Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 13366

Search results for: activated sludge process

13366 Object-Oriented Modeling Simulation and Control of Activated Sludge Process

Authors: J. Fernandez de Canete, P. Del Saz Orozco, I. Garcia-Moral, A. Akhrymenka


Object-oriented modeling is spreading in current simulation of wastewater treatments plants through the use of the individual components of the process and its relations to define the underlying dynamic equations. In this paper, we describe the use of the free-software OpenModelica simulation environment for the object-oriented modeling of an activated sludge process under feedback control. The performance of the controlled system was analyzed both under normal conditions and in the presence of disturbances. The object-oriented described approach represents a valuable tool in teaching provides a practical insight in wastewater process control field.

Keywords: object-oriented programming, activated sludge process, OpenModelica, feedback control

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13365 Mathematical Modeling of Activated Sludge Process: Identification and Optimization of Key Design Parameters

Authors: Ujwal Kishor Zore, Shankar Balajirao Kausley, Aniruddha Bhalchandra Pandit


There are some important design parameters of activated sludge process (ASP) for wastewater treatment and they must be optimally defined to have the optimized plant working. To know them, developing a mathematical model is a way out as it is nearly commensurate the real world works. In this study, a mathematical model was developed for ASP, solved under activated sludge model no 1 (ASM 1) conditions and MATLAB tool was used to solve the mathematical equations. For its real-life validation, the developed model was tested for the inputs from the municipal wastewater treatment plant and the results were quite promising. Additionally, the most cardinal assumptions required to design the treatment plant are discussed in this paper. With the need for computerization and digitalization surging in every aspect of engineering, this mathematical model developed might prove to be a boon to many biological wastewater treatment plants as now they can in no time know the design parameters which are required for a particular type of wastewater treatment.

Keywords: waste water treatment, activated sludge process, mathematical modeling, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
13364 Total Dissolved Solids and Total Iron in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: M. Y. Saleh, G. M. ELanany, M. H. Elzahar, M. Z. Elshikhipy


Industrial wastewater discharge, which carries high concentrations of dissolved solids and iron, could be treated by high rate activated sludge stage of the multiple-stage sludge treatment plant, a system which is characterized by high treatment efficiency, optimal prices, and small areas compared with conventional activated sludge treatment plants. A pilot plant with an influent industrial discharge flow of 135 L/h was designed following the activated sludge system to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of dosages 100, 150, 200 and 250 mg/L alum salt to the aeration tank. The concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and iron (Fe) in industrial discharge flow had an average range of 140000 TDS and 4.5 mg/L iron. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using a dosage of 200 mg/L alum succeeded to improve the removal efficiency of TDS and total iron to 48.15% and 68.11% respectively.

Keywords: wastewater, activated sludge, TDS, total iron

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13363 Characteristics of Domestic Sewage in Small Urban Communities

Authors: Shohreh Azizi, Memory Tekere, Wag Nel


An evaluation of the characteristics of wastewater generated from small communities was carried out in relation to decentralized approach for domestic sewage treatment plant and design of biological nutrient removal system. The study included the survey of the waste from various individual communities such as a hotel, a residential complex, an office premise, and an educational institute. The results indicate that the concentration of organic pollutant in wastewater from the residential complex is higher than the waste from all the other communities with COD 664 mg/l, BOD 370.2 mg/l and TSS 248.8 mg/l. And the waste water from office premise indicates low organic load with COD428 mg/l, BOD 232mg/l and TSS 157mg/l. The wastewater from residential complex was studied under activated sludge process to evaluate this technology for decentralized wastewater treatment. The Activated sludge process was operated at different 12to 4 hrs hydraulic retention times and the optimum 6 hrs HRT was selected, therefore the average reduction of COD (85.92%) and BOD (91.28 %) was achieved. The issue of sludge recycling, maintenance of biomass concentration and high HRT reactor (10 L) volume are making the system non-practical for smaller communities.

Keywords: wastewater, small communities, activated sludge process, decentralized system

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13362 Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Duckweed (Lemna gibba) and Waste Activated Sludge in Batch Mode

Authors: Rubia Gaur, Surindra Suthar


The present study investigates the anaerobic co-digestion of duckweed (Lemna gibba) and waste activated sludge (WAS) of different proportions with acclimatized anaerobic granular sludge (AAGS) as inoculum in mesophilic conditions. Batch experiments were performed in 500 mL capacity reagent bottles at 300C temperature. Varied combinations of pre-treated duckweed biomass with constant volume of anaerobic inoculum (AAGS - 100 mL) and waste activated sludge (WAS - 22.5 mL) were devised into five batch tests. The highest methane generation was observed with batch study, T4. The Gompertz model fits well on the experimental data of the batch study, T4. The values of correlation coefficient were achieved relatively higher (R2 ≥ 0.99). The co-digestion without pre-treatment of both duckweed and WAS shows poor generation of methane gas.

Keywords: aquatic weed, biogas, biomass, Gompertz equation, waste activated sludge

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13361 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot


The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: The pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: activated carbon, organic micropolluants, membrane bioreactor, carbon

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13360 Use of Waste Active Sludge for Reducing Fe₂O₃

Authors: A. Parra Parra, M. Vlasova, P. A. Marquez, M. Kakazey, M. C. Resendiz Gonzalez


The work of water treatment plants from various sources of pollution includes a biological treatment stage using activated sludge. Due to the large volume of toxic activated sludge waste (WAS) generated and soil contamination during its storage, WAS disposal technologies are being continuously developed. The most common is the carbonization of WAS. The carbonization products are various forms of ordered and disordered carbon material having different reactivity. The aim of this work was to study the reduction process of Fe₂O₃ mixed with activated sludge waste (WAS). It could be assumed that the simultaneous action of the WAS thermal decomposition process, accompanied by the formation of reactive nano-carbon, with carbothermal reduction of the Fe₂O₃, will permit intensify reduction of metal oxide up to stage of metal and iron carbide formation. The studies showed that the temperature treatment in the region of (800-1000) °C for 1 hour under conditions of oxygen deficiency is accompanied by the occurrence of reactions: Fe₂O₃ → Fe₃O₄ → FeO → Fe, which are typical for the metallurgical process of iron smelting, but less energy-intensive. Depending on the ratio of the WAS - Fe₂O₃ components and the temperature-time regime of reduction of iron oxide, it is possible to distinguish the stages of the predominant formation of ferromagnetic compounds, cast iron, and iron carbide. The results indicated the promise of using WAS as a metals oxide reducing agent and obtaining of ceramic-based on metal carbides.

Keywords: carbothermal reduction, Fe₂O₃, FeₓOᵧ-C, waste activated sludge

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13359 A Combined Activated Sludge-Filtration-Ozonation Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Ralph Chadeesingh, Caryn Jones, David Oakley, Judy Lee, Devendra Saroj


Current industrialized livestock agriculture is growing every year leading to an increase in the generation of wastewater that varies considerably in terms of organic content and microbial population. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-filtration-ozonation system was used to treat a pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process, followed by a filtration step (4-7 µm) and using ozone as tertiary treatment. An average reduction of 93% and 98% was achieved for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), respectively, obtaining final values of 128 mg/L COD and 12 mg/L BOD. For the Total Suspended Solids (TSS), the average reduction increased to 99% in the same system, reducing the final value down to 3 mg/L. Additionally, 98% reduction in Phosphorus (P) and a complete inactivation of Total Coliforms (TC) was obtained after 17 min ozonation time. For Total Viable Counts (TVC), a drastic reduction was observed with 30 min ozonation time (6 log inactivation) at an ozone dose of 71 mg O3/L. Overall, the combined process was sufficient to meet discharge requirements without further treatment for the measured parameters (COD, BOD, TSS, P, TC, and TVC).

Keywords: abattoir waste water, activated sludge, ozone, waste water treatment

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13358 Removal of Lead in High Rate Activated Sludge System

Authors: Mamdouh Y. Saleh, Gaber El Enany, Medhat H. Elzahar, Mohamed Z. Elshikhipy, Rana Hamouda


The heavy metals pollution in water, sediments and fish of Lake Manzala affected from the disposal of wastewater, industrial and agricultural drainage water into the lake on the environmental situation. A pilot plant with an industrial discharge flow of 135L/h was designed according to the activated sludge plant to simulate between the biological and chemical treatment with the addition of alum to the aeration tank with dosages of 100, 150, 200, and 250 mg/L. The industrial discharge had concentrations of Lead and BOD5 with an average range 1.22, 145mg/L, respectively. That means the average Pb was high up to 25 times than the allowed permissible concentration. The optimization of the chemical-biological process using 200mg/L alum dosage compared has improvement of Lead and BOD5 removal efficiency to 61.76% and 56%, respectively.

Keywords: industrial wastewater, activated sludge, BOD5, lead, alum salt

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13357 Low Sulfur Diesel-Like Fuel From Quick Remediation Process of Waste Oil Sludge

Authors: Isam A. H. Al Zubaidy


A quick process may be needed to get the benefit the big generated quantity of waste oil sludge (WOS). The process includes the mixing process of WOS with commercial diesel fuel. Different ratios of WOS to diesel fuel were prepared ranging 1:1 to 20:1 by mass. The mixture was continuously mixing for 10 minutes using bench type overhead stirrer and followed by filtration process to separate the soil waste from filtrate oil product. The quantity and the physical properties of the oil filtrate were measured. It was found that the addition of up to 15% WOS to diesel fuel was accepted without dramatic changes to the properties of diesel fuel. The amount of waste oil sludge was decreased by about 60% by mass. This means that about 60 % of the mass of sludge was recovered as light fuel oil. The physical properties of the resulting fuel from 10% sludge mixing ratio showed that the specific gravity, ash content, carbon residue, asphaltene content, viscosity, diesel index, cetane number, and calorific value were affected slightly. The color was changed to light black color. The sulfur content was increased also. This requires other processes to reduce the sulfur content of the resulting light fuel. A new desulfurization process was achieved using adsorption techniques with activated biomaterial to reduce the sulfur content to acceptable limits. Adsorption process by ZnCl₂ activated date palm kernel powder was effective for improvement of the physical properties of diesel like fuel. The final sulfur content was increased to 0.185 wt%. This diesel like fuel can be used in all tractors, buses, tracks inside and outside the refineries. The solid remaining seems to be smooth and can be mixed with asphalt mixture for asphalting the roads or can be used with other materials as an asphalt coating material for constructed buildings. Through this process, valuable fuel has been recovered, and the amount of waste material had decreased.

Keywords: oil sludge, diesel fuel, blending process, filtration process

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13356 Biogas Production Improve From Waste Activated Sludge Using Fenton Oxidation

Authors: A. Hassiba Zemmouri, B. Nabil Mameri, C. Hakim Lounici


In this study, the effect of Fenton technology pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of excess waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The variation of physicochemical characteristics (TOC, DS, VSS, VS) and biogas volume (as form of value added products) were also evaluated. The preselected operator conditions of Fenton pretreatment were 0.01ml H2O2/g SS, 150 [H2O2]/[Fe2+], 25g/l TS, at 25 °C and 30, 60 and120 min as treatment duration. The main results show a Maximum solubilization and biodegradability (70%) obtained at 120 min of Fenton pretreatment duration. An increasing of TOC in soluble phase related obviously by releasing organic substances of sludge flocs was contested. Improving in biogas volume was also, increased. Fenton oxidation pretreatment may be a promising chemical pre-treatment for a benefic digestion, stabilization and volume reduction.

Keywords: waste activated sludge, fenton pre-treatment, biodegradability, biogas

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13355 Single Species vs Mixed Microbial Culture Degradation of Pesticide in a Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Karan R. Chavan, Srivats Gopalan, Kumudini V. Marathe


In the current work, the comparison of degradation of malathion by single species, Pseudomonas Stutzeri, and Activated Sludge/Mixed Microbial Culture is studied in a Membrane Bioreactor. Various parameters were considered to study the effect of single species degradation compared to degradation by activated sludge. The experimental results revealed 85-90% reduction in the COD of the Malathion containing synthetic wastewater. Complete reduction of malathion was observed within 24 hours in both the cases. The critical flux was 10 LMH for both the systems. Fouling propensity, Cake and Membrane resistances were calculated thus giving an insight regarding the working of Membrane Bioreactor-based on single species and activated sludge.

Keywords: fouling, membrane bioreactor, mixed microbial culture, single species

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13354 A Combined Activated Sludge-Sonication Process for Abattoir Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Pello Alfonso-Muniozguren, Madeleine Bussemaker, Devendra Saroj, Judy Lee


Wastewater treatment is becoming a worldwide concern due to new and tighter environmental regulations, and the increasing need for fresh water for the exponentially growing population. The meat industry has one of the highest consumption of water producing up to 10 times more polluted (BOD) wastewaters in comparison to domestic sewage. Therefore, suitable wastewater treatment methods are required to ensure the wastewater quality meet regulations before discharge. In the present study, a combined lab scale activated sludge-sonication system was used to treat pre-treated abattoir wastewater. A hydraulic retention time of 24 hours and a solid retention time of 13 days were used for the activated sludge process and using ultrasound as tertiary treatment. Different ultrasonic frequencies, powers and sonication times were applied to the samples and results were analysed for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total suspended solids, pH, total coliforms and total viable counts. Additionally, both mechanical and chemical effects of ultrasound were quantified for organic matter removal (COD and BOD) and disinfection (microorganism inactivation) using different techniques such as aluminum foil pitting, flow cytometry, and KI dosimetry.

Keywords: abattoir wastewater, ultrasound, wastewater treatment, water disinfection

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13353 Rheological Behavior of Fresh Activated Sludge

Authors: Salam K. Al-Dawery


Despite of few research works on municipal sludge, still there is a lack of actual data. Thus, this work was focused on the conditioning and rheology of fresh activated sludge. The effect of cationic polyelectrolyte has been investigated at different concentrations and pH values in a comparative fashion. Yield stress is presented in all results indicating the minimum stress that necessary to reach flow conditions. Connections between particle-particle is the reason for this yield stress, also, the addition of polyelectrolyte causes strong bonds between particles and water resulting in the aggregation of particles which required higher shear stress in order to flow. The results from the experiments indicate that the cationic polyelectrolytes have significant effluence on the sludge characteristic and water quality such as turbidity, SVI, zone settling rate and shear stress.

Keywords: rheology, polyelectrolyte, settling volume index, turbidity

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13352 Principles of Municipal Sewage Sludge Bioconversion into Biomineral Fertilizer

Authors: K. V. Kalinichenko, G. N. Nikovskaya


The efficiency of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge in bioleaching with heterotrophic, chemoautotrophic (sulphur-oxidizing) sludge cenoses and chemical leaching (in distilled water, weakly acidic or alkaline medium) was compared. The efficacy of heavy metals removal from sewage sludge varied from 83 % (Zn) up to 14 % (Cr) and followed the order: Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cr. The advantages of metals bioleaching process at heterotrophic metabolism was shown. A new process for bioconversation of sewage sludge into fertilizer at middle temperature after partial heavy metals removal was developed. This process is based on enhancing vital ability of heterotrophic microorganisms by adding easily metabolized nutrients and synthesis of metabolites by growing sludge cenoses. These metabolites possess the properties of heavy metals extractants and flocculants which provide sludge flocks sedimentation and concentration. The process results in biomineral fertilizer with immobilized sludge bioelements with prolonged action. The fertilizer obtained satisfied the EU limits for the sewage sludge of agricultural utilization. High efficiency of the biomineral fertilizers obtained has been demonstrated in vegetation experiments.

Keywords: fertilizer, heavy metals, leaching, sewage sludge

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13351 Biochemical Identification and Study of Antibiotic Resistance in Isolated Bacteria from WWTP TIMGAD

Authors: Abdessemed Zineb, Atia Yahia, Yeza Salima


Water is self-purified by activated sludge process which makes its uniqueness. The main goal is the microbial biocenosis study of the input and output water of the waste water treatment system plant Timgad. 89.47% of the identified biocenosis belongs to ɤ-Proteobacteria while the remaining 10.52 % is equally divided between α-Proteobacteria and β-Proteobacteria. The antibiotics susceptibility profiles reveal that over 30 % are wild strains while the penicillinases are often present (11.30-20 %) with also other profiles. This proportion is worrying that the water discharged join the Oued Soltez used for irrigation. This disadvantage involves the installation of a chlorination step.

Keywords: activated sludge, biocenosis, antibiotics profiles, penicillinases, physic-chemical quality

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13350 Adsorption of 17a-Ethinylestradiol on Activated Carbon Based on Sewage Sludge in Aqueous Medium

Authors: Karoline Reis de Sena


Endocrine disruptors are unregulated or not fully regulated compounds, even in the most developed countries, and which can be a danger to the environment and human health. They pass untreated through the secondary stage of conventional wastewater treatment plants, then the effluent from the wastewater treatment plants is discharged into the rivers, upstream and downstream from the drinking water treatment plants that use the same river water as the tributary. Long-term consumption of drinking water containing low concentrations of these compounds can cause health problems; these are persistent in nature and difficult to remove. In this way, research on emerging pollutants is expanding and is fueled by progress in finding the appropriate method for treating wastewater. Adsorption is the most common separation process, it is a simple and low-cost operation, but it is not eco-efficient. Concomitant to this, biosorption arises, which is a subcategory of adsorption where the biosorbent is biomass and which presents numerous advantages when compared to conventional treatment methods, such as low cost, high efficiency, minimization of the use of chemicals, absence of need for additional nutrients, biosorbent regeneration capacity and the biomass used in the production of biosorbents are found in abundance in nature. Thus, the use of alternative materials, such as sewage sludge, for the synthesis of adsorbents has proved to be an economically viable alternative, together with the importance of valuing the generated by-product flows, as well as managing the problem of their correct disposal. In this work, an alternative for the management of sewage sludge is proposed, transforming it into activated carbon and using it in the adsorption process of 17a-ethinylestradiol.

Keywords: 17α-ethinylestradiol, adsorption, activated carbon, sewage sludge, micropollutants

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13349 Full-Scale Case Study of Aerobic Digestibility of Conventional Activated Sludge versus Nereda© Aerobic Granular Sludge in Colorado’s Mountain West

Authors: Michael Katalinich, James Cochran, Emily Godi, Casey Johnston


The 0.995 MGD water resource reclamation facility (WRRF) in Idaho Springs, Colorado, has operated a dual reactor and full-scale sludge removal aerobic granular sludge (AGS) system since June 2021. Before the AGS system was installed, the existing WRRF had a hydraulic capacity of 0.60 MGD and ran as an SBR system with jet aeration and post-equalization. This included two SBRs with a total volume of over 750,000 gallons operating with anoxic and aerated zones being both mixed and aerated by jets and decanted through stainless-steel decanters. The SBR system always performed well and did not exceed discharge permit limits, but it did not have sufficient treatment capacity for future flows. The facility implemented AquaNereda’s © AGS technology to reduce settling time and improve nutrient removal efficiency, as well as to increase hydraulic and organic load capacity. This study compares the overall aerobic digestibility of AGS waste activated sludge (WAS) versus conventional activated sludge (CAS) from a sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The Idaho Springs WRRF has two 250,000-gallon aerobic digesters set in series equipped with mechanical mixing and coarse-bubble diffusers. A minimum of 38 percent or more volatile suspended solids (VSS) destruction is required to achieve Class B biosolids per EPA Part 503 Biosolids Rule. The design basis was 60-day solids retention time (SRT) at 15 degrees Celsius and approximately 40 percent VSS destruction. Operational data was analyzed before the improvements, during startup, and throughout full-scale operation in order to gauge the operating efficiency and digestibility of the AGS waste and will be presented.

Keywords: AquaNereda, Nereda, AGS, aerobic granular sludge, digester, aerobic digestion, waste activated sludge, activated sludge, WAS, SBR

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13348 Catalytic Hydrothermal Decarboxylation of Lipid from Activated Sludge for Renewable Diesel Production

Authors: Ifeanyichukwu Edeh, Tim Overton, Steve Bowra


Currently biodiesel is produced from plant oils or animal’s fats by a liquid-phase catalysed transesterification process at low temperature. Although biodiesel is renewable and to a large extent sustainable, inherent properties such as poor cold flow, low oxidation stability, low cetane value restrict application to blends with fossil fuels. An alternative to biodiesel is renewable diesel produced by catalytic hydrotreating of oils and fats and is considered a drop in fuel because its properties are similar to petroleum diesel. In addition to developing alternative productions routes there is continued interest in reducing the cost of the feed stock, waste cooking oils and fats are increasingly used as the feedstocks due to low cost. However, use of oils and fat are highly adulterated resulting in high free fatty acid content which turn impacts on the efficiency of FAME production. Therefore, in light of the need to develop, alternative lipid feed stocks and related efficient catalysis the present study investigates the potential of producing renewable diesel from the lipids-extracted from activated sludge, a waste water treatment by-product, through catalytic hydrothermal decarboxylation. The microbial lipids were first extracted from the activated sludge using the Folch et al method before hydrothermal decarboxylation reactions were carried out using palladium (Pd/C) and platinum (Pt/C) on activated carbon as the catalysts in a batch reactor. The impact of three temperatures 290, 300, 330 °C and residence time between 30 min and 4hrs was assessed. At the end of the reaction, the products were recovered using organic solvents and characterized using gas chromatography (GC). The principle products of the reaction were pentadecane and heptadecane. The highest yields of pentadecane and heptadecane from lipid-extract were 23.23% and 15.21%, respectively. These yields were obtained at 290 °C and residence time 1h using Pt/C. To the best of our knowledge, the current work is the first investigation on the hydrothermal decarboxylation of lipid-extract from activated sludge.

Keywords: activated sludge, lipid, hydrothermal decarboxylation, renewable diesel

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13347 Malachite Green and Red Congo Dyes Adsorption onto Chemical Treated Sewage Sludge

Authors: Zamouche Meriem, Mehcene Ismahan, Temmine Manel, Bencheikh Lehocine Mosaab, Meniai Abdeslam Hassen


In this study, the adsorption of Malachite Green (MG) by chemical treated sewage sludge has been studied. The sewage sludge, collected from drying beds of the municipal wastewater treatment station of IBN ZIED, Constantine, Algeria, was treated by different acids such us HNO₃, H₂SO₄, H₃PO₄ for modifying its aptitude to removal the MG from aqueous solutions. The results obtained shows that the sewage sludge activated by sulfuric acid give the highest elimination amounts of MG (9.52 mg/L) compared by the other acids used. The effects of operation parameters have been investigated, the results obtained show that the adsorption capacity per unit of adsorbent mass decreases from 18.69 to 1.20 mg/g when the mass of the adsorbent increases from 0.25 to 4 g respectively, the optimum mass for which a maximum of elimination of the dye is equal to 0.5g. The increasing in the temperature of the solution results in a slight decrease in the adsorption capacity of the chemically treated sludge. The highest amount of dye adsorbed by CSSS (9.56 mg/g) was observed for the optimum temperature of 25°C. The chemical activated sewage sludge proved its effectiveness for the removal of the Red Congo (RC), but by comparison the adsorption of the two dyes studies, we noted that the sludge has more affinity to adsorb the (MG).

Keywords: adsorption, chemical activation, malachite green, sewage sludge

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13346 Sludge Densification: Emerging and Efficient Way to Look at Biological Nutrient Removal Treatment

Authors: Raj Chavan


Currently, there are over 14,500 Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) in the United States, with ~35% of them having some type of nutrient limits in place. These WRRFs account for about 1% of overall power demand and 2% of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in the United States and contribute for 10 to 15% of the overall nutrient load to surface rivers in the United States. The evolution of densification technologies toward more compact and energy-efficient nutrient removal processes has been impacted by a number of factors. Existing facilities that require capacity expansion or biomass densification for higher treatability within the same footprint are being subjected to more stringent requirements relating to nutrient removal prior to surface water discharge. Densification of activated sludge has received recent widespread interest as a means for achieving process intensification and nutrient removal at WRRFs. At the core of the technology are the aerobic sludge granules where the biological processes occur. There is considerable interest in the prospect of producing granular sludge in continuous (or traditional) activated sludge processes (CAS) or densification of biomass by moving activated sludge flocs to a denser aggregate of biomass as a highly effective technique of intensification. This presentation will provide a fundamental understanding of densification by presenting insights and practical issues. The topics that will be discussed include methods used to generate and retain densified granules; the mechanisms that allow biological flocs to densify; the role that physical selectors play in the densification of biological flocs; some viable ways for managing biological flocs that have become densified; effects of physical selection design parameters on the retention of densified biological flocs and finally some operational solutions for customizing the flocs and granules required to meet performance and capacity targets. In addition, it will present some case studies where biological and physical parameters were used to generate aerobic granular sludge in the continuous flow system.

Keywords: densification, aerobic granular sludge, nutrient removal, intensification

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13345 Lipid from Activated Sludge as a Feedstock for the Production of Biodiesel

Authors: Ifeanyichukwu Edeh, Tim Overton, Steve Bowra


There is increasing interest in utilising low grade or waste biomass for the production of renewable bioenergy vectors i.e. waste to energy. In this study we have chosen to assess, activated sludge, which is a microbial biomass generated during the second stage of waste water treatment as a source of lipid for biodiesel production. To date a significant proportion of biodiesel is produced from used cooking oil and animal fats. It was reasoned that if activated sludge proved a viable feedstock it has the potential to support increase biodiesel production capacity. Activated sludge was obtained at different times of the year and from two different sewage treatment works in the UK. The biomass within the activated sludge slurry was recovered by filtration and the total weight of material calculated by combining the dry weight of the total suspended solid (TSS) and the total dissolved solid (TDS) fractions. Total lipids were extracted from the TSS and TDS using solvent extraction (Folch methods). The classes of lipids within the total lipid extract were characterised using high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) by referencing known standards. The fatty acid profile and content of the lipid extract were determined using acid mediated-methanolysis to obtain fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) which were analysed by gas chromatography and HPTLC. The results showed that there were differences in the total biomass content in the activated sludge collected from different sewage works. Lipid yields from TSS obtained from both sewage treatment works differed according to the time of year (between 3.0 and 7.4 wt. %). The lipid yield varied slightly within the same source of biomass but more widely between the two sewage treatment works. The neutral lipid classes identified were acylglycerols, free fatty acids, sterols and wax esters while the phospholipid class included phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidycholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The fatty acid profile revealed the presence of palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid and stearic acid and that unsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant. Following optimisation, the FAME yield was greater than 10 wt. % which was required to have an economic advantage in biodiesel production.

Keywords: activated sludge, biodiesel, lipid, methanolysis

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13344 Thermal Characteristics of Sewage Sludge to Develop an IDPG Technology

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim, Byeo Ri Jeong


Sewage sludge is regarded as the residue produced by the waste water treatment process, during which liquids and solids are being separated. Thermal treatments are interesting techniques to stabilize the sewage sludge for disposal. Among the thermal treatments, pyrolysis and/or gasification has been being applied to the sewage sludge. The final goal of our NRF research is to develop a microwave In-line Drying-Pyrolysis-Gasification (IDPG) technology for the dewatered sewage sludge for the bio-waste to energy conversion. As a first step, the pyrolysis characteristics in a bench scale electric furnace was investigated at 800℃ for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge samples of which moisture contents are almost 80% and 0%, respectively. Main components of producer gas are hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Particularly, higher hydrogen for the dewatered sludge is shown as 75%. The hydrogen production for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge are 56% and 32%, respectively. However, the pyrolysis for the dried sludge produces higher carbon dioxide and other gases, while higher methane and carbon dioxide are given to 74% and 53%, respectively. Tar also generates during the pyrolysis process, showing lower value for case of the dewatered sludge. Gravimetric tar is 195 g/m3, and selected light tar like benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene are 9.4 g/m3, 2.1 g/m3, 0.5 g/m3, 0.3 g/m3, respectively. After the pyrolysis process, residual char for the dewatered sludge and dried sludge remain 1g and 1.3g, showing weight reduction rate of 93% and 57%, respectively. Through the results, this could be known that the dewatered sludge can be used to produce a clean hydrogen-rich gas fuel without the drying process. Therefore, the IDPG technology can be applied effectively to the energy conversion for dewater sludge waste without a drying pretreatment. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) grant funded by the Korea government(MSIP) (No. 2015R1A2A2A03003044).

Keywords: pyrolysis, gasification, sewage sludge, tar generation, producer gas, sludge char, biomass energy

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13343 Treatment of High Concentration Cutting Fluid Wastewater by Ceramic Membrane Bioreactor

Authors: Kai-Shiang Chang, Shiao-Shing Chen, Saikat Sinha Ray, Hung-Te Hsu


In recent years, membrane bioreactors (MBR) have been widely utilized as it can effectively replace conventional activated sludge process (CAS). Membrane bioreactor (MBR) is found to be more effective technology compared to other conventional activated sludge process and advanced membrane separation technique. Additionally, as far as the MBR is concerned, it is having excellent control of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT) and conducive to the retention of high concentration of sludge biomass. The membrane bioreactor (MBR) can effectively reduce footprint in terms of area and omit the secondary processing procedures in the conventional activated sludge process (CAS). Currently, as per the membrane technology, the ceramic membrane is found to have highly strong anti-acid-base properties, and it is more suitable than polymeric membrane while using for backwash and chemical cleaning. This study is based upon the treatment of Cutting Fluid wastewater, as the Cutting Fluid is widely used in the cutting equipment. However, the Cutting Fluid wastewater is very difficult to treat. In this study, the ceramic membrane was used and combine with of MBR system to treat the Cutting Fluid wastewater. In this present study, different kind of chemical coagulants have been utilized for pretreatment purpose in order to get the supernatant and simultaneously this wastewater (supernatant) was treated by MBR process. Nevertheless, ceramic membrane has three advantages such as high mechanical strength, drug resistance and reuse. During the experiment, the backwash technique was used for every interval of 10 minutes in order to avoid fouling of the membrane. In this study, during pretreatment the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency was found to be 71-86% and oil removal efficiency was analyzed to be 83-92%. This pretreatment study suggests that it is quiet effective methodology to reduce COD and oil concentration. Finally, In the MBR system when the HRT is more than 7.5 hour, the COD removal efficiency was found to be 87-93% and could achieve 100% oil removal efficiency. Coagulation test series were seen in Refs coagulants for the treatment of wastewater containing cutting oil with better oil and COD removal efficiency. The results also showed that the oil removal efficiency in the MBR system could reduce the oil content to less than 1 mg / L when the oil quality was 126 mg / L. Therefore, in this paper, the performance of membrane bioreactor by utilizing ceramic membrane has been demonstrated for treatment of Cutting Fluid wastewater.

Keywords: membrane bioreactor, cutting fluid, oil, chemical oxygen demand

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13342 Treatment Process of Sludge from Leachate with an Activated Sludge System and Extended Aeration System

Authors: A. Chávez, A. Rodríguez, F. Pinzón


Society is concerned about measures of environmental, economic and social impacts generated in the solid waste disposal. These places of confinement, also known as landfills, are locations where problems of pollution and damage to human health are reduced. They are technically designed and operated, using engineering principles, storing the residue in a small area, compact it to reduce volume and covering them with soil layers. Problems preventing liquid (leachate) and gases produced by the decomposition of organic matter. Despite planning and site selection for disposal, monitoring and control of selected processes, remains the dilemma of the leachate as extreme concentration of pollutants, devastating soil, flora and fauna; aggressive processes requiring priority attention. A biological technology is the activated sludge system, used for tributaries with high pollutant loads. Since transforms biodegradable dissolved and particulate matter into CO2, H2O and sludge; transform suspended and no Settleable solids; change nutrients as nitrogen and phosphorous; and degrades heavy metals. The microorganisms that remove organic matter in the processes are in generally facultative heterotrophic bacteria, forming heterogeneous populations. Is possible to find unicellular fungi, algae, protozoa and rotifers, that process the organic carbon source and oxygen, as well as the nitrogen and phosphorus because are vital for cell synthesis. The mixture of the substrate, in this case sludge leachate, molasses and wastewater is maintained ventilated by mechanical aeration diffusers. Considering as the biological processes work to remove dissolved material (< 45 microns), generating biomass, easily obtained by decantation processes. The design consists of an artificial support and aeration pumps, favoring develop microorganisms (denitrifying) using oxygen (O) with nitrate, resulting in nitrogen (N) in the gas phase. Thus, avoiding negative effects of the presence of ammonia or phosphorus. Overall the activated sludge system includes about 8 hours of hydraulic retention time, which does not prevent the demand for nitrification, which occurs on average in a value of MLSS 3,000 mg/L. The extended aeration works with times greater than 24 hours detention; with ratio of organic load/biomass inventory under 0.1; and average stay time (sludge age) more than 8 days. This project developed a pilot system with sludge leachate from Doña Juana landfill - RSDJ –, located in Bogota, Colombia, where they will be subjected to a process of activated sludge and extended aeration through a sequential Bach reactor - SBR, to be dump in hydric sources, avoiding ecological collapse. The system worked with a dwell time of 8 days, 30 L capacity, mainly by removing values of BOD and COD above 90%, with initial data of 1720 mg/L and 6500 mg/L respectively. Motivating the deliberate nitrification is expected to be possible commercial use diffused aeration systems for sludge leachate from landfills.

Keywords: sludge, landfill, leachate, SBR

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13341 Modeling Approach to Better Control Fouling in a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor for Wastewater Treatment: Development of Analytical Expressions in Steady-State Using ASM1

Authors: Benaliouche Hana, Abdessemed Djamal, Meniai Abdessalem, Lesage Geoffroy, Heran Marc


This paper presents a dynamic mathematical model of activated sludge which is able to predict the formation and degradation kinetics of SMP (Soluble microbial products) in membrane bioreactor systems. The model is based on a calibrated version of ASM1 with the theory of production and degradation of SMP. The model was calibrated on the experimental data from MBR (Mathematical modeling Membrane bioreactor) pilot plant. Analytical expressions have been developed, describing the concentrations of the main state variables present in the sludge matrix, with the inclusion of only six additional linear differential equations. The objective is to present a new dynamic mathematical model of activated sludge capable of predicting the formation and degradation kinetics of SMP (UAP and BAP) from the submerged membrane bioreactor (BRMI), operating at low organic load (C / N = 3.5), for two sludge retention times (SRT) fixed at 40 days and 60 days, to study their impact on membrane fouling, The modeling study was carried out under the steady-state condition. Analytical expressions were then validated by comparing their results with those obtained by simulations using GPS-X-Hydromantis software. These equations made it possible, by means of modeling approaches (ASM1), to identify the operating and kinetic parameters and help to predict membrane fouling.

Keywords: Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1), mathematical modeling membrane bioreactor, soluble microbial products, UAP, BAP, Modeling SMP, MBR, heterotrophic biomass

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13340 Toxicity of PPCPs on Adapted Sludge Community

Authors: G. Amariei, K. Boltes, R. Rosal, P. Leton


Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are supposed to hold an important place in the reduction of emerging contaminants, but provide an environment that has potential for the development and/or spread of adaptation, as bacteria are continuously mixed with contaminants at sub-inhibitory concentrations. Reviewing the literature, there are little data available regarding the use of adapted bacteria forming activated sludge community for toxicity assessment, and only individual validations have been performed. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the toxicity of Triclosan (TCS) and Ibuprofen (IBU), individually and in binary combination, on adapted activated sludge (AS). For this purpose a battery of biomarkers were assessed, involving oxidative stress and cytotoxicity responses: glutation-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT) and viable cells with FDA. In addition, we compared the toxic effects on adapted bacteria with unadapted bacteria, from a previous research. Adapted AS comes from three continuous-flow AS laboratory systems; two systems received IBU and TCS, individually; while the other received the binary combination, for 14 days. After adaptation, each bacterial culture condition was exposure to IBU, TCS and the combination, at 12 h. The concentration of IBU and TCS ranged 0.5-4mg/L and 0.012-0.1 mg/L, respectively. Batch toxicity experiments were performed using Oxygraph system (Hansatech), for determining the activity of CAT enzyme based on the quantification of oxygen production rate. Fluorimetric technique was applied as well, using a Fluoroskan Ascent Fl (Thermo) for determining the activity of GST enzyme, using monochlorobimane-GSH as substrate, and to the estimation of viable cell of the sludge, by fluorescence staining using Fluorescein Diacetate (FDA). For IBU adapted sludge, CAT activity it was increased at low concentration of IBU, TCS and mixture. However, increasing the concentration the behavior was different: while IBU tends to stabilize the CAT activity, TCS and the mixture decreased this one. GST activity was significantly increased by TCS and mixture. For IBU, no variations it was observed. For TCS adapted sludge, no significant variations on CAT activity it was observed. GST activity it was significant decreased for all contaminants. For mixture adapted sludge the behaviour of CAT activity it was similar to IBU adapted sludge. GST activity it was decreased at all concentration of IBU. While the presence of TCS and mixture, respectively, increased the GST activity. These findings were consistent with the viability cells evaluation, which clearly showed a variation of sludge viability. Our results suggest that, compared with unadapted bacteria, the adapted bacteria conditions plays a relevant role in the toxicity behaviour towards activated sludge communities.

Keywords: adapted sludge community, mixture, PPCPs, toxicity

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13339 Wastewater from the Food Industry: Characteristics and Possibilities of Sediments on the Basis of the Dairy Industry

Authors: Monika Gałwa-Widera, Anna Kwarciak–Kozłowska, Lucyna Sławik-Dembiczak


Issues relating to management of sewage sludge from small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants is a vital issue, which deal with such scholars as well as those directly involved in the issue of wastewater treatment and management of sedimentary. According to the Law on Waste generating waste is responsible for such processing to the product obtained impacted on the environment minimally. In small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants have to deal with the technology of sludge management technology is far from drying and incineration of sewage sludge. So here you can use other technologies. One of them is the composting of sewage sludge. It is a process of processing and disposal of sewage sludge that effectively their disposal. By composting, we can obtain a product that contains significant amounts of organic matter to assess the fertilizing qualities. Modifications to the ongoing process in biological reactors allow for more rapid receipt of a wholesome product. The research presented and discussed in this publication relate to assist the composting process of sewage sludge and biomass structural material in the shares of rates: 35% biomass, 55% sludge, 10% structural material using a method which involves the re-spawning batch composting physical methods leachate from the composting process.

Keywords: biomass, composting, industry, sewage sludge

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13338 The Usage of Nitrogen Gas and Alum for Sludge Dewatering

Authors: Mamdouh Yousef Saleh, Medhat Hosny El-Zahar, Shymaa El-Dosoky


In most cases, the associated processing cost of dewatering sludge increase with the solid particles concentration. All experiments in this study were conducted on biological sludge type. All experiments help to reduce the greenhouse gases in addition, the technology used was faster in time and less in cost compared to other methods. First, the bubbling pressure was used to dissolve N₂ gas into the sludge, second alum was added to accelerate the process of coagulation of the sludge particles and facilitate their flotation, and third nitrogen gas was used to help floating the sludge particles and reduce the processing time because of the nitrogen gas from the inert gases. The conclusions of this experiment were as follows: first, the best conditions were obtained when the bubbling pressure was 0.6 bar. Second, the best alum dose was determined to help the sludge agglomerate and float. During the experiment, the best alum dose was 80 mg/L. It increased concentration of the sludge by 7-8 times. Third, the economic dose of nitrogen gas was 60 mg/L with separation efficiency of 85%. The sludge concentration was about 8-9 times. That happened due to the gas released tiny bubbles which adhere to the suspended matter causing them to float to the surface of the water where it could be then removed.

Keywords: nitrogen gas, biological treatment, alum, dewatering sludge, greenhouse gases

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13337 Optimization of the Drinking Water Treatment Process Improvement of the Treated Water Quality by Using the Sludge Produced by the Water Treatment Plant

Authors: M. Derraz, M. Farhaoui


Problem statement: In the water treatment processes, the coagulation and flocculation processes produce sludge according to the level of the water turbidity. The aluminum sulfate is the most common coagulant used in water treatment plants of Morocco as well as many countries. It is difficult to manage Sludge produced by the treatment plant. However, it can be used in the process to improve the quality of the treated water and reduce the aluminum sulfate dose. Approach: In this study, the effectiveness of sludge was evaluated at different turbidity levels (low, medium, and high turbidity) and coagulant dosage to find optimal operational conditions. The influence of settling time was also studied. A set of jar test experiments was conducted to find the sludge and aluminum sulfate dosages in order to improve the produced water quality for different turbidity levels. Results: Results demonstrated that using sludge produced by the treatment plant can improve the quality of the produced water and reduce the aluminum sulfate using. The aluminum sulfate dosage can be reduced from 40 to 50% according to the turbidity level (10, 20, and 40 NTU). Conclusions/Recommendations: Results show that sludge can be used in order to reduce the aluminum sulfate dosage and improve the quality of treated water. The highest turbidity removal efficiency is observed within 6 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 35 mg/l of sludge in low turbidity, 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 50 mg/l of sludge in medium turbidity and 20 mg/l of aluminum sulfate and 60 mg/l of sludge in high turbidity. The turbidity removal efficiency is 97.56%, 98.96%, and 99.47% respectively for low, medium and high turbidity levels.

Keywords: coagulation process, coagulant dose, sludge reuse, turbidity removal

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