple effect on subsequent decisions. In this study, the scope of human decision making is limited to employees. In an organisation, a person makes a variety of decisions from the time they are hired to the time they retire. The goal of this research is to identify various elements that influence decision-making. In addition, the environment in which a decision is made is a significant aspect of the decision-making process. Employees in today's workplace use artificial intelligence (AI) systems for automation and decision augmentation. The impact of AI systems on the decision-making process is examined in this study. This research is designed based on a systematic literature review. Based on gaps in the literature, limitations and the scope of future research have been identified. Based on these findings, a research framework has been designed to identify various factors affecting employee decision making. Employee decision making is influenced by technological advancement, data-driven culture, human trust, decision automation-augmentation, and workplace motivation. Hybrid human-AI systems require the development of new skill sets and organisational design. Employee psychological safety and supportive leadership influences overall job satisfaction.

Keywords: employee decision making, artificial intelligence (AI) environment, human trust, technology innovation, psychological safety

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97 A Systematic Review of Efficacy and Safety of Radiofrequency Ablation in Patients with Spinal Metastases

Authors: Pascale Brasseur, Binu Gurung, Nicholas Halfpenny, James Eaton


Development of minimally invasive treatments in recent years provides a potential alternative to invasive surgical interventions which are of limited value to patients with spinal metastases due to short life expectancy. A systematic review was conducted to explore the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA), a minimally invasive treatment in patients with spinal metastases. EMBASE, Medline and CENTRAL were searched from database inception to March 2017 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies. Conference proceedings for ASCO and ESMO published in 2015 and 2016 were also searched. Fourteen studies were included: three prospective interventional studies, four prospective case series and seven retrospective case series. No RCTs or studies comparing RFA with another treatment were identified. RFA was followed by cement augmentation in all patients in seven studies and some patients (40-96%) in the remaining seven studies. Efficacy was assessed as pain relief in 13/14 studies with the use of a numerical rating scale (NRS) or a visual analogue scale (VAS) at various time points. Ten of the 13 studies reported a significant decrease in pain outcome, post-RFA compared to baseline. NRS scores improved significantly at 1 week (5.9 to 3.5, p < 0.0001; 8 to 4.3, p < 0.02 and 8 to 3.9, p < 0.0001) and this improvement was maintained at 1 month post-RFA compared to baseline (5.9 to 2.6, p < 0.0001; 8 to 2.9, p < 0.0003; 8 to 2.9, p < 0.0001). Similarly, VAS scores decreased significantly at 1 week (7.5 to 2.7, p=0.00005; 7.51 to 1.73, p < 0.0001; 7.82 to 2.82, p < 0.001) and this pattern was maintained at 1 month post-RFA compared to baseline (7.51 to 2.25, p < 0.0001; 7.82 to 3.3; p < 0.001). A significant pain relief was achieved regardless of whether patients had cement augmentation in two studies assessing the impact of RFA with or without cement augmentation on VAS pain scores. In these two studies, a significant decrease in pain scores was reported for patients receiving RFA alone and RFA+cement at 1 week (4.3 to 1.7. p=0.0004 and 6.6 to 1.7, p=0.003 respectively) and 15-36 months (7.9 to 4, p=0.008 and 7.6 to 3.5, p=0.005 respectively) after therapy. Few minor complications were reported and these included neural damage, radicular pain, vertebroplasty leakage and lower limb pain/numbness. In conclusion, the efficacy and safety of RFA were consistently positive between prospective and retrospective studies with reductions in pain and few procedural complications. However, the lack of control groups in the identified studies indicates the possibility of selection bias inherent in single arm studies. Controlled trials exploring efficacy and safety of RFA in patients with spinal metastases are warranted to provide robust evidence. The identified studies provide an initial foundation for such future trials.

Keywords: pain relief, radiofrequency ablation, spinal metastases, systematic review

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96 Contextual Toxicity Detection with Data Augmentation

Authors: Julia Ive, Lucia Specia


Understanding and detecting toxicity is an important problem to support safer human interactions online. Our work focuses on the important problem of contextual toxicity detection, where automated classifiers are tasked with determining whether a short textual segment (usually a sentence) is toxic within its conversational context. We use “toxicity” as an umbrella term to denote a number of variants commonly named in the literature, including hate, abuse, offence, among others. Detecting toxicity in context is a non-trivial problem and has been addressed by very few previous studies. These previous studies have analysed the influence of conversational context in human perception of toxicity in controlled experiments and concluded that humans rarely change their judgements in the presence of context. They have also evaluated contextual detection models based on state-of-the-art Deep Learning and Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques. Counterintuitively, they reached the general conclusion that computational models tend to suffer performance degradation in the presence of context. We challenge these empirical observations by devising better contextual predictive models that also rely on NLP data augmentation techniques to create larger and better data. In our study, we start by further analysing the human perception of toxicity in conversational data (i.e., tweets), in the absence versus presence of context, in this case, previous tweets in the same conversational thread. We observed that the conclusions of previous work on human perception are mainly due to data issues: The contextual data available does not provide sufficient evidence that context is indeed important (even for humans). The data problem is common in current toxicity datasets: cases labelled as toxic are either obviously toxic (i.e., overt toxicity with swear, racist, etc. words), and thus context does is not needed for a decision, or are ambiguous, vague or unclear even in the presence of context; in addition, the data contains labeling inconsistencies. To address this problem, we propose to automatically generate contextual samples where toxicity is not obvious (i.e., covert cases) without context or where different contexts can lead to different toxicity judgements for the same tweet. We generate toxic and non-toxic utterances conditioned on the context or on target tweets using a range of techniques for controlled text generation(e.g., Generative Adversarial Networks and steering techniques). On the contextual detection models, we posit that their poor performance is due to limitations on both of the data they are trained on (same problems stated above) and the architectures they use, which are not able to leverage context in effective ways. To improve on that, we propose text classification architectures that take the hierarchy of conversational utterances into account. In experiments benchmarking ours against previous models on existing and automatically generated data, we show that both data and architectural choices are very important. Our model achieves substantial performance improvements as compared to the baselines that are non-contextual or contextual but agnostic of the conversation structure.

Keywords: contextual toxicity detection, data augmentation, hierarchical text classification models, natural language processing

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