Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 75

Search results for: zygotic embryos

75 Plantlet Regeneration from Zygotic Embryos of Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen

Authors: Uche C. Okafor, Nwanneka M. Okpokwu, Felix Nwafor, Carl E. A. Okezie


Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen (Violet tree) belongs to the family Polygalaceae characterised by papillionaceous purplish flowers. This medicinally valued plant disappears at an alarming rate due to intensified anthropopressure particularly the unregulated manner of subterranean plant parts' collection from natural stands. Some indiscriminately harvested plants bear seeds containing both mature and immature zygotic embryos that are often discarded. Here, such seeds are collected for this experiment. Seeds were collected, washed, de-coated, and dipped in 70 % (v/v) ethanol for 30 s followed by rising in 5 % solution sodium hypochlorite, containing two drops of tween 20, for another 25 min. Mature zygotic embryos (MZEs) were excised from seeds and cultured in two basal media (MS and B5), three carbon sources (sucrose, glucose and fructose) at five concentrations (0-40 g/L) while immature zygotic embryos (iMZEs) were composed on similar basal media and carbon source supplemented with 0-2 mg/L Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0-2 mg/L Indole acetic acid (IAA). MZEs cultured on MS + 30g/L sucrose differed significantly from other treatments at p≤0.05 with maximum percent sprouting (85.24± 5.67 %) and shoot length (7.53±0.67 cm). MZEs culture had the maximum percent sprouting (85.24± 5.67 %) and shoot length (7.53±0.67 cm) in medium containing MS+ 30g L-1 sucrose. iMZEs on the other hand had maximum growth on MS + 40g/L sucrose supplemented with 1.5 mg/L IAA+ 1.0 mg/L BAP. This study is a geared towards creating an alternative path for the maximum production of plants in vitro, thereby, preventing the plants from disappearing.

Keywords: Gamborg's medium, Murashige and Skoog medium, Securidaca longepedunculata, zygotic embryos

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74 Micropropagation and in vitro Conservation via Slow Growth Techniques of Prunus webbii (Spach) Vierh: An Endangered Plant Species in Albania

Authors: Valbona Sota, Efigjeni Kongjika


Wild almond is a woody species, which is difficult to propagate either generatively by seed or by vegetative methods (grafting or cuttings) and also considered as Endangered (EN) in Albania based on IUCN criteria. As a wild relative of cultivated fruit trees, this species represents a source of genetic variability and can be very important in breeding programs and cultivation. For this reason, it would be of interest to use an effective method of in vitro mid-term conservation, which involves strategies to slow plant growth through physicochemical alterations of in vitro growth conditions. Multiplication of wild almond was carried out using zygotic embryos, as primary explants, with the purpose to develop a successful propagation protocol. Results showed that zygotic embryos can proliferate through direct or indirect organogenesis. During subculture, stage was obtained a great number of new plantlets identical to mother plants derived from the zygotic embryos. All in vitro plantlets obtained from subcultures underwent in vitro conservation by minimal growth in low temperature (4ºC) and darkness. The efficiency of this technique was evaluated for 3, 6, and 10 months of conservation period. Maintenance in these conditions reduced micro cuttings growth. Survival and regeneration rates for each period were evaluated and resulted that the maximal time of conservation without subculture on 4ºC was 10 months, but survival and regeneration rates were significantly reduced, specifically 15.6% and 7.6%. An optimal period of conservation in these conditions can be considered the 5-6 months storage, which can lead to 60-50% of survival and regeneration rates. This protocol may be beneficial for mass propagation, mid-term conservation, and for genetic manipulation of wild almond.

Keywords: micropropagation, minimal growth, storage, wild almond

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
73 Policy to Improve in vitro Fertilization Outcome in Women with Poor Ovarian Response: Frozen Embryo Transfer (ET) of Accumulated Vitrified Embryos vs. Frozen ET of Accumulated Vitrified Embryos plus Fresh ET

Authors: Hwang Kwon


Objective: To assess the efficacy of embryo transfer (ET) of accumulated vitrified embryos and compare pregnancy outcomes between ET of thawed embryos following accumulation of vitrified embryos (frozen ET) and ET of fresh and thawed frozen embryos following accumulation of vitrified embryos (fresh ET + frozen ET). Study design: Patients were poor ovarian responders defined according to the Bologna criteria as well as a subgroup of women whose previous IVF-ET cycle through controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) yielded one or no embryos. Sixty-four frozen ETs were performed following accumulation of vitrified embryos (ACCE )(ACCE Frozen) and 51 fresh + frozen ETs were performed following accumulation of vitrified embryos (ACCE Fresh + Frozen). Positive βhCG rate, clinical pregnancy rate, ongoing pregnancy rate, and good quality embryos (%, ±SD) were compared between two groups. Results: There were more good quality embryos in the ACCE Fresh + Frozen group than in the ACCE Frozen group: 60±34.7 versus 42.9±28.9, respectively (p=0.03). Positive βhCG rate [18/64(28.2%) vs. 13/51(25.5%); p=0.75] and clinical pregnancy rate [12/64 (18.8%) vs. 11/51 (10.9%); p=0.71] were comparable between the two groups. Conclusion: Accumulation of vitrified embryos is an effective method in patients with poor ovarian response who fulfill the Bologna criteria. Pregnancy outcomes were comparable between the two groups.

Keywords: accumulation of embryos, frozen embryo transfer, poor responder, Bologna criteria

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72 Comparative Growth Rates of Treculia africana Decne: Embryo in Varied Strengths of Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium

Authors: Okafor C. Uche, Agbo P. Ejiofor, Okezie C. Eziuche


This study provides a regeneration protocol for Treculia africana Decne (an endangered plant) through embryo culture. Mature zygotic embryos of T. africana were excised from the seeds aseptically and cultured on varied strengths (full, half and quarter) of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented. All treatments experienced 100±0.00 percent sprouting except for half and quarter strengths. Plantlets in MS full strength had the highest fresh weight, leaf area, and longest shoot length when compared to other treatments. All explants in full, half, quarter strengths and control had the same number of leaves and sprout rate. Between the treatments, there was a significant difference (P>0.05) in their effect on the length of shoot and root, number of adventitious root, leaf area, and fresh weight. Full strength had the highest mean value in all the above-mentioned parameters and differed significantly (P>0.05) from others except in shoot length, number of adventitious roots, and root length where it did not differ (P<0.05) from half strength. The result of this study indicates that full strength MS basal medium offers a better option for the optimum growth for Treculia africana regeneration in vitro.

Keywords: medium strengths, Murashige and Skoog, Treculia africana, zygotic embryos

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71 Differential Proteomic Profile and Terpenoid Production in Somatic Embryos of Jatropha curcas

Authors: Anamarel Medina-Hernandez, Teresa Ponce-Noyola, Ileana Vera-Reyes, Ana C. Ramos-Valdivia


Somatic embryos reproduce original seed characteristics and could be implemented in biotechnological studies. Jatropha curcas L. is an important plant for biodiesel production, but also is used in traditional medicine. Seeds from J. curcas are toxic because contain diterpenoids called phorbol esters, but in Mexico exist a non-toxic variety. Therefore, somatic embryos suspension cultures from non-toxic J. curcas variety were induced. In order to investigate the characteristics of somatic embryos, a differential proteomic analysis was made between pre-globular and globular stages by 2-D gel electrophoresis. 108 spots were differentially expressed (p<0.02), and 20 spots from globular somatic embryos were sequenced by MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. A comparative analysis of terpenoids production between the two stages was made by RP-18 TLC plates. The sequenced proteins were related to energy production (68%), protein destination and storage (9%), secondary metabolism (9%), signal transduction (5%), cell structure (5%) and aminoacid metabolism (4%). Regarding terpenoid production, in pre-globular and globular somatic embryos were identified sterols and triterpenes of pharmacological interest (alpha-amyrin and betulinic acid) but also it was found compounds that were unique to each stage. The results of this work are the basis to characterize at different levels the J. curcas somatic embryos so that this system can be used efficiently in biotechnological processes.

Keywords: Jatropha curcas, proteomics, somatic embryo, terpenoids

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70 Isolated Microspore Culture in Durum Wheat

Authors: Zelikha Labbani


Since its creation in 1964 by Guha and Maheshwari in India on Datura innoxia Mill, in vitro androgenesis has become the method of choice in the production of doubled haploid in many species. However in durum wheat, the Doubled haploid plant breeding programs remained limited due to the low production of androgenetic embryos and converting them into fertile green plants. We describe here an efficient method for inducing embryos and regenerating green plants directly from isolated microspores of durum wheat.

Keywords: Durum wheat, haploid embryos, on in vitro, pretreatment

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69 On In vitro Durum Wheat Isolated Microspore Culture

Authors: Zelikha Labbani


Since its creation in 1964 by Guha and Maheshwari in India on Datura innoxia Mill, in vitro androgenesis has become the method of choice in the production of doubled haploid in many species. However, in durum wheat, the Doubled haploid plant breeding programs remained limited due to the low production of androgenetic embryos and converting them into fertile green plants. We describe here an efficient method for inducing embryos and regenerating green plants directly from isolated microspores of durum wheat.

Keywords: durum wheat, haploid embryos, on in vitro, pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
68 Regeneration of Plantlets via Direct Somatic Embryogenesis from Different Explants of Murraya koenigii

Authors: Nisha Khatik, Ramesh Joshi


An in vitro plant regeneration system was developed via direct somatic embryogenesis from different seedling explants of an important medicinal plant Murraya koenigii (L) Spreng. Cotyledons (COT), Hypocotyle (HYP)(10 to 15 mm) and Root (RT) segments (10 to 20 mm) were excised from 60 days old seedlings as explants. The somatic embryos induction was achieved on MS basal medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP 1.33 to 8.40 µM and TDZ 1.08 to 9.82 µM. The globular embryos originated from cut ends and entire surface of the root, hypocotyle explants and margins of cotyledons within 30-40days. The percentage of somatic embryos induction per explant was significantly higher in HYP explants (94.21±5.77%) in the MS basal medium supplemented with 6.20 µM BAP and 8.64 µM TDZ. The highest rate of conversion of torpedo, heart and cotyledonary stages from globular stage was obtained in MS medium supplemented with 8.64 µM TDZ. The matured somatic embryos were transferred to the MS basal medium without PGRs. Highest 88% of the matured embryos were germinated on transfer to the PGR free medium where they grew for a further 3-4 weeks. Out of seventy six hardened plants seventy (92%) plantlets were found healthy under field conditions.

Keywords: Murraya koenigii, somatic embryogenesis, thidiazuron, regeneration, rutaceae

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67 Culturing of Bovine Pre-Compacted Morlae in TCM-199 and Baf in a Standard 5% CO2 Laboratory Incubator and in the Vagina of a Goat Doe

Authors: Daniel M. Barry


Since more than half a century ago, attempts have been made to culture cells and embryos outside the body (in vitro or ex vivo). This was done with different culture media and in various “incubators”. In the present study two different culture media were used: a standard TCM-199 culture medium and first trimester amniotic fluid (BAF) collected sterilely from pregnant cows after slaughter. Two different culture conditions were also investigated, the standard laboratory CO2 incubator versus culturing bovine embryos in the vagina of a goat doe. Two experiments were done: Firstly the permeability of different receptacles to CO2 gas was analyzed for possible culture in the vagina. Four-well plates and straws were used to incubate TCM-199 and BAF for a period of 120 h in the presence or absence of 5% CO2 gas. The pH values were measured and recorded every 24 h. In the second experiment pre-compacted morula stage bovine embryos were cultured in the above culture media in sealed 0.25 mL straws in a standard laboratory incubator and in the vagina of a goat doe. Evaluation was done on (1) stage of development and (2) number of blastomeres after 96 h of culture. In the first experiment it was shown that the CO2 gas diffused out of the 4-well plate as well as through the wall of the straws in the absence of CO2 gas, while in the presence of CO2 the pH of both media stabilized between 7.3 and 7.5. This meant that the semen straws were permeable to CO2 gas and could therefore be used as receptacles for culturing early stage bovine embryos. In the second experiment no statistical differences (p>0.05) were found in the number of pre-compacted bovine embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage, or the hatched blastocyst stage, neither for the culture medium used, or the method of culturing in the two incubators. Neither was there any difference (p>0.05) in the number of blastomeres that developed at the blastocyst stage between the two types of incubators. The bovine embryos tended to develop more blastomeres when cultured in BAF than when cultured in TCM-199 in both the standard laboratory incubator and when using the vagina of a goat doe as an incubator.

Keywords: alternative culture, bovine embryos, vagina, bovine amniotic fluid, incubator

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66 Beneficial Effect of Autologous Endometrial Stromal Cell Co-Culture on Day 3 Embryo Quality

Authors: I. Bochev, A. Shterev, S. Kyurkchiev


One of the factors associated with poor success rates in human in vitro fertilization (IVF) is the suboptimal culture conditions in which fertilization and early embryonic growth occur. Co-culture systems with helper cell lines appear to enhance the in vitro conditions and allow embryos to demonstrate improved in vitro development. The co-culture of human embryos with monolayers of autologous endometrial stromal cell (EnSCs) results in increased blastocyst development with a larger number of blastomeres, lower incidence of fragmentation and higher pregnancy rates in patients with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The aim of the study was to examine the influence of autologous endometrial stromal cell (EnSC) co-culture on day 3 embryo quality by comparing the morphological status of the embryos from the same patients undergoing consecutive IVF/Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles without and with EnSC co-culture. This retrospective randomized study (2015-2017) includes 20 couples and a total of 46 IVF/ICSI cycles. Each patient couple included had at least two IVF/ICSI procedures – one with and one without autologous EnSC co-culture. Embryo quality was assessed at 68±1 hours in culture, according to Istanbul consensus criteria (2010). Day 3 embryos were classified into three groups: good – grade 1; fair – grade 2; poor – grade 3. Embryos from all cycles were divided into two groups (A – co-cultivated; B – not co-cultivated) and analyzed. Second, for each patient couple, embryos from matched IVF/ICSI cycles (with and without co-culture) were analyzed separately. When an analysis of co-cultivated day 3 embryos from all cycles was performed (n=137; group A), 43.1% of the embryos were graded as “good”, which was not significantly different from the respective embryo quality rate of 42.2% (p = NS) in group B (n=147) with non-co-cultivated embryos. The proportions of fair and poor quality embryos in group A and group B were similar as well – 11.7% vs 10.2% and 45.2% vs 47.6% (p=NS), respectively. Nevertheless, the separate embryo analysis by matched cycles for each couple revealed that in 65% of the cases the proportion of morphologically better embryos was increased in cycles with co-culture in comparison with those without co-culture. A decrease in this proportion after endometrial stromal cell co-cultivation was found in 30% of the cases, whereas no difference was observed in only one couple. The results demonstrated that there is no marked difference in the overall morphological quality between co-cultured and non-co-cultured embryos on day 3. However, in significantly greater percentage of couples the process of autologous EnSC co-culture could increase the proportion of morphologically improved day 3 embryos. By mimicking the in vivo relationship between embryo and maternal environment, co-culture in autologous EnSC system represents a perspective approach to improve the quality of embryos in cases with elevated risk for development of embryos with impaired morphology.

Keywords: autologous endometrial stromal cells, co-culture, day 3 embryo, morphological quality

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65 Effects of Breed and Number of Embryos Transferred on the Efficacy of MOET in Sheep

Authors: Ayman A. Swelum, Abdullah N. Al-Owaimer, Mohamed A. Abouheif


This study aimed to evaluate the effects of sheep breed and the number of embryos transferred on the success of multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET). Sixteen Najdi and Naeimi ewes were used as donors. Multiple ovulation was achieved using equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Thirty-five recipient ewes were divided into four groups: Najdi or Naeimi ewes that received either one or two embryos. After lambing, the gestation length, litter size, and sex of the lambs were recorded. The rates of pregnancy, lambing, and embryo survival were lower in the recipient Najdi than Naeimi ewes when two embryos were transferred. In contrast, the Naeimi ewes that received one embryo had a significantly lower embryo transfer success. In conclusion, the response of ewes to multiple ovulation stimulation using eCG was significantly high in Naeimi ewes (9.8±1.17). Moreover, transferring one embryo resulted in a significantly high pregnancy rate in the Najdi sheep (60%).

Keywords: embryo transfer, multiple ovulation, Najdi, Naeimi, sheep

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64 Tocotrienol Rich Fraction in Nicotine-Induced Embryos: Cytoskeletal Changes of Actin and Tubulin

Authors: Nurul Hamirah Kamsani, Mohd Hamim Rajikin, Nor Ashikin Mohamed Noor Khan, Sharaniza Abdul Rahim


Cytoskeletal structures, in particular actin and tubulin, provide a fundamental framework in all cells, including embryos. Under influence of nicotine, the cytoskeletal organization may be subjected to oxidative stress (OS) insult and cause alteration. Tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) is proven to enhance fertility better than the other sub-group of Vitamin E, tocopherols (TCPs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TRF on 1) actin and tubulin of 2- and 8-cell murine embryos and 2) the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes; induced by nicotine. Twenty four female Balb/C were subjected to either subcutaneous (sc) injection of 0.9% NaCl; sc injection of 3.0 mg/kg bw/day nicotine; sc injection of 3.0 mg/kg bw/day nicotine + oral gavage (OG) of 60 mg/kg bw/day TRF; or OG of 60 mg/kg bw/day TRF for 7 consecutive days. After superovulation and mating, animals were euthanized. 2-cell developing embryos were retrieved. 50% of the retrieved embryos were visualized under confocal laser staining microscopy (CLSM) for alterations of actin and tubulin. The remaining amount of embryos was cultured in vitro until 8-cell stage followed by CLSM visualization. Blood plasma was subjected to OS assays. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were determined and analysed accordingly. At both 2- and 8-cell developing stages, actin intensities were significantly reduced in the nicotine group (p<0.001). After the intervention, actin intensity was significantly increased compared to that of the nicotine group (p<0.001). The same trend was seen in tubulin at both cell stages. TRF has minimized the deleterious effects of nicotine in actin and tubulin of both 2- and 8-cell developmental stages during pre-implantation embryonic development in mice in vitro. Levels of endogenous anti-oxidative enzymes were sustained close to control accompanied by decreased levels of OS biomarker.

Keywords: actin, nicotine, pre-implantation embryos, tocotrienol rich fraction, tubulin

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63 Enhancement of Morphogenetic Potential to Obtain Elite Varities of Sauropus androgynous (L.) Merr. through Somatic Embryogenesis

Authors: S. Padma, D. H. Tejavathi


Somatic embryogenesis is a remarkable illustration of the dictum of plant totipotency where developmental reconstruction of somatic cells takes place towards the embryogenic pathway. It recapitulates the morphological and developmental process that occurs in zygotic embryogenesis. S. androgynous commonly called as multivitamin plant. The leaves are consumed as green leafy vegetable by the Southeast Asian communities due to their rich nutritional profile. Despite being a good nutritional vegetable with proteins, vitamins, minerals, amino acids, it is warned for excessive intake due to the presence of alkoloid called papaverine. Papaverine at higher concentrations is toxic and leads to a syndrome called Bronchiolitis Obliterans. In the present study, morphogenetic potential of shoot tip, leaf and nodal explants of Sauropus androgynous was investigated to develop and enhance the reliable plant regeneration protocol via somatic embryogenesis. Somatic embryos were derived directly from the embryogenic callus derived from shoot tip, node and leaf cultures on Phillips and Collins (L2) medium supplemented with NAA at various concentrations ranging from 5.3 µM/l to 26.85 µM/l within two months of inoculation. Thus obtained embryos were sub cultured to modified L2 media supplemented with increased vitamin level for the further growth. Somatic embryos with well-developed cotyledons were transferred to normal and modified L2 basal medium for conversion. The plantlets thus obtained were subjected to brief acclimatization before transferring them to land. About 95% of survival rate was recorded. The augmentation process of culturing various explants through somatic embryogenesis using synthetic medium with various plant growth regulators under controlled conditions have aggrandized the commercial production of Sauropus making it easily available over the conventional propagation methods. In addition, regeneration process through somatic embryogenesis has ameliorated the development of desired character in Sauropus with low papaverine content thereby providing a valuable resource to the food and pharmaceutical industry. Based on this research, plant tissue culture techniques have shown promise for economical and convenient application in Sauropus androgynous breeding.

Keywords: L2 medium, multivitamin plant, NAA, papaverine

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62 Efficient Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration from Mature Embryo Culture of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes

Authors: Münüre Tanur Erkoyuncu, Mustafa Yorgancılar


Crop improvement through genetic engineering depends on effective and reproducible plant regeneration systems. Immature embryos are the most widely used explant source for in vitro regeneration in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, immature embryos require the continuous growth of donor plants and the suitable stage for their culture is also certainly limited. On the other hand, mature embryos can be procured and stored easily; they can be studied throughout the year. In this study, an effective callus induction and plant regeneration were aimed to develop from mature embryos of different barley genotypes. The effect of medium (MS1 and MS2), auxin type (2,4-D, dicamba, picloram and 2,4,5-T) and concentrations (2, 4, 6 mg/l) on callus formation and effect of cytokinin type (TDZ, BAP) and concentrations (0.2, 0.5, 1.0 mg/l) on green plant regeneration were evaluated in mature embryo culture of barley. Callus and shoot formation was successful for all genotypes. By depending on genotype, MS1 is the best medium, 4 mg/l dicamba is the best growth regulator in the callus induction and MS1 is the best medium, 1 mg/l BAP is the best growth regulator in the shoot formation were determined.

Keywords: barley, callus, embryo culture, mature embryo

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61 Sensitivity of Steindachneridion parahybae Mature Oocytes versus Embryos at Low Temperature

Authors: Tais Silva Lopes, Danilo Caneppele, Elizabeth Romagosa


Surubim-do-Paraíba, Steindachneridion parahybae is a species of South American fish in critical conditions of extinction. Researches have been developed with the objective of conserving the biological material of this species. We evaluated the cooling of mature oocytes in the cryoprotective solutions containing the following alcohols: methanol, Propylene glycol and DMSO, each at concentrations of 1M, 2M and 4M, totaling nine treatments. After being submitted to treatments, the oocytes were maintained for 120 minutes in cooling to -5.52±2.58⁰C. A sample of oocytes was submitted to negative control (NC), kept in 90% L-15 solution, and positive control (PC), fertilized and taken directly to the incubator. Fertilization and hatching rates were evaluated. In order to compare the sensitivity of oocytes to embryos of the same species, the embryos maintained as CP in the previous assay were used in the free-flow stage (about 22 hours post fertilization) and submitted to the same treatments (prepared in distilled water) and also cooled for 120 min. The evaluation was done by the hatch rate. There was no fertilization rate of the oocytes submitted to the cooling with propylene glycol; the other cryoprotectants presented values of at most 3.7% of fertilization (Methanol 1M), and no treatment completed development until hatching. The cooled embryos had a significant percentage of normal larvae in all treatments, but inversely proportional to the increase in the concentration of the alcohols. DMSO 1M was the most promising treatment for embryo cooling, with 41.7% ± 20.2 of normal larvae, while mature oocytes were highly sensitive to cold.

Keywords: cryoconservation, cooling, embryos, freezing, oocytes, south American fish

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60 Analysis of Endogenous Sirevirus in Germinating Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

Authors: Nermin Gozukirmizi, Buket Cakmak, Sevgi Marakli


Sireviruses are genera of copia LTR retrotransposons with a unique genome structure among retrotransposons. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an economically important plant and has been studied as a model plant regarding its short annual life cycle and seven chromosome pairs. In this study, we used mature barley embryos, 10-day-old roots and 10-day-old leaves derived from the same barley plant to investigate SIRE1 retrotransposon movements by Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) technique. We found polymorphism rates between 0-64% among embryos, roots and leaves. Polymorphism rates were detected to be 0-27% among embryos, 8-60% among roots, and 11-50% among leaves. Polymorphisms were observed not only among the parts of different individuals, but also on the parts of the same plant (23-64%). The internal domains of SIRE1 (gag, env and rt) were also analyzed in the embryos, roots and leaves. Analysis of band profiles showed no polymorphism for gag, however, different band patterns were observed among samples for rt and env. The sequencing of SIRE1 gag, env and rt domains revealed 79% similarity for gag, 95% for env and 84% for rt to Ty1-copia retrotransposons. SIRE1 retrotransposon was identified in the soybean genome and has been studied on other plants (maize, rice, tomatoe etc.). This study is the first detailed investigation of SIRE1 in barley genome. The obtained findings are expected to contribute to the comprehension of SIRE1 retrotransposon and its role in barley genome.

Keywords: barley, polymorphism, retrotransposon, SIRE1 virus

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59 Understanding Embryology in Promoting Peace Leadership: A Document Review

Authors: Vasudev Das


The specific problem is that many leaders of the 21st century do not understand that the extermination of embryos wreaks havoc on peace leadership. The purpose of the document review is to understand embryology in facilitating peace leadership. Extermination of human embryos generates a requital wave of violence which later falls on human society in the form of disturbances, considering that violence breeds further violence as a consequentiality. The study results reveal that a deep understanding of embryology facilitates peace leadership, given that minimizing embryo extermination enhances non-violence in the global village. Neo-Newtonians subscribe to the idea that every action has an equal and opposite reaction. The US Federal Government recognizes the embryo or fetus as a member of Homo sapiens. The social change implications of this study are that understanding human embryology promotes peace leadership, considering that the consequentiality of embryo extermination can serve as a deterrent for violence on embryos.

Keywords: consequentiality, Homo sapiens, neo-Newtonians, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
58 Effect of Pristine Graphene on Developmental Toxicity in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos: Cardiovascular Defects, Apoptosis, and Globin Expression Analysis

Authors: Manjunatha Bangeppagari, Lee Sang Joon


Recently, graphene-related nanomaterials are receiving fast-increasing attention with augmented applications in various fields. Especially, graphene-related materials have been widely applied to the biomedical field in the past years. In the present study, we evaluated the adverse effects of pristine graphene (pG) in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in various aspects, such as mortality rate, heart rate, hatching rate, cardiotoxicity, cardiovascular defect, cardiac looping, apoptosis, and globin expression. For various trace concentrations of pG (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 μg/L), early life-stage parameters were observed at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hpf. As a result, pG induces significant developmental defects including yolk sac edema, pericardial edema, embryonic mortality, delayed hatching, heartbeat, several morphological defects, pericardial toxicity, and bradycardia. Moreover, the exposure to pG was found to be a potential risk factor to the cardiovascular system of zebrafish embryos. However, further study on their properties which vary according to production methods and surface functionalization is essentially required. In addition, the possible risks of pG flakes to aquatic animals, and public health should be evaluated before releasing them to the surrounding environment.

Keywords: apoptosis, cardiovascular toxicity, globin expression, pristine graphene, zebrafish embryos

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57 Somatic Embryogenesis of Lachenalia viridiflora, a Critically Endangered Ornamental Geophyte with High Floricultural Potential

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Mack Moyo, Johannes Van Staden


Lachenalia viridiflora is a critically endangered bulbous plant with high potential on the international floriculture market. In the present study, an efficient protocol for in vitro plantlet regeneration through somatic embryogenesis was developed. Embryogenic callus was established on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of picloram and thidiazuron (TDZ). A high number of SEs (28.5 ± 1.49) with at different developmental stages of somatic embryos (SEs: globular embryos, torpedo and cotyledon embryo with bipolar characteristics) was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) (Murashige and Skoog 1962) medium with 2.5 μM picloram, and 1.0 μM TDZ. Histological and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis confirmed the presence of somatic embryos. Mature somatic embryos germinated and developed into plantlets after 6 weeks on half/full strength MS medium. High plant regeneration frequency (91.11 %) was achieved on full-strength MS medium supplemented with 5 μM phloroglucinol (PG). Well-developed healthy plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the greenhouse with a survival rate of 80%. The result of this study is beneficial in the mass propagation of high-quality Lachenalia viridiflora clonal plants for the commercial horticultural market and also provides a platform for future genetic transformation studies on the plant.

Keywords: horticultural plant, Lachenalia viridiflora, phloroglucinol, somatic embryogenesis, thidiazuron

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56 Selection of Developmental Stages of Bovine in vitro-Derived Blastocysts Prior to Vitrification and Embryo Transfer: Implications for Cattle Breeding Programs

Authors: Van Huong Do, Simon Walton, German Amaya, Madeline Batsiokis, Sally Catt, Andrew Taylor-Robinson


Identification of the most suitable stages of bovine in vitro-derived blastocysts (early, expanded and hatching) prior to vitrification is a straightforward process that facilitates the decision as to which blastocyst stage to use for transfer of fresh and vitrified embryos. Research on in vitro evaluation of suitable stages has shown that the more advanced developmental stage of blastocysts is recommended for fresh embryo transfer while the earlier stage is proposed for embryo transfer following vitrification. There is, however, limited information on blastocyst stages using in vivo assessment. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine the optimal stage of a blastocyst for vitrification and embryo transfer through a two-step procedure of embryo transfer followed by pregnancy testing at 35, 60 and 90 days of pregnancy. 410 good quality oocytes aspirated by the ovum pick-up technique from 8 donor cows were subjected to in vitro embryo production, vitrification and embryo transfer. Good quality embryos were selected, subjected to vitrification and embryo transfer. Subsequently, 77 vitrified embryos at different blastocyst stages were transferred to synchronised recipient cows. The overall cleavage and blastocyst rates of oocytes were 68.8% and 41.7%, respectively. In addition, the fertility and blastocyst production of 6 bulls used for in vitro fertilization was examined and shown to be statistically different (P<0.05). Results of ongoing pregnancy trials conducted at 35 days, 60 days and 90 days will be discussed. However, preliminary data indicate that individual bulls demonstrate distinctly different fertility performance in vitro. Findings from conception rates would provide a useful tool to aid selection of bovine in vitro-derived embryos for vitrification and embryo transfer in commercial settings.

Keywords: blastocyst, embryo transfer, in vitro-derived embryos, ovum pick-up, vitrification

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55 Effect of Vitrification on Embryos Euploidy Obtained from Thawed Oocytes

Authors: Natalia Buderatskaya, Igor Ilyin, Julia Gontar, Sergey Lavrynenko, Olga Parnitskaya, Ekaterina Ilyina, Eduard Kapustin, Yana Lakhno


Introduction: It is known that cryopreservation of oocytes has peculiar features due to the complex structure of the oocyte. One of the most important features is that mature oocytes contain meiotic division spindle which is very sensitive even to the slightest variation in temperature. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyse the resulting euploid embryos obtained from thawed oocytes in comparison with the data of preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) in fresh embryo cycles. Material and Methods: The study was conducted at 'Medical Centre IGR' from January to July 2016. Data were analysed for 908 donor oocytes obtained in 67 cycles of assisted reproductive technologies (ART), of which 693 oocytes were used in the 51 'fresh' cycles (group A), and 215 oocytes - 16 ART programs with vitrification female gametes (group B). The average age of donors in the groups match 27.3±2.9 and 27.8±6.6 years. Stimulation of superovulation was conducted the standard way. Vitrification was performed in 1-2 hours after transvaginal puncture and thawing of oocytes were carried out in accordance with the standard protocol of Cryotech (Japan). Manipulation ICSI was performed 4-5 hours after transvaginal follicle puncture for fresh oocytes, or after defrosting - for vitrified female gametes. For the PGS, an embryonic biopsy was done on the third or on the fifth day after fertilization. Diagnostic procedures were performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization with the study of such chromosomes as 13, 16, 18, 21, 22, X, Y. Only morphologically quality blastocysts were used for the transfer, the estimation of which corresponded to the Gardner criteria. The statistical hypotheses were done using the criteria t, x^2 at a significance levels p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. Results: The mean number of mature oocytes per cycle in group A was 13.58±6.65 and in group B - 13.44±6.68 oocytes for patient. The survival of oocytes after thawing totaled 95.3% (n=205), which indicates a highly effective quality of performed vitrification. The proportion of zygotes in the group A corresponded to 91.1%(n=631), in the group B – 80.5%(n=165), which shows statistically significant difference between the groups (p<0.001) and explained by non-viable oocytes elimination after vitrification. This is confirmed by the fact that on the fifth day of embryos development a statistically significant difference in the number of blastocysts was absent (p>0.05), and constituted respectively 61.6%(n=389) and 63.0%(n=104) in the groups. For the PGS performing 250 embryos analyzed in the group A and 72 embryos - in the group B. The results showed that euploidy in the studied chromosomes were 40.0%(n=100) embryos in the group A and 41.7% (n=30) - in the group B, which shows no statistical significant difference (p>0.05). The indicators of clinical pregnancies in the groups amounted to 64.7% (22 pregnancies per 34 embryo transfers) and 61.5% (8 pregnancies per 13 embryo transfers) respectively, and also had no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: The results showed that the vitrification does not affect the resulting euploid embryos in assisted reproductive technologies and are not reflected in their morphological characteristics in ART programs.

Keywords: euploid embryos, preimplantation genetic screening, thawing oocytes, vitrification

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54 Analysis of the Blastocysts Chromosomal Set Obtained after the Use of Donor Oocyte Cytoplasmic Transfer Technology

Authors: Julia Gontar, Natalia Buderatskaya, Igor Ilyin, Olga Parnitskaya, Sergey Lavrynenko, Eduard Kapustin, Ekaterina Ilyina, Yana Lakhno


Introduction: It is well known that oocytes obtained from older reproductive women have accumulated mitochondrial DNA mutations, which negatively affects the morphology of a developing embryo and may lead to the birth of a child with mitochondrial disease. Special techniques have been developed to allow a donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer with the parents’ biological nuclear DNA retention. At the same time, it is important to understand whether the procedure affects the future embryonic chromosome sets as the nuclear DNA is the transfer subject in this new complex procedure. Material and Methods: From July 2015 to July 2016, the investigation was carried out in the Medical Centre IGR. 34 donor oocytes (group A) were used for the manipulation with the aim of donating cytoplasm: 21 oocytes were used for zygotes pronuclear transfer and oocytes 13 – for the spindle transfer. The mean age of the oocyte donors was 28.4±2.9 years. The procedure was performed using Nikon Ti Eclipse inverted microscope equipped with the micromanipulators Narishige system (Japan), Saturn 3 laser console (UK), Oosight imaging systems (USA). For the preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) blastocyst biopsy was performed, trophectoderm samples were diagnosed using fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosomes 9, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, X, Y. For comparison of morphological characteristics and euploidy, was chosen a group of embryos (group B) with the amount of 121 blastocysts obtained from 213 oocytes, which were gotten from the donor programs of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Group B was not subjected to donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer procedure and studied on the above mentioned chromosomes. Statistical analysis was carried out using the criteria t, x^2 at a significance levels p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001. Results: After the donor cytoplasm transfer process the amount of the third day developing embryos was 27 (79.4%). In this stage, the group B consisted of 189 (88.7%) developing embryos, and there was no statistically significant difference (SSD) between the two groups (p>0.05). After a comparative analysis of the morphological characteristics of the embryos on the fifth day, we also found no SSD among the studied groups (p>0.05): from 34 oocytes exposed to manipulation, 14 (41.2%) blastocysts was obtained, while the group B blastocyst yield was 56.8% (n=121) from 213 oocytes. The following results were obtained after PGS performing: in group A euploidy in studied chromosomes were 28.6%(n=4) blastocysts, whereas in group B this rate was 40.5%(n=49), 28.6%(n=4) and 21.5%(n=26) of mosaic embryos and 42.8%(n=6) and 38.0%(n=46) aneuploid blastocysts respectively were identified. None of these specified parameters had an SSD (p>0.05). But attention was drawn by the blastocysts in group A with identified mosaicism, which was chaotic without any cell having euploid chromosomal set, in contrast to the mosaic embryos in group B where identified chaotic mosaicism was only 2.5%(n=3). Conclusions: According to the obtained results, there is no direct procedural effect on the chromosome in embryos obtained following donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer. Thus, the technology introduction will enhance the infertility treating effectiveness as well as avoiding having a child with mitochondrial disease.

Keywords: donor oocyte cytoplasmic transfer, embryos’ chromosome set, oocyte spindle transfer, pronuclear transfer

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53 The Effect of Acute Toxicity and Thyroid Hormone Treatments on Hormonal Changes during Embryogenesis of Acipenser persicus

Authors: Samaneh Nazeri, Bagher Mojazi Amiri, Hamid Farahmand


Production of high quality fish eggs with reasonable hatching rate makes a success in aquaculture industries. It is influenced by the environmental stimulators and inhibitors. Diazinon is a widely-used pesticide in Golestan province (Southern Caspian Sea, North of Iran) which is washed to the aquatic environment (3 mg/L in the river). It is little known about the effect of this pesticide on the embryogenesis of sturgeon fish, the valuable species of the Caspian Sea. Hormonal content of the egg is an important factor to guaranty the successful passes of embryonic stages. In this study, the fate of Persian sturgeon embryo to 24, 48, 72, and 96-hours exposure of diazinon (LC50 dose) was tested. Also, the effect of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) on these embryos was tested concurrently or separately with diazinon LC 50 dose. Fertilized eggs are exposed to T3 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml), T4 (low dose: 1 ng/ml, high dose: 10 ng/ml). Six eggs were randomly selected from each treatment (with three replicates) in five developmental stages (two cell- division, neural, heart present, heart beaten, and hatched larvae). The possibility of changing T3, T4, and cortisol contents of the embryos were determined in all treated groups and in every mentioned embryonic stage. The hatching rate in treated groups was assayed at the end of the embryogenesis to clarify the effect of thyroid hormones and diazinon. The results indicated significant differences in thyroid hormone contents, but no significant differences were recognized in cortisol levels at various early life stages of embryos. There was also significant difference in thyroid hormones in (T3, T4) + diazinon treated embryos (P˂0.05), while no significant difference between control and treatments in cortisol levels was observed. The highest hatching rate was recorded in HT3 treatment, while the lowest hatching rate was recorded for diazinon LC50 treatment. The result confirmed that Persian sturgeon embryo is less sensitive to diazinon compared to teleost embryos, and thyroid hormones may increase hatching rate even in the presence of diazinon.

Keywords: Persian sturgeon, diazinon, thyroid hormones, cortisol, embryo

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52 Effect of IGF-I on Ovine Oocytes Maturation and Subsequent Embryo Development following in Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

Authors: Babak Qasemi-Panahi, Gholamali Moghaddam, Seyed-Abbas Rafat, Hossein Daghigh Kia, Mansoureh Movahedin, Reza Hadavi


The objective of this study was to determine the effects of IGF-I on ovine oocytes maturation and subsequent development of embryos derived from in vitro fertilization (IVF). In vitro maturation (IVM) of oocytes and in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos was conducted with or without 100 ng/mL IGF-1. In the IGF-I treated group, mean percentage of oocyte maturation was significantly higher than the control group (57.67 ± 3.04 versus 49.81 ± 3.04%, respectively, P < 0.05). However, in comparison with control group, there was no significant effect of IGF-1 on rates of cleavage, morula, and blastocyst formation (85% versus 84%; 63% versus 65%, and 40% to 39%, respectively). These data demonstrate that IGF-I has a positive effect on ovine oocyte maturation rate, but it has not the significant outcome on embryo development.

Keywords: ovine, IGF-I, IVM, ICSI

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51 Teratogenic Effect of Bisphenol A in Development of Balb/C Mouse

Authors: Nazihe Sedighi, Mohsen Nokhbatolphoghaei


Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Due to having properties such as transparency, heat and impact resistance, it is used widely in medicine, sorts, electronic components, and food containers. It is also used in the production of resins which is applied for lining cans. BPA releases from resins and polycarbonate when it is heated or continuously used the containers from which BPA can enter the body. There are several reports indicating the presence of BPA in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and the embryo itself. While researchers investigated the teratogenic effect of BPA on embryos, very limited work has been done on the effects of BPA when applied from early stages of development. In this study, The teratogenic effect of BPA was investigated at earliest preimplantation (day zero) through day 15.5 of the development of Balb/C mouse embryos. After ensuring the pregnancy via observing vaginal plug, Pregnant mice were divided into five groups. For the three experimental groups, the amount of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/kg/d Bisphenol A was given orally according to body weight. The sham group that was treated with sesame oil, which was used as vehicle and control group remained intact. On day 18.5 of gestation, embryos were removed from the uterus. Randomly half of the embryo were fixed in Bouin for tissue analysis. The other half were prepared for skeletal system staining using Alizarin Red and alcian blue dies. The results showed that the embryonic weight and the crown-rump length of embryos decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all experimental groups compared to the control group and the sham. In this study, skeletal abnormalities such as delay in ossification of skull and limbs as well as the deviation in the backbone were seen. This research suggests that pregnant mothers need to be aware of possible teratogenic effects of BPA at any stage of pregnancy especially from early to mid stages. In this case, pregnant mothers may need to stop using any manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, as a container for food or drinking.

Keywords: bisphenol A, development, polycarbonate plastic, skeletal system, teratogenicity

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50 Effects of Supplementation with Annatto (Bixa Orellana)-Derived δ-Tocotrienol on the Nicotine-Induced Reduction in Body Weight and 8-Cell Preimplantation Embryonic Development in Mice

Authors: M. H. Rajikin, S. M. M. Syairah, A. R. Sharaniza


Effects of nicotine on pre-partum body weight and preimplantation embryonic development has been reported previously. Present study was conducted to determine the effects of annatto (Bixa orellana)-derived delta-tocotrienol (TCT) (with presence of 10% gamma-TCT isomer) on the nicotine-induced reduction in body weight and 8-cell embryonic growth in mice. Twenty four 6-8 weeks old (23-25g) female balb/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (G1-G4; n=6). Those groups were subjected to the following treatments for 7 consecutive days: G1 (control) were gavaged with 0.1 ml tocopherol stripped corn oil, G2 was subcutaneously (s.c.) injected with 3 mg/kg/day of nicotine, G3 received concurrent treatment of nicotine (3 mg/kg/day) and 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture (contains 90% delta & 10% gamma isomers) and G4 was given 60 mg/kg/day of δ-TCT mixture alone. Body weights were recorded daily during the treatment. On Day 8, females were superovulated with 5 IU Pregnant Mare’s Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG) for 48 hours followed with 5 IU human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) before mated with males at the ratio of 1:1. Females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation for embryo collection 48 hours post-coitum. Collected embryos were cultured in vitro. Results showed that throughout Day 1 to Day 7, the body weight of nicotine treated group (G2) was significantly lower (p<0.05) than that of G1, G3 and G4. Intervention with δ-TCT mixture (G3) managed to increase the body weight close to the control group. This is also observed in the group treated with δ-TCT mixture alone (G4). The development of 8-cell embryos following in vitro culture (IVC) was totally inhibited in G2. Intervention with δ-TCT mixture (G3) resulted in the production of 8-cell embryos, although it was not up to that of the control group. Treatment with δ-TCT mixture alone (G4) caused significant increase in the average number of produced 8-cell embryo compared to G1. Present data indicated that δ-TCT mixture was able to reverse the body weight loss in nicotine treated mice and the development of 8-cell embryos was also improved.

Keywords: δ-tocotrienol, body weight, nicotine, preimplantation embryonic development

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49 The Effect of Ethylene Glycol on Cryopreserved Bovine Oocytes

Authors: Sri Wahjuningsih, Nur Ihsan, Hadiah


In the embryo transfer program, to address the limited production of embryos in vivo, in vitro embryo production has become an alternative approach that is relatively inexpensive. One potential source of embryos that can be developed is to use immature oocytes then conducted in vitro maturation and in vitro fertilization. However, obstacles encountered were oocyte viability mammals have very limited that it cannot be stored for a long time, so we need oocyte cryopreservation. The research was conducted to know the optimal concentration use of ethylene glycol as a cryoprotectant on oocytes freezing.Material use in this research was immature oocytes; taken from abbatoir which was aspirated from follicle with diameter 2-6 mm. Concentration ethylen glycol used were 0,5 M, I M, 1,5 M and 2M. The freezing method used was conventional method combined with a five-step protocol washing oocytes from cryoprotectant after thawing. The result showed that concentration ethylen glycol have the significant effect (P<0.05) on oocytes quality after thawing and in vitro maturation. It was concluded that concentration 1,5 M was the best concentration for freezing oocytes using conventional method.

Keywords: bovine, conventional freezing, ethylen glycol, oocytes

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
48 The Toxicity of Doxorubicin Connected with Nanotransporters

Authors: Iva Blazkova, Amitava Moulick, Vedran Milosavljevic, Pavel Kopel, Marketa Vaculovicova, Vojtech Adam, Rene Kizek


Doxorubicin is one of the most commonly used and the most effective chemotherapeutic drugs. This antracycline drug isolated from the bacteria Streptomyces peuceticus var. caesius is sold under the trade name Adriamycin (hydroxydaunomycin, hydroxydaunorubicin). Doxorubicin is used in single therapy to treat hematological malignancies (blood cancers, leukaemia, lymphoma), many types of carcinoma (solid tumors) and soft tissue sarcomas. It has many serious side effects like nausea and vomiting, hair lost, myelosupression, oral mucositis, skin reactions and redness, but the most serious one is the cardiotoxicity. Because of the risk of heart attack and congestive heart failure, the total dose administered to patients has to be accurately monitored. With the aim to lower the side effects and to targeted delivery of doxorubicin into the tumor tissue, the different nanoparticles are studied. The drug can be bound on a surface of nanoparticle, encapsulated in the inner cavity, or incorporated into the structure of nanoparticle. Among others, carbon nanoparticles (graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes) are highly studied. Besides the number of inorganic nanoparticles, a great potential exhibit also organic ones mainly lipid-based and polymeric nanoparticle. The aim of this work was to perform a toxicity study of free doxorubicin compared to doxorubicin conjugated with various nanotransporters. The effect of liposomes, fullerenes, graphene, and carbon nanotubes on the toxicity was analyzed. As a first step, the binding efficacy of between doxorubicin and the nanotransporter was determined. The highest efficacy was detected in case of liposomes (85% of applied drug was encapsulated) followed by graphene, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. For the toxicological studies, the chicken embryos incubated under controlled conditions (37.5 °C, 45% rH, rotation every 2 hours) were used. In 7th developmental day of chicken embryos doxorubicin or doxorubicin-nanotransporter complex was applied on the chorioallantoic membrane of the eggs and the viability was analyzed every day till the 17th developmental day. Then the embryos were extracted from the shell and the distribution of doxorubicin in the body was analyzed by measurement of organs extracts using laser induce fluorescence detection. The chicken embryo mortality caused by free doxorubicin (30%) was significantly lowered by using the conjugation with nanomaterials. The highest accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicin nanotransporter complexes was observed in the liver tissue

Keywords: doxorubicin, chicken embryos, nanotransporters, toxicity

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47 Protoplast Cultures of Murraya paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Precocious Flowering

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin


Protoplasts isolated from embryogenic callus of Murraya paniculata (L. Jack.) were cultured in MT (Murashige and Tucker, 1969) basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with kinetin, malt extract (ME) and 0.6 M sorbitol. About 85% of the surviving protoplasts formed a cell wall within 6 d of culture and the first cell division was observed 7 days after isolation. The highest plating effi¬ciency was obtained on MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 kinetin 600 mg 1-1 ME, MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.01 mg 1-1 Indole-acetic-acid (IAA) was found to be a medium suitable for the development somatic embryos into heart-shaped somatic embryos. The highest percentage of shoot formation was obtained using 0.1 mg 1-1 Indole-acitic-acid (IAA) 0..1 mg 1-1 gibberellic acid (GA3). In this investigation 40 plants were survived and grew normally in the soil. After two months maitained in the soil plants formed flower and flower developed into fruits on the soil treated with BA.

Keywords: gibberellic-acid, indole-acetic-acid, protoplast, precocious-flowering, somatic-embryo

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46 Somatic Embryogenesis Derived from Protoplast of Murraya Paniculata L. Jack and Their Regeneration into Plant Flowering in vitro

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin


The in vitro flowering of orange jessamine plantlets derived from protoplast was affected by the manipulation of plant growth regulators, sugar and light conditions. MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and supplemented with 0.001 mg 1-1 indole-acetic-acid was found to be a suitable medium for development of globular somatic embryos derived from protoplasts to form heart-shaped somatic embryos with cotyledon-like structures. The highest percentage (85 %) of flowering was achieved with plantlet on half-strength MT basal medium containing 5% sucrose and 0.001 mg1-1 indole-acetic-acid in light. Exposure to darkness for more than 3 weeks followed by re-exposure to light reduced flowering. Flowering required a 10-day exposure to indole-acetic-acid. Photoperiod with 18 h and 79.4 µmol m-2 s-1 light intensity promoted in vitro flowering in high frequencies. The sucrose treatment affected the flower bud size distribution. Flower buds originating from plantlet derived from protoplasts developed into normal flowers.

Keywords: indole-acetc-acid, light-intensity, Murraya-paniculata, photoperiod, plantlet, Zeatin

Procedia PDF Downloads 333