Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 80

Search results for: Chebyshev polynomials

80 Chebyshev Polynomials Relad with Fibonacci and Lucas Polynomials

Authors: Vandana N. Purav

Abstract:

Fibonacci and Lucas polynomials are special cases of Chebyshev polynomial. There are two types of Chebyshev polynomials, a Chebyshev polynomial of first kind and a Chebyshev polynomial of second kind. Chebyshev polynomial of second kind can be derived from the Chebyshev polynomial of first kind. Chebyshev polynomial is a polynomial of degree n and satisfies a second order homogenous differential equation. We consider the difference equations which are related with Chebyshev, Fibonacci and Lucas polynomias. Thus Chebyshev polynomial of second kind play an important role in finding the recurrence relations with Fibonacci and Lucas polynomials.

Keywords:

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79 Fractional Order Differentiator Using Chebyshev Polynomials

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A discrete time fractional orderdifferentiator has been modeled for estimating the fractional order derivatives of contaminated signal. The proposed approach is based on Chebyshev’s polynomials. We use the Riemann-Liouville fractional order derivative definition for designing the fractional order SG differentiator. In first step we calculate the window weight corresponding to the required fractional order. Then signal is convoluted with this calculated window’s weight for finding the fractional order derivatives of signals. Several signals are considered for evaluating the accuracy of the proposed method.

Keywords: fractional order derivative, chebyshev polynomials, signals, S-G differentiator

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78 Convergence Analysis of Cubic B-Spline Collocation Method for Time Dependent Parabolic Advection-Diffusion Equations

Authors: Bharti Gupta, V. K. Kukreja

Abstract:

A comprehensive numerical study is presented for the solution of time-dependent advection diffusion problems by using cubic B-spline collocation method. The linear combination of cubic B-spline basis, taken as approximating function, is evaluated using the zeros of shifted Chebyshev polynomials as collocation points in each element to obtain the best approximation. A comparison, on the basis of efficiency and accuracy, with the previous techniques is made which confirms the superiority of the proposed method. An asymptotic convergence analysis of technique is also discussed, and the method is found to be of order two. The theoretical analysis is supported with suitable examples to show second order convergence of technique. Different numerical examples are simulated using MATLAB in which the 3-D graphical presentation has taken at different time steps as well as different domain of interest.

Keywords: cubic B-spline basis, spectral norms, shifted Chebyshev polynomials, collocation points, error estimates

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77 Polar Bergman Polynomials on Domain with Corners

Authors: Laskri Yamina, Rehouma Abdel Hamid

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new class named polar of monic orthogonal polynomials with respect to the area measure supported on G, where G is a bounded simply-connected domain in the complex planeℂ. We analyze some open questions and discuss some ideas properties related to solving asymptotic behavior of polar Bergman polynomials over domains with corners and asymptotic behavior of modified Bergman polynomials by affine transforms in variable and polar modified Bergman polynomials by affine transforms in variable. We show that uniform asymptotic of Bergman polynomials over domains with corners and by Pritsker's theorem imply uniform asymptotic for all their derivatives.

Keywords: Bergman orthogonal polynomials, polar rthogonal polynomials, asymptotic behavior, Faber polynomials

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76 An Efficient Algorithm of Time Step Control for Error Correction Method

Authors: Youngji Lee, Yonghyeon Jeon, Sunyoung Bu, Philsu Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to construct an algorithm of time step control for the error correction method most recently developed by one of the authors for solving stiff initial value problems. It is achieved with the generalized Chebyshev polynomial and the corresponding error correction method. The main idea of the proposed scheme is in the usage of the duplicated node points in the generalized Chebyshev polynomials of two different degrees by adding necessary sample points instead of re-sampling all points. At each integration step, the proposed method is comprised of two equations for the solution and the error, respectively. The constructed algorithm controls both the error and the time step size simultaneously and possesses a good performance in the computational cost compared to the original method. Two stiff problems are numerically solved to assess the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: stiff initial value problem, error correction method, generalized Chebyshev polynomial, node points

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75 Numerical Solution of Space Fractional Order Solute Transport System

Authors: Shubham Jaiswal

Abstract:

In the present article, a drive is taken to compute the solution of spatial fractional order advection-dispersion equation having source/sink term with given initial and boundary conditions. The equation is converted to a system of ordinary differential equations using second-kind shifted Chebyshev polynomials, which have finally been solved using finite difference method. The striking feature of the article is the fast transportation of solute concentration as and when the system approaches fractional order from standard order for specified values of the parameters of the system.

Keywords: spatial fractional order advection-dispersion equation, second-kind shifted Chebyshev polynomial, collocation method, conservative system, non-conservative system

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74 Numerical Solution of Two-Dimensional Solute Transport System Using Operational Matrices

Authors: Shubham Jaiswal

Abstract:

In this study, the numerical solution of two-dimensional solute transport system in a homogeneous porous medium of finite-length is obtained. The considered transport system have the terms accounting for advection, dispersion and first-order decay with first-type boundary conditions. Initially, the aquifer is considered solute free and a constant input-concentration is considered at inlet boundary. The solution is describing the solute concentration in rectangular inflow-region of the homogeneous porous media. The numerical solution is derived using a powerful method viz., spectral collocation method. The numerical computation and graphical presentations exhibit that the method is effective and reliable during solution of the physical model with complicated boundary conditions even in the presence of reaction term.

Keywords: two-dimensional solute transport system, spectral collocation method, Chebyshev polynomials, Chebyshev differentiation matrix

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73 Optimal Image Representation for Linear Canonical Transform Multiplexing

Authors: Navdeep Goel, Salvador Gabarda

Abstract:

Digital images are widely used in computer applications. To store or transmit the uncompressed images requires considerable storage capacity and transmission bandwidth. Image compression is a means to perform transmission or storage of visual data in the most economical way. This paper explains about how images can be encoded to be transmitted in a multiplexing time-frequency domain channel. Multiplexing involves packing signals together whose representations are compact in the working domain. In order to optimize transmission resources each 4x4 pixel block of the image is transformed by a suitable polynomial approximation, into a minimal number of coefficients. Less than 4*4 coefficients in one block spares a significant amount of transmitted information, but some information is lost. Different approximations for image transformation have been evaluated as polynomial representation (Vandermonde matrix), least squares + gradient descent, 1-D Chebyshev polynomials, 2-D Chebyshev polynomials or singular value decomposition (SVD). Results have been compared in terms of nominal compression rate (NCR), compression ratio (CR) and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) in order to minimize the error function defined as the difference between the original pixel gray levels and the approximated polynomial output. Polynomial coefficients have been later encoded and handled for generating chirps in a target rate of about two chirps per 4*4 pixel block and then submitted to a transmission multiplexing operation in the time-frequency domain.

Keywords: chirp signals, image multiplexing, image transformation, linear canonical transform, polynomial approximation

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72 Approximations of Fractional Derivatives and Its Applications in Solving Non-Linear Fractional Variational Problems

Authors: Harendra Singh, Rajesh Pandey

Abstract:

The paper presents a numerical method based on operational matrix of integration and Ryleigh method for the solution of a class of non-linear fractional variational problems (NLFVPs). Chebyshev first kind polynomials are used for the construction of operational matrix. Using operational matrix and Ryleigh method the NLFVP is converted into a system of non-linear algebraic equations, and solving these equations we obtained approximate solution for NLFVPs. Convergence analysis of the proposed method is provided. Numerical experiment is done to show the applicability of the proposed numerical method. The obtained numerical results are compared with exact solution and solution obtained from Chebyshev third kind. Further the results are shown graphically for different fractional order involved in the problems.

Keywords: non-linear fractional variational problems, Rayleigh-Ritz method, convergence analysis, error analysis

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71 Hydromagnetic Linear Instability Analysis of Giesekus Fluids in Taylor-Couette Flow

Authors: K. Godazandeh, K. Sadeghy

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of magnetic field on the hydrodynamic instability of Taylor-Couette flow between two concentric rotating cylinders has been numerically investigated. At the beginning the basic flow has been solved using continuity, Cauchy equations (with regards to Lorentz force) and the constitutive equations of a viscoelastic model called "Giesekus" model. Small perturbations, considered to be normal mode, have been superimposed to the basic flow and the unsteady perturbation equations have been derived consequently. Neglecting non-linear terms, the general eigenvalue problem obtained has been solved using pseudo spectral method (combination of Chebyshev polynomials). The objective of the calculations is to study the effect of magnetic fields on the onset of first mode of instability (axisymmetric mode) for different dimensionless parameters of the flow. The results show that the stability picture is highly influenced by the magnetic field. When magnetic field increases, it first has a destabilization effect which changes to stabilization effect due to more increase of magnetic fields. Therefor there is a critical magnetic number (Hartmann number) for instability of Taylor-Couette flow. Also, the effect of magnetic field is more dominant in large gaps. Also based on the results obtained, magnetic field shows a more considerable effect on the stability at higher Weissenberg numbers (at higher elasticity), while the "mobility factor" changes show no dominant role on the intense of suction and injection effect on the flow's instability.

Keywords: magnetic field, Taylor-Couette flow, Giesekus model, pseudo spectral method, Chebyshev polynomials, Hartmann number, Weissenberg number, mobility factor

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70 Modelling of Polymeric Fluid Flows between Two Coaxial Cylinders Taking into Account the Heat Dissipation

Authors: Alexander Blokhin, Ekaterina Kruglova, Boris Semisalov

Abstract:

Mathematical model based on the mesoscopic theory of polymer dynamics is developed for numerical simulation of the flows of polymeric liquid between two coaxial cylinders. This model is a system of nonlinear partial differential equations written in the cylindrical coordinate system and coupled with the heat conduction equation including a specific dissipation term. The stationary flows similar to classical Poiseuille ones are considered, and the resolving equations for the velocity of flow and for the temperature are obtained. For solving them, a fast pseudospectral method is designed based on Chebyshev approximations, that enables one to simulate the flows through the channels with extremely small relative values of the radius of inner cylinder. The numerical analysis of the dependance of flow on this radius and on the values of dissipation constant is done.

Keywords: dynamics of polymeric liquid, heat dissipation, singularly perturbed problem, pseudospectral method, Chebyshev polynomials, stabilization technique

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69 Bernstein Type Polynomials for Solving Differential Equations and Their Applications

Authors: Yilmaz Simsek

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the Bernstein-type basis functions with their generating functions. We give various properties of these polynomials with the aid of their generating functions. These polynomials and generating functions have many valuable applications in mathematics, in probability, in statistics and also in mathematical physics. By using the Bernstein-Galerkin and the Bernstein-Petrov-Galerkin methods, we give some applications of the Bernstein-type polynomials for solving high even-order differential equations with their numerical computations. We also give Bezier-type curves related to the Bernstein-type basis functions. We investigate fundamental properties of these curves. These curves have many applications in mathematics, in computer geometric design and other related areas. Moreover, we simulate these polynomials with their plots for some selected numerical values.

Keywords: generating functions, Bernstein basis functions, Bernstein polynomials, Bezier curves, differential equations

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68 Numerical Simulation of Laser ‎Propagation through Turbulent ‎Atmosphere Using Zernike ‎Polynomials

Authors: Mohammad Moradi ‎

Abstract:

In this article, propagation of a laser beam through turbulent ‎atmosphere is evaluated. At first the laser beam is simulated and then ‎turbulent atmosphere will be simulated by using Zernike polynomials. ‎Some parameter like intensity, PSF will be measured for four ‎wavelengths in different Cn2.

Keywords: laser beam propagation, phase screen, turbulent atmosphere, Zernike ‎polynomials

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67 Fast and Efficient Algorithms for Evaluating Uniform and Nonuniform Lagrange and Newton Curves

Authors: Taweechai Nuntawisuttiwong, Natasha Dejdumrong

Abstract:

Newton-Lagrange Interpolations are widely used in numerical analysis. However, it requires a quadratic computational time for their constructions. In computer aided geometric design (CAGD), there are some polynomial curves: Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves, which have linear time complexity algorithms. Thus, the computational time for Newton-Lagrange Interpolations can be reduced by applying the algorithms of Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong curves. In order to use Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong algorithms, first, it is necessary to convert Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP or Dejdumrong polynomials. In this work, the algorithms for converting from both uniform and non-uniform Newton-Lagrange polynomials into Wang-Ball, DP and Dejdumrong polynomials are investigated. Thus, the computational time for representing Newton-Lagrange polynomials can be reduced into linear complexity. In addition, the other utilizations of using CAGD curves to modify the Newton-Lagrange curves can be taken.

Keywords: Lagrange interpolation, linear complexity, monomial matrix, Newton interpolation

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66 Some Results on the Generalized Higher Rank Numerical Ranges

Authors: Mohsen Zahraei

Abstract:

‎In this paper, ‎the notion of ‎rank-k numerical range of rectangular complex matrix polynomials‎ ‎are introduced. ‎Some algebraic and geometrical properties are investigated. ‎Moreover, ‎for ε>0 the notion of Birkhoff-James approximate orthogonality sets for ε-higher ‎rank numerical ranges of rectangular matrix polynomials is also introduced and studied. ‎The proposed definitions yield a natural generalization of the standard higher rank numerical ranges.

Keywords: ‎‎Rank-k numerical range‎, ‎isometry‎, ‎numerical range‎, ‎rectangular matrix polynomials

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65 Forward Stable Computation of Roots of Real Polynomials with Only Real Distinct Roots

Authors: Nevena Jakovčević Stor, Ivan Slapničar

Abstract:

Any polynomial can be expressed as a characteristic polynomial of a complex symmetric arrowhead matrix. This expression is not unique. If the polynomial is real with only real distinct roots, the matrix can be chosen as real. By using accurate forward stable algorithm for computing eigen values of real symmetric arrowhead matrices we derive a forward stable algorithm for computation of roots of such polynomials in O(n^2 ) operations. The algorithm computes each root to almost full accuracy. In some cases, the algorithm invokes extended precision routines, but only in the non-iterative part. Our examples include numerically difficult problems, like the well-known Wilkinson’s polynomials. Our algorithm compares favorably to other method for polynomial root-finding, like MPSolve or Newton’s method.

Keywords: roots of polynomials, eigenvalue decomposition, arrowhead matrix, high relative accuracy

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64 A Robust Optimization of Chassis Durability/Comfort Compromise Using Chebyshev Polynomial Chaos Expansion Method

Authors: Hanwei Gao, Louis Jezequel, Eric Cabrol, Bernard Vitry

Abstract:

The chassis system is composed of complex elements that take up all the loads from the tire-ground contact area and thus it plays an important role in numerous specifications such as durability, comfort, crash, etc. During the development of new vehicle projects in Renault, durability validation is always the main focus while deployment of comfort comes later in the project. Therefore, sometimes design choices have to be reconsidered because of the natural incompatibility between these two specifications. Besides, robustness is also an important point of concern as it is related to manufacturing costs as well as the performance after the ageing of components like shock absorbers. In this paper an approach is proposed aiming to realize a multi-objective optimization between chassis endurance and comfort while taking the random factors into consideration. The adaptive-sparse polynomial chaos expansion method (PCE) with Chebyshev polynomial series has been applied to predict responses’ uncertainty intervals of a system according to its uncertain-but-bounded parameters. The approach can be divided into three steps. First an initial design of experiments is realized to build the response surfaces which represent statistically a black-box system. Secondly within several iterations an optimum set is proposed and validated which will form a Pareto front. At the same time the robustness of each response, served as additional objectives, is calculated from the pre-defined parameter intervals and the response surfaces obtained in the first step. Finally an inverse strategy is carried out to determine the parameters’ tolerance combination with a maximally acceptable degradation of the responses in terms of manufacturing costs. A quarter car model has been tested as an example by applying the road excitations from the actual road measurements for both endurance and comfort calculations. One indicator based on the Basquin’s law is defined to compare the global chassis durability of different parameter settings. Another indicator related to comfort is obtained from the vertical acceleration of the sprung mass. An optimum set with best robustness has been finally obtained and the reference tests prove a good robustness prediction of Chebyshev PCE method. This example demonstrates the effectiveness and reliability of the approach, in particular its ability to save computational costs for a complex system.

Keywords: chassis durability, Chebyshev polynomials, multi-objective optimization, polynomial chaos expansion, ride comfort, robust design

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63 A Numerical Solution Based on Operational Matrix of Differentiation of Shifted Second Kind Chebyshev Wavelets for a Stefan Problem

Authors: Rajeev, N. K. Raigar

Abstract:

In this study, one dimensional phase change problem (a Stefan problem) is considered and a numerical solution of this problem is discussed. First, we use similarity transformation to convert the governing equations into ordinary differential equations with its boundary conditions. The solutions of ordinary differential equation with the associated boundary conditions and interface condition (Stefan condition) are obtained by using a numerical approach based on operational matrix of differentiation of shifted second kind Chebyshev wavelets. The obtained results are compared with existing exact solution which is sufficiently accurate.

Keywords: operational matrix of differentiation, similarity transformation, shifted second kind chebyshev wavelets, stefan problem

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62 A Proof for Goldbach's Conjecture

Authors: Hashem Sazegar

Abstract:

In 1937, Vinograd of Russian Mathematician proved that each odd large number can be shown by three primes. In 1973, Chen Jingrun proved that each odd number can be shown by one prime plus a number that has maximum two primes. In this article, we state one proof for Goldbach’conjecture. Introduction: Bertrand’s postulate state for every positive integer n, there is always at least one prime p, such that n < p < 2n. This was first proved by Chebyshev in 1850, which is why postulate is also called the Bertrand-Chebyshev theorem. Legendre’s conjecture states that there is a prime between n2 and (n+1)2 for every positive integer n, which is one of the four Landau’s problems. The rest of these four basic problems are; (i) Twin prime conjecture: There are infinitely many primes p such that p+2 is a prime. (ii) Goldbach’s conjecture: Every even integer n > 2 can be written asthe sum of two primes. (iii) Are there infinitely many primes p such that p−1 is a perfect square? Problems (i), (ii), and (iii) are open till date.

Keywords: Bertrand-Chebyshev theorem, Landau’s problems, twin prime, Legendre’s conjecture, Oppermann’s conjecture

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61 A Survey on Routh-Hurwitz Stability Criterion

Authors: Mojtaba Hakimi-Moghaddam

Abstract:

Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion is a powerful approach to determine stability of linear time invariant systems. On the other hand, applying this criterion to characteristic equation of a system, whose stability or marginal stability can be determined. Although the command roots (.) of MATLAB software can be easily used to determine the roots of a polynomial, the characteristic equation of closed loop system usually includes parameters, so software cannot handle it; however, Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion results the region of parameter changes where the stability is guaranteed. Moreover, this criterion has been extended to characterize the stability of interval polynomials as well as fractional-order polynomials. Furthermore, it can help us to design stable and minimum-phase controllers. In this paper, theory and application of this criterion will be reviewed. Also, several illustrative examples are given.

Keywords: Hurwitz polynomials, Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion, continued fraction expansion, pure imaginary roots

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60 Edge Detection in Low Contrast Images

Authors: Koushlendra Kumar Singh, Manish Kumar Bajpai, Rajesh K. Pandey

Abstract:

The edges of low contrast images are not clearly distinguishable to the human eye. It is difficult to find the edges and boundaries in it. The present work encompasses a new approach for low contrast images. The Chebyshev polynomial based fractional order filter has been used for filtering operation on an image. The preprocessing has been performed by this filter on the input image. Laplacian of Gaussian method has been applied on preprocessed image for edge detection. The algorithm has been tested on two test images.

Keywords: low contrast image, fractional order differentiator, Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) method, chebyshev polynomial

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59 Effect of Coriolis Force on Magnetoconvection in an Anisotropic Porous Medium

Authors: N. F. M. Mokhtar, N. Z. A. Hamid

Abstract:

This paper reports an analytical investigation of the stability and thermal convection in a horizontal anisotropic porous medium in the presence of Coriolis force and magnetic field. The Darcy model is used in the momentum equation and Boussinesq approximation is considered for the density variation of the porous medium. The upper and lower boundaries of the porous medium are assumed to be conducting to temperature perturbation and we used first order Chebyshev polynomial Tau method to solve the resulting eigenvalue problem. Analytical solution is obtained for the case of stationary convection. It is found that the porous layer system becomes unstable when the mechanical anisotropy parameter elevated and increasing the Coriolis force and magnetic field help to stabilize the anisotropy porous medium.

Keywords: anisotropic, Chebyshev tau method, Coriolis force, Magnetic field

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58 The K-Distance Neighborhood Polynomial of a Graph

Authors: Soner Nandappa D., Ahmed Mohammed Naji

Abstract:

In a graph G = (V, E), the distance from a vertex v to a vertex u is the length of shortest v to u path. The eccentricity e(v) of v is the distance to a farthest vertex from v. The diameter diam(G) is the maximum eccentricity. The k-distance neighborhood of v, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is Nk(v) = {u ϵ V (G) : d(v, u) = k}. In this paper, we introduce a new distance degree based topological polynomial of a graph G is called a k- distance neighborhood polynomial, denoted Nk(G, x). It is a polynomial with the coefficient of the term k, for 0 ≤ k ≤ e(v), is the sum of the cardinalities of Nk(v) for every v ϵ V (G). Some properties of k- distance neighborhood polynomials are obtained. Exact formulas of the k- distance neighborhood polynomial for some well-known graphs, Cartesian product and join of graphs are presented.

Keywords: vertex degrees, distance in graphs, graph operation, Nk-polynomials

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57 On Hankel Matrices Approach to Interpolation Problem in Infinite and Finite Fields

Authors: Ivan Baravy

Abstract:

Interpolation problem, as it was initially posed in terms of polynomials, is well researched. However, further mathematical developments extended it significantly. Trigonometric interpolation is widely used in Fourier analysis, while its generalized representation as exponential interpolation is applicable to such problem of mathematical physics as modelling of Ziegler-Biersack-Littmark repulsive interatomic potentials. Formulated for finite fields, this problem arises in decoding Reed--Solomon codes. This paper shows the relation between different interpretations of the problem through the class of matrices of special structure - Hankel matrices.

Keywords: Berlekamp-Massey algorithm, exponential interpolation, finite fields, Hankel matrices, Hankel polynomials

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56 Large Time Asymptotic Behavior to Solutions of a Forced Burgers Equation

Authors: Satyanarayana Engu, Ahmed Mohd, V. Murugan

Abstract:

We study the large time asymptotics of solutions to the Cauchy problem for a forced Burgers equation (FBE) with the initial data, which is continuous and summable on R. For which, we first derive explicit solutions of FBE assuming a different class of initial data in terms of Hermite polynomials. Later, by violating this assumption we prove the existence of a solution to the considered Cauchy problem. Finally, we give an asymptotic approximate solution and establish that the error will be of order O(t^(-1/2)) with respect to L^p -norm, where 1≤p≤∞, for large time.

Keywords: Burgers equation, Cole-Hopf transformation, Hermite polynomials, large time asymptotics

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55 On One New Solving Approach of the Plane Mixed Problem for an Elastic Semistrip

Authors: Natalia D. Vaysfel’d, Zinaida Y. Zhuravlova

Abstract:

The loaded plane elastic semistrip, the lateral boundaries of which are fixed, is considered. The integral transformations are applied directly to Lame’s equations. It leads to one dimensional boundary value problem in the transformations’ domain which is formulated as a vector one. With the help of the matrix differential calculation’s apparatus and apparatus of Green matrix function the exact solution of a vector problem is constructed. After the satisfying the boundary condition at the semi strip’s edge the problem is reduced to the solving of the integral singular equation with regard of the unknown stress at the semis trip’s edge. The equation is solved with the orthogonal polynomials method that takes into consideration the real singularities of the solution at the ends of integration interval. The normal stress at the edge of the semis trip were calculated and analyzed.

Keywords: semi strip, Green's Matrix, fourier transformation, orthogonal polynomials method

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54 A Modified Decoupled Semi-Analytical Approach Based On SBFEM for Solving 2D Elastodynamic Problems

Authors: M. Fakharian, M. I. Khodakarami

Abstract:

In this paper, a new trend for improvement in semi-analytical method based on scale boundaries in order to solve the 2D elastodynamic problems is provided. In this regard, only the boundaries of the problem domain discretization are by specific sub-parametric elements. Mapping functions are uses as a class of higher-order Lagrange polynomials, special shape functions, Gauss-Lobatto -Legendre numerical integration, and the integral form of the weighted residual method, the matrix is diagonal coefficients in the equations of elastodynamic issues. Differences between study conducted and prior research in this paper is in geometry production procedure of the interpolation function and integration of the different is selected. Validity and accuracy of the present method are fully demonstrated through two benchmark problems which are successfully modeled using a few numbers of DOFs. The numerical results agree very well with the analytical solutions and the results from other numerical methods.

Keywords: 2D elastodynamic problems, lagrange polynomials, G-L-Lquadrature, decoupled SBFEM

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53 A Method for solving Legendre's Conjecture

Authors: Hashem Sazegar

Abstract:

Legendre’s conjecture states that there is a prime number between n^2 and (n + 1)^2 for every positive integer n. In this paper we prove that every composite number between n2 and (n + 1)2 can be written u^2 − v^2 or u^2 − v^2 + u − v that u > 0 and v ≥ 0. Using these result as well as induction and residues (modq) we prove Legendre’s conjecture.

Keywords: bertrand-chebyshev theorem, landau’s problems, goldbach’s conjecture, twin prime, ramanujan proof

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52 Graphical Theoretical Construction of Discrete time Share Price Paths from Matroid

Authors: Min Wang, Sergey Utev

Abstract:

The lessons from the 2007-09 global financial crisis have driven scientific research, which considers the design of new methodologies and financial models in the global market. The quantum mechanics approach was introduced in the unpredictable stock market modeling. One famous quantum tool is Feynman path integral method, which was used to model insurance risk by Tamturk and Utev and adapted to formalize the path-dependent option pricing by Hao and Utev. The research is based on the path-dependent calculation method, which is motivated by the Feynman path integral method. The path calculation can be studied in two ways, one way is to label, and the other is computational. Labeling is a part of the representation of objects, and generating functions can provide many different ways of representing share price paths. In this paper, the recent works on graphical theoretical construction of individual share price path via matroid is presented. Firstly, a study is done on the knowledge of matroid, relationship between lattice path matroid and Tutte polynomials and ways to connect points in the lattice path matroid and Tutte polynomials is suggested. Secondly, It is found that a general binary tree can be validly constructed from a connected lattice path matroid rather than general lattice path matroid. Lastly, it is suggested that there is a way to represent share price paths via a general binary tree, and an algorithm is developed to construct share price paths from general binary trees. A relationship is also provided between lattice integer points and Tutte polynomials of a transversal matroid. Use this way of connection together with the algorithm, a share price path can be constructed from a given connected lattice path matroid.

Keywords: combinatorial construction, graphical representation, matroid, path calculation, share price, Tutte polynomial

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51 Low-Voltage and Low-Power Bulk-Driven Continuous-Time Current-Mode Differentiator Filters

Authors: Ravi Kiran Jaladi, Ezz I. El-Masry

Abstract:

Emerging technologies such as ultra-wide band wireless access technology that operate at ultra-low power present several challenges due to their inherent design that limits the use of voltage-mode filters. Therefore, Continuous-time current-mode (CTCM) filters have become very popular in recent times due to the fact they have a wider dynamic range, improved linearity, and extended bandwidth compared to their voltage-mode counterparts. The goal of this research is to develop analog filters which are suitable for the current scaling CMOS technologies. Bulk-driven MOSFET is one of the most popular low power design technique for the existing challenges, while other techniques have obvious shortcomings. In this work, a CTCM Gate-driven (GD) differentiator has been presented with a frequency range from dc to 100MHz which operates at very low supply voltage of 0.7 volts. A novel CTCM Bulk-driven (BD) differentiator has been designed for the first time which reduces the power consumption multiple times that of GD differentiator. These GD and BD differentiator has been simulated using CADENCE TSMC 65nm technology for all the bilinear and biquadratic band-pass frequency responses. These basic building blocks can be used to implement the higher order filters. A 6th order cascade CTCM Chebyshev band-pass filter has been designed using the GD and BD techniques. As a conclusion, a low power GD and BD 6th order chebyshev stagger-tuned band-pass filter was simulated and all the parameters obtained from all the resulting realizations are analyzed and compared. Monte Carlo analysis is performed for both the 6th order filters and the results of sensitivity analysis are presented.

Keywords: bulk-driven (BD), continuous-time current-mode filters (CTCM), gate-driven (GD)

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