Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1566

# Search results for: solute transport

##### 1566 Numerical Solution of Two-Dimensional Solute Transport System Using Operational Matrices

Authors: Shubham Jaiswal

Abstract:

In this study, the numerical solution of two-dimensional solute transport system in a homogeneous porous medium of finite-length is obtained. The considered transport system have the terms accounting for advection, dispersion and first-order decay with first-type boundary conditions. Initially, the aquifer is considered solute free and a constant input-concentration is considered at inlet boundary. The solution is describing the solute concentration in rectangular inflow-region of the homogeneous porous media. The numerical solution is derived using a powerful method viz., spectral collocation method. The numerical computation and graphical presentations exhibit that the method is effective and reliable during solution of the physical model with complicated boundary conditions even in the presence of reaction term. Downloads 151
##### 1565 Numerical Solution of Space Fractional Order Solute Transport System

Authors: Shubham Jaiswal

Abstract:

In the present article, a drive is taken to compute the solution of spatial fractional order advection-dispersion equation having source/sink term with given initial and boundary conditions. The equation is converted to a system of ordinary differential equations using second-kind shifted Chebyshev polynomials, which have finally been solved using finite difference method. The striking feature of the article is the fast transportation of solute concentration as and when the system approaches fractional order from standard order for specified values of the parameters of the system. Downloads 162
##### 1564 Using Groundwater Modeling System to Create a 3-D Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Model for a Semiarid Region: A Case Study of the Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem Aquifer, Central Tunisia

Abstract:

The Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem (NSSA) system comprises some of the most intensively exploited aquifers in central Tunisia. Since the 1970s, the growth in economic productivity linked to intensive agriculture in this semiarid region has been sustained by increasing pumping rates of the system’s groundwater. Exploitation of these aquifers has increased rapidly, ultimately causing their depletion. With the aim to better understand the behavior of the aquifer system and to predict its evolution, the paper presents a finite difference model of the groundwater flow and solute transport. The model is based on the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) and was calibrated using data from 1970 to 2010. Groundwater levels observed in 1970 were used for the steady-state calibration. Groundwater levels observed from 1971 to 2010 served to calibrate the transient state. The impact of pumping discharge on the evolution of groundwater levels was studied through three hypothetical pumping scenarios. The first two scenarios replicated the approximate drawdown in the aquifer heads (about 17 m in scenario 1 and 23 m in scenario 2 in the center of NSSA) following an increase in pumping rates by 30% and 50% from their current values, respectively. In addition, pumping was stopped in the third scenario, which could increase groundwater reserves by about 7 Mm3/year. NSSA groundwater reserves could be improved considerably if the pumping rules were taken seriously. Downloads 148
##### 1563 Influence of a Pulsatile Electroosmotic Flow on the Dispersivity of a Non-Reactive Solute through a Microcapillary

Abstract:

The influence of a pulsatile electroosmotic flow (PEOF) at the rate of spread, or dispersivity, for a non-reactive solute released in a microcapillary with slippage at the boundary wall (modeled by the Navier-slip condition) is theoretically analyzed. Based on the flow velocity field developed under such conditions, the present study implements an analytical scheme of scaling known as the Theory of Homogenization, in order to obtain a mathematical expression for the dispersivity, valid at a large time scale where the initial transients have vanished and the solute spreads under the Taylor dispersion influence. Our results show the dispersivity is a function of a slip coefficient, the amplitude of the imposed electric field, the Debye length and the angular Reynolds number, highlighting the importance of the latter as an enhancement/detrimental factor on the dispersivity, which allows to promote the PEOF as a strong candidate for chemical species separation at lab-on-a-chip devices. Downloads 82
##### 1562 Water Reclamation from Synthetic Winery Wastewater Using a Fertiliser Drawn Forward Osmosis System Evaluating Aquaporin-Based Biomimetic and Cellulose Triacetate Forward Osmosis Membranes

Abstract:

This study examined the performance of two commercial forward osmosis (FO) membranes; an aquaporin (AQP) based biomimetic membrane, and cellulose triacetate (CTA) membrane in a fertiliser is drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) system for the reclamation of water from synthetic winery wastewater (SWW) operated over 24 hr. Straight, 1 M KCl and 1 M NH₄NO₃ fertiliser solutions were evaluated as draw solutions in the FDFO system. The performance of the AQP-based biomimetic and CTA FO membranes were evaluated in terms of permeate water flux (Jw), reverse solute flux (Js) and percentage water recovery (Re). The average water flux and reverse solute flux when using 1 M KCl as a draw solution against controlled feed solution, deionised (DI) water, was 11.65 L/m²h and 3.98 g/m²h (AQP) and 6.24 L/m²h and 2.89 g/m²h (CTA), respectively. Using 1 M NH₄NO₃ as a draw solution yielded average water fluxes and reverse solute fluxes of 10.73 L/m²h and 1.31 g/m²h (AQP) and 5.84 L/m²h and 1.39 g/m²h (CTA), respectively. When using SWW as the feed solution and 1 M KCl and 1 M NH₄NO₃ as draw solutions, respectively, the average water fluxes observed were 8.15 and 9.66 L/m²h (AQP) and 5.02 and 5.65 L/m²h (CTA). Membrane water flux decline was the result of a combined decrease in the effective driving force of the FDFO system, reverse solute flux and organic fouling. Permeate water flux recoveries of between 84-98%, and 83-89% were observed for the AQP-based biomimetic and CTA membrane, respectively after physical cleaning by flushing was employed. The highest water recovery rate of 49% was observed for the 1 M KCl fertiliser draw solution with AQP-based biomimetic membrane and proved superior in the reclamation of water from SWW. Downloads 88
##### 1561 Drug Delivery to Solid Tumor: Effect of Dynamic Capillary Network Induced by Tumor

Abstract:

The computational methods provide condition for investigation related to the process of drug delivery, such as convection and diffusion of drug in extracellular matrices, and drug extravasation from microvascular. The information of this process clarifies the mechanisms of drug delivery from the injection site to absorption by a solid tumor. In this study, an advanced numerical method is used to solve fluid flow and solute transport equations simultaneously to show how capillary network structure induced by tumor affects drug delivery. The effect of heterogeneous capillary network induced by tumor on interstitial fluid flow and drug delivery is investigated by this multi scale method. The sprouting angiogenesis model is used for generating capillary network induced by tumor. Fluid flow governing equations are implemented to calculate blood flow through the tumor-induced capillary network and fluid flow in normal and tumor tissues. The Starling’s law is used for closing this system of equations and coupling the intravascular and extravascular flows. Finally, convection-diffusion-reaction equation is used to simulate drug delivery. The dynamic approach which changes the capillary network structure based on signals sent by hemodynamic and metabolic stimuli is used in this study for more realistic assumption. The study indicates that drug delivery to solid tumors depends on the tumor induced capillary network structure. The dynamic approach generates the irregular capillary network around the tumor and predicts a higher interstitial pressure in the tumor region. This elevated interstitial pressure with irregular capillary network leads to a heterogeneous distribution of drug in the tumor region similar to in vivo observations. The investigation indicates that the drug transport properties have a significant role against the physiological barrier of drug delivery to a solid tumor. Downloads 225
##### 1560 Thermophysical Properties of Glycine/L-Alanine in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Bromide and in 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Chloride

Authors: Tarnveer Kaur

Abstract:

Amino acids, as fundamental structural units of peptides and proteins, have an important role in biological systems by affecting solubility, denaturation, and activity of biomolecules. A study of these effects on thermophysical properties of model compounds in the presence of electrolytes solutions provides information about solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions on biomolecules. Ionic liquids (ILs) as organic electrolytes and green solvents are composed of an organic cation and an inorganic anion, which are liquid at ambient conditions. In the past decade, extensive investigations showed that the use of ILs as reaction media for processes involving biologically relevant compounds is promising in view of their successful application in kinetic resolution, biocatalysis, biosynthesis, separation, and purification processes. The scope of this information is valuable to explore the interactions of amino acids in ILs. To reach this purpose, apparent molar volumes of glycine/L-alanine in aqueous solutions of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide/chloride were determined from precise density measurements at temperatures T = (288.15-318.15) K and at atmospheric pressure. Positive values for all the studied amino acids indicate the dominance of hydrophilic-ionic interactions between amino acids and Ionic liquids. The effect of temperature on volumetric properties of glycine/L-alanine in solutions has been determined from the partial molar expansibility and second-order partial molar expansibility. Further, volumetric interaction parameters and hydration number have been calculated, which have been interpreted in terms of possible solute-solvent interactions. Downloads 53
##### 1559 Salting Effect in Partially Miscible Systems of Water/Acétic Acid/1-Butanol at 298.15k: Experimental Study and Estimation of New Solvent-Solvent and Salt-Solvent Binary Interaction Parameters for NRTL Model

Authors: N. Bourayou, A. -H. Meniai, A. Gouaoura

Abstract:

The presence of salt can either raise or lower the distribution coefficient of a solute acetic acid in liquid- liquid equilibria. The coefficient of solute is defined as the ratio of the composition of solute in solvent rich phase to the composition of solute in diluents (water) rich phase. The phenomena are known as salting–out or salting-in, respectively. The effect of monovalent salt, sodium chloride and the bivalent salt, sodium sulfate on the distribution of acetic acid between 1-butanol and water at 298.15K were experimentally shown to be effective in modifying the liquid-liquid equilibrium of water/acetic acid/1-butanol system in favour of the solvent extraction of acetic acid from an aqueous solution with 1-butanol, particularly at high salt concentrations of both salts. All the two salts studied are found to have to salt out effect for acetic acid in varying degrees. The experimentally measured data were well correlated by Eisen-Joffe equation. NRTL model for solvent mixtures containing salts was able to provide good correlation of the present liquid-liquid equilibrium data. Using the regressed salt concentration coefficients for the salt-solvent interaction parameters and the solvent-solvent interaction parameters obtained from the same system without salt. The calculated phase equilibrium was in a quite good agreement with the experimental data, showing the ability of NRTL model to correlate salt effect on the liquid-liquid equilibrium. Downloads 212
##### 1558 Grain Growth in Nanocrystalline and Ultra-Fine Grained Materials

Authors: Haiming Wen

Abstract:

Grain growth is an important and consequential phenomenon that generally occurs in the presence of thermal and/or stress/strain fields. Thermally activated grain growth has been extensively studied and similarly, there are numerous experimental and theoretical studies published describing stress-induced grain growth in single-phase materials. However, studies on grain growth during the simultaneous presence of an elevated temperature and an external stress are very limited, and moreover, grain growth phenomena in materials containing second-phase particles and solute segregation at GBs have received limited attention. This lecture reports on a study of grain growth in the presence of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at grain boundaries (GBs) during high-temperature deformation of an ultra-fine grained (UFG) Al alloy synthesized via consolidation of mechanically milled powders. The mechanisms underlying the grain growth were identified as GB migration and grain rotation, which were accompanied by dynamic recovery and geometric dynamic recrystallization, while discontinuous dynamic recrystallization was not operative. A theoretical framework that incorporates the influence of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at GBs on grain growth in presence of both elevated temperature and external stress is formulated and discussed. The effect of second-phase particles and solute/impurity segregation at GBs on GB migration and grain rotation was quantified using the proposed theoretical framework, indicating that both second-phase particles and solutes/impurities segregated GBs reduce the velocities of GB migration and grain rotation as compared to those in commercially pure Al. Our results suggest that grain growth predicted by the proposed theoretical framework is in agreement with experimental results. Hence, the developed theoretical framework can be applied to quantify grain growth in simultaneous presence of external stress, elevated temperature, GB segregation and second-phase particles, or in presence of one or more of the aforementioned factors. Downloads 203
##### 1557 Induced Thermo-Osmotic Convection for Heat and Mass Transfer

Authors: Francisco J. Arias

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Consideration is given to a mechanism of heat and mass transport in solutions similar than that of natural convection but with one important difference. Here the mechanism is not promoted by density differences in the fluid occurring due to temperature gradients (coefficient of thermal expansion) but rather by solubility differences due to the thermal dependence of the solubility (coefficient of thermal solubility). Utilizing a simplified physical model, it is shown that by the proper choice of the concentration of a given solution, convection might be induced by the alternating precipitation of the solute -when the solution becomes supersaturated, and its posterior recombination when changes in temperature occurs. The spontaneous change in the Gibbs free energy during the mixing is the driven force for the mechanism. The maximum extractable energy from this new type of thermal convection was derived. Experimental data from a closed-loop circuit was obtained demonstrating the feasibility for continuous separation and recombination of the solution. This type of heat and mass transport -which doesn’t depend on gravity, might potentially be interesting for heat and mass transport downwards (as in solar-roof collectors to inside homes), horizontal (e.g., microelectronic applications), and in microgravity (space technology). Also, because the coefficient of thermal solubility could be positive or negative, the investigated thermo-osmosis convection can be used either for heating or cooling. Downloads 216
##### 1556 Numerical Study of Laminar Natural Flow Transitions in Rectangular Cavity

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This paper deals with the numerical study of heat and mass transfer of laminar flow transition at low Prandtl numbers. The model includes the two-directional momentum, the energy and mass transfer equations. These equations are discretized by the finite volume method and solved by a self-made simpler like Fortran code. The effect of governing parameters, namely the Lewis and Prandtl numbers, on the transition of the flow and solute distribution is studied for positive and negative thermal and solutal buoyancy forces ratio. Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are derived for of Prandtl [10⁻²-10¹] and Lewis numbers [1-10⁴]. The results show unicell and multi-cell flow. Solute and flow boundary layers appear for low Prandtl number. Downloads 100
##### 1555 On Increase and Development Prospects of Competitiveness of Georgia’s Transport-Logistical System on the Contemporary Stage

Authors: Ketevan Goletiani

Abstract:

MMultimodal transport is Europe-Asia’s rational decision of the XXI century. Success prerequisite of this form of cargo carriage is not technologic decision, but the comprehensive attitude towards it. Integration of the transport industry must refer to both technical and organizational-economic fields. Support of the multimodal’s must be the priority of the transport policy in different organizations of Europe and Asia. The method of approach to the transport as a unified system has been changed to a certain extent in the market conditions. Nowadays the competition between the different kinds of transport is not to be considered as a competition of one kind of transport towards another one, but is to be considered as a stimulator of the transport development. Basically, transport logistic, as the recent methodology and organization of the rationally flow of cargos at the specialized logistic centres during their procession provides effective rise of such flow of cargos, decreases non-operating expenses and gives the opportunity to the transport companies to come along with the time, to meet market clients’ requirements. It is apparent that the advanced transport-forwarding and logistic firms are being analized. Downloads 282
##### 1554 Biosorption of Lead (II) from Aqueous Solution Using Marine Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa

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Biosorption is one of the effective methods for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Results are presented showing the sorption of Pb(II) from solutions by biomass of commonly available marine algae Chlorella sp. The ability of marine algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa to remove heavy metal ion (Pb(II)) from aqueous solutions has been studied in this work. The biosorption properties of the biosorbent like equilibrium agitation time, optimum pH, temperature and initial solute concentration were investigated on metal uptake by showing respective profiles. The maximum metal uptake was found to be 10.27 mg/g. To achieve this metal uptake, the optimum conditions were found to be 30 min as equilibrium agitation time, 4.6 as optimum pH, 60 ppm of initial solute concentration. Lead concentration is determined by atomic absorption spectrometer. The process was found to be well fitted for pseudo-second order kinetics. Downloads 292
##### 1553 Heat and Mass Transfer of Triple Diffusive Convection in a Rotating Couple Stress Liquid Using Ginzburg-Landau Model

Authors: Sameena Tarannum, S. Pranesh

Abstract:

A nonlinear study of triple diffusive convection in a rotating couple stress liquid has been analysed. It is performed to study the effect of heat and mass transfer by deriving Ginzburg-Landau equation. Heat and mass transfer are quantified in terms of Nusselt number and Sherwood numbers, which are obtained as a function of thermal and solute Rayleigh numbers. The obtained Ginzburg-Landau equation is Bernoulli equation, and it has been elucidated numerically by using Mathematica. The effects of couple stress parameter, solute Rayleigh numbers, and Taylor number on the onset of convection and heat and mass transfer have been examined. It is found that the effects of couple stress parameter and Taylor number are to stabilize the system and to increase the heat and mass transfer. Downloads 206
##### 1552 Implementing a Mobility Platform to Connect Hubs in Rural Areas

Authors: E. Neidhardt

Abstract:

Mobility is not only an aspect of personal freedom, but for many people mobility is also a requirement to be able to satisfy the needs of daily life. They must buy food, get to work, or go to the doctor. Many people are dependent on public transport to satisfy their needs. Especially in rural areas with a low population density this is difficult. In these areas it is often not cost-effective to provide public transport with sufficient coverage and frequency. Therefore, the available public transport is unattractive. As a result, people use their own car, which is not desirable from a sustainable point of view. Children and some elderly people also do not have this option. Sometimes people organize themselves and volunteer transport services are created, which function similarly to the demand-oriented taxis. With a platform for demand-oriented transport, we want to make the available public transport more usable and attractive by linking scheduled transport with voluntary transport services. Downloads 64
##### 1551 Enhancement of Mass Transport and Separations of Species in a Electroosmotic Flow by Distinct Oscillatory Signals

Authors: Carlos Teodoro, Oscar Bautista

Abstract:

In this work, we analyze theoretically the mass transport in a time-periodic electroosmotic flow through a parallel flat plate microchannel under different periodic functions of the applied external electric field. The microchannel connects two reservoirs having different constant concentrations of an electro-neutral solute, and the zeta potential of the microchannel walls are assumed to be uniform. The governing equations that allow determining the mass transport in the microchannel are given by the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, the modified Navier-Stokes equations, where the Debye-Hückel approximation is considered (the zeta potential is less than 25 mV), and the species conservation. These equations are nondimensionalized and four dimensionless parameters appear which control the mass transport phenomenon. In this sense, these parameters are an angular Reynolds, the Schmidt and the Péclet numbers, and an electrokinetic parameter representing the ratio of the half-height of the microchannel to the Debye length. To solve the mathematical model, first, the electric potential is determined from the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, which allows determining the electric force for various periodic functions of the external electric field expressed as Fourier series. In particular, three different excitation wave forms of the external electric field are assumed, a) sawteeth, b) step, and c) a periodic irregular functions. The periodic electric forces are substituted in the modified Navier-Stokes equations, and the hydrodynamic field is derived for each case of the electric force. From the obtained velocity fields, the species conservation equation is solved and the concentration fields are found. Numerical calculations were done by considering several binary systems where two dilute species are transported in the presence of a carrier. It is observed that there are different angular frequencies of the imposed external electric signal where the total mass transport of each species is the same, independently of the molecular diffusion coefficient. These frequencies are called crossover frequencies and are obtained graphically at the intersection when the total mass transport is plotted against the imposed frequency. The crossover frequencies are different depending on the Schmidt number, the electrokinetic parameter, the angular Reynolds number, and on the type of signal of the external electric field. It is demonstrated that the mass transport through the microchannel is strongly dependent on the modulation frequency of the applied particular alternating electric field. Possible extensions of the analysis to more complicated pulsation profiles are also outlined. Downloads 135
##### 1550 Vulnerability Assessment of Groundwater Quality Deterioration Using PMWIN Model

Abstract:

The utilization of groundwater resources in irrigation has significantly increased during the last two decades due to constrained canal water supplies. More than 70% of the farmers in the Punjab, Pakistan, depend directly or indirectly on groundwater to meet their crop water demands and hence, an unchecked paradigm shift has resulted in aquifer depletion and deterioration. Therefore, a comprehensive research was carried at central Punjab-Pakistan, regarding spatiotemporal variation in groundwater level and quality. Processing MODFLOW for window (PMWIN) and MT3D (solute transport model) models were used for existing and future prediction of groundwater level and quality till 2030. The comprehensive data set of aquifer lithology, canal network, groundwater level, groundwater salinity, evapotranspiration, groundwater abstraction, recharge etc. were used in PMWIN model development. The model was thus, successfully calibrated and validated with respect to groundwater level for the periods of 2003 to 2007 and 2008 to 2012, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2) and model efficiency (MEF) for calibration and validation period were calculated as 0.89 and 0.98, respectively, which argued a high level of correlation between the calculated and measured data. For solute transport model (MT3D), the values of advection and dispersion parameters were used. The model used for future scenario up to 2030, by assuming that there would be no uncertain change in climate and groundwater abstraction rate would increase gradually. The model predicted results revealed that the groundwater would decline from 0.0131 to 1.68m/year during 2013 to 2030 and the maximum decline would be on the lower side of the study area, where infrastructure of canal system is very less. This lowering of groundwater level might cause an increase in the tubewell installation and pumping cost. Similarly, the predicted total dissolved solids (TDS) of the groundwater would increase from 6.88 to 69.88mg/L/year during 2013 to 2030 and the maximum increase would be on lower side. It was found that in 2030, the good quality would reduce by 21.4%, while marginal and hazardous quality water increased by 19.28 and 2%, respectively. It was found from the simulated results that the salinity of the study area had increased due to the intrusion of salts. The deterioration of groundwater quality would cause soil salinity and ultimately the reduction in crop productivity. It was concluded from the predicted results of groundwater model that the groundwater deteriorated with the depth of water table i.e. TDS increased with declining groundwater level. It is recommended that agronomic and engineering practices i.e. land leveling, rainwater harvesting, skimming well, ASR (Aquifer Storage and Recovery Wells) etc. should be integrated to meliorate management of groundwater for higher crop production in salt affected soils. Downloads 301
##### 1549 Modeling by Application of the Nernst-Planck Equation and Film Theory for Predicting of Chromium Salts through Nanofiltration Membrane

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to propose a model for the prediction of the mechanism transfer of the trivalent ions through a nanofiltration membrane (NF) by introduction of the polarization concentration phenomenon and to study its influence on the retention of salts. This model is the combination of the Nernst-Planck equation and the equations of the film theory. This model is characterized by two transfer parameters: Reflection coefficient s and solute permeability Ps which are estimated numerically. The thickness of the boundary layer, δ, solute concentration at the membrane surface, Cm, and concentration profile in the polarization layer have also been estimated. The mathematical formulation suggested was established. The retentions of trivalent salts are estimated and compared with the experimental results. A comparison between the results with and without phenomena of polarization of concentration is made and the thickness of boundary layer alimentation side was given. Experimental and calculated results are shown to be in good agreement. The model is then success fully extended to experimental data reported in the literature. Downloads 204

Abstract:

##### 1547 Competitor Analysis to Quantify the Benefits and for Different Use of Transport Infrastructure

Abstract:

Different transportation modes have key operational advantages and disadvantages, providing a variety of different transport options to users and passengers. This paper reviews key variables for the competition between air transport and other transport modes. The aim of this paper is to review the competition between air transport and other transport modes, providing results in terms of perceived cost for the users, for destinations high competitiveness for all transport modes. The competitor analysis variables include the cost and time outputs for each transport option, highlighting the level of competitiveness on high demanded Origin-Destination corridors. The case study presents the output of a such analysis for the OD corridor in Greece that connects the Capital city (Athens) with the second largest city (Thessaloniki) and the different transport modes have been considered (air, train, road). Conventional wisdom is to present an easy to handle tool for planners, managers and decision makers towards pricing policy effectiveness and demand attractiveness, appropriate to use for other similar cases. Downloads 144
##### 1546 Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth in South Africa

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The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of transport infrastructure on economic growth in South Africa through Engle Granger two step approach using the data from 1970 to 2013. GDP is used as a proxy for economic growth whilst rail transport (rail lines, rail goods transported) and air transport(air passengers carried, air freight) are used as proxies for transport infrastructure. The results showed that there is a positive long-run relationship between transport infrastructure and economic growth. The results show that South Africa’s economic growth can be boosted by providing transport infrastructure. The estimated models were simulated and the results that the model is a good fit. The findings of this research will be beneficial to policy makers, academics and it will also enhance the ability of the investors to make informed decisions about investing in South Africa. Downloads 289
##### 1545 Development of Ferric Citrate Complex Draw Solute and Its Application for Liquid Product Enrichment through Forward Osmosis

Authors: H. Li, L. Ji, J. Su

Abstract:

Forward osmosis is an emerging technology for separation and has great potential in the concentration of liquid products such as protein, pharmaceutical, and natural products. In pharmacy industry, one of the very tough talks is to concentrate the product in a gentle way since some of the key components may lose bioactivity when exposed to heating or pressurization. Therefore, forward osmosis (FO), which uses inherently existed osmosis pressure instead of externally applied hydraulic pressure, is attractive for pharmaceutical enrichments in a much efficient and energy-saving way. Recently, coordination complexes have been explored as the new class of draw solutes in FO processes due to their bulky configuration and excellent performance in terms of high water flux and low reverse solute flux. Among these coordination complexes, ferric citrate complex with lots of hydrophilic groups and ionic species which make them good solubility and high osmotic pressure in aqueous solution, as well as its low toxicity, has received much attention. However, the chemistry of ferric complexation by citrate is complicated, and disagreement prevails in the literature, especially for the structure of the ferric citrate. In this study, we investigated the chemical reaction with various molar ratio of iron and citrate. It was observed that the ferric citrate complex (Fe-CA2) with molar ratio of 1:1 for iron and citrate formed at the beginning of the reaction, then Fecit would convert to ferric citrate complex at the molar ratio of 1:2 with the proper excess of citrate in the base solution. The structures of the ferric citrate complexes synthesized were systematically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Fe-CA2 solutions exhibit osmotic pressures more than twice of that for NaCl solutions at the same concentrations. Higher osmotic pressure means higher driving force, and this is preferable for the FO process. Fe-CA2 and NaCl draw solutions were prepared with the same osmotic pressure and used in FO process for BSA protein concentration. Within 180 min, BSA concentration was enriched from 0.2 to 0.27 L using Fe-CA draw solutions. However, it was only increased from 0.20 to 0.22 g/L using NaCl draw solutions. A reverse flux of 11 g/m²h was observed for NaCl draw solutes while it was only 0.1 g/m²h for Fe-CA2 draw solutes. It is safe to conclude that Fe-CA2 is much better than NaCl as draw solute and it is suitable for the enrichment of liquid product. Downloads 76
##### 1544 Evaluation of Neighbourhood Characteristics and Active Transport Mode Choice

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One of the common aims of transport policy makers is to switch people’s travel to active transport. For this purpose, a variety of transport goals and investments should be programmed to increase the propensity towards active transport mode choice. This paper aims to investigate whether built environment features in neighbourhoods could enhance the odds of active transportation. The present study introduces an index measuring public transport accessibility (PTAI), and a walkability index along with socioeconomic variables to investigate mode choice behaviour. Using travel behaviour data, an ordered logit regression model is applied to examine the impacts of explanatory variables on walking trips. The findings indicated that high rates of active travel are consistently associated with higher levels of walking and public transport accessibility. Downloads 228
##### 1543 Effects of Process Parameters on the Yield of Oil from Coconut Fruit

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Analysis of the properties of coconut (Cocos nucifera) and its oil was evaluated in this work using standard analytical techniques. The analyses carried out include proximate composition of the fruit, extraction of oil from the fruit using different process parameters and physicochemical analysis of the extracted oil. The results showed the percentage (%) moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, ash, and carbohydrate content of the coconut as 7.59, 55.15, 5.65, 7.35, and 19.51 respectively. The oil from the coconut fruit was odourless and yellowish liquid at room temperature (30oC). The treatment combinations used (leaching time, leaching temperature and solute: solvent ratio) showed significant differences (P˂0.05) in the yield of oil from coconut flour. The oil yield ranged between 36.25%-49.83%. Lipid indices of the coconut oil indicated the acid value (AV) as 10.05 Na0H/g of oil, free fatty acid (FFA) as 5.03%, saponification values (SV) as 183.26 mgKOH-1 g of oil, iodine value (IV) as 81.00 I2/g of oil, peroxide value (PV) as 5.00 ml/ g of oil and viscosity (V) as 0.002. A standard statistical package minitab version 16.0 program was used in the regression analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The statistical software mentioned above was also used to generate various plots such as single effect plot, interactions effect plot and contour plot. The response or yield of oil from the coconut flour was used to develop a mathematical model that correlates the yield to the process variables studied. The maximum conditions obtained that gave the highest yield of coconut oil were leaching time of 2 hrs, leaching temperature of 50 oC and solute/solvent ratio of 0.05 g/ml. Downloads 263
##### 1542 Strategic Thinking to Enhance Critical Transport Infrastructure and Build Resilience

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Gaps in strategic thinking and planning lead to critical transport infrastructure resilience. These gaps in strategic transport and land use development planning have an impact on communities and cities. Natural and man-induced disasters can be catastrophic to communities. After a disaster, many types of critical infrastructure, including transport infrastructure gets un-usable or gets damaged. This paper examines strategic thinking behind the resilience and protection of Critical Transport Infrastructure (CI) within transport networks by investigating the impact of disasters such as bushfires, hurricanes and earthquakes. A detailed analysis of three case studies have been conducted to identify the gaps in strategic transport planning and strategic decision making processes required to mitigate the impacts of disasters. Case studies will be analysed to identify existing gaps in road design, transport planning and decision making. This paper examines the effect of road designing, transport corridors and decision making during transport planning stages and how it impacts transport infrastructure as well as community resilience. A set of recommendations to overcome the shortcomings of existing strategic planning and designing process are presented. This research paper reviews transport infrastructure planning issues and presents the common approach suitable for future strategic thinking and planning which could be adopted in practices. Downloads 153
##### 1541 Innovative Methods of Improving Train Formation in Freight Transport

Authors: Jaroslav Masek, Juraj Camaj, Eva Nedeliakova

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the operational model for transport the single wagon consignments on railway network by using two different models of train formation. The paper gives an overview of possibilities of improving the quality of transport services. Paper deals with two models used in problematic of train formatting - time continuously and time discrete. By applying these models in practice, the transport company can guarantee a higher quality of service and expect increasing of transport performance. The models are also applicable into others transport networks. The models supplement a theoretical problem of train formation by new ways of looking to affecting the organization of wagon flows. Downloads 346
##### 1540 On Demand Transport: Feasibility Study - Local Needs and Capabilities within the Oran Wilaya

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The evolution of urban forms, the new aspects of mobility, the ways of life and economic models make public transport conventional collective low-performing on the majority of largest Algerian cities, particularly in the west of Algeria. On the other side, the information and communication technologies (ICT) open new eventualities to develop a new mode of transport which brings together both the tenders offered by the public service collective and those of the particular vehicle, suitable for urban requirements, social and environmental. Like the concrete examples made in the international countries in terms of on-demand transport systems (ODT) more particularly in the developed countries, this article has for objective the opportunity analysis to establish a service of ODT at the level of a few towns of Oran Wilaya, such a service will be subsequently spread on the totality of the Wilaya if not on the whole of Algeria. In this context, we show the different existing means of transport in the current network whose aim to illustrate the points of insufficiency accented in the present transport system, then we discuss the solutions that may exhibit a service of ODT to the problem studied all around the transport sector, to carry at the end to highlight the capabilities of ODT replying to the transformation of mobilities, this in the light of well-defined cases. Downloads 165
##### 1539 Improving the Quality of Transport Management Services with Fuzzy Signatures

Authors: Csaba I. Hencz, István Á. Harmati

Abstract:

Nowadays the significance of road transport is gradually increasing. All transport companies are working in the same external environment where the speed of transport is defined by traffic rules. The main objective is to accelerate the speed of service and it is only dependent on the individual abilities of the managing members. These operational control units make decisions quickly (in a typically experiential and/or intuitive way). For this reason, support for these decisions is an important task. Our goal is to create a decision support model based on fuzzy signatures that can assist the work of operational management automatically. If the model sets parameters properly, the management of transport could be more economical and efficient. Downloads 173
##### 1538 Improved Ohmic Contact by Li Doping in Electron Transport Layers

Authors: G. Sivakumar, T. Pratyusha, D. Gupta, W. Shen

Abstract:

To get ohmic contact between the cathode and organic semiconductor, transport layers are introduced between the active layer and the electrodes. Generally zinc oxide or titanium dioxide are used as electron transport layer. When electron transport layer is doped with lithium, the resultant film exhibited superior electronic properties, which enables faster electron transport. Doping is accomplished by heat treatment of films with Lithium salts. Li-doped films. We fabricated organic solar cell using PTB7(poly(3-hexylthiopene-2,5- diyl):PCBM(phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) and found that the solar cells prepared using Li doped films had better performance in terms of efficiency when compared to the undoped transport layers. Downloads 355
##### 1537 A Computational Study of the Electron Transport in HgCdTe Bulk Semiconductor

Authors: N. Dahbi, M. Daoudi

Abstract:

This paper deals with the use of computational method based on Monte Carlo simulation in order to investigate the transport phenomena of the electron in HgCdTe narrow band gap semiconductor. Via this method we can evaluate the time dependence of the transport parameters: velocity, energy and mobility of electrons through matter (HgCdTe). Downloads 389