Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7589

Search results for: bio-methane potential

7589 Anaerobic Digestion Batch Study of Taxonomic Variations in Microbial Communities during Adaptation of Consortium to Different Lignocellulosic Substrates Using Targeted Sequencing

Authors: Priyanka Dargode, Suhas Gore, Manju Sharma, Arvind Lali

Abstract:

Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for production of methane from different biowastes. However, the complexity of microbial communities involved in the process is poorly understood. The performance of biogas production process concerning the process productivity is closely coupled to its microbial community structure and syntrophic interactions amongst the community members. The present study aims at understanding taxonomic variations occurring in any starter inoculum when acclimatised to different lignocellulosic biomass (LBM) feedstocks relating to time of digestion. The work underlines use of high throughput Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) for validating the changes in taxonomic patterns of microbial communities. Biomethane Potential (BMP) batches were set up with different pretreated and non-pretreated LBM residues using the same microbial consortium and samples were withdrawn for studying the changes in microbial community in terms of its structure and predominance with respect to changes in metabolic profile of the process. DNA of samples withdrawn at different time intervals with reference to performance changes of the digestion process, was extracted followed by its 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing analysis using Illumina Platform. Biomethane potential and substrate consumption was monitored using Gas Chromatography(GC) and reduction in COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) respectively. Taxonomic analysis by QIIME server data revealed that microbial community structure changes with different substrates as well as at different time intervals. It was observed that biomethane potential of each substrate was relatively similar but, the time required for substrate utilization and its conversion to biomethane was different for different substrates. This could be attributed to the nature of substrate and consequently the discrepancy between the dominance of microbial communities with regards to different substrate and at different phases of anaerobic digestion process. Knowledge of microbial communities involved would allow a rational substrate specific consortium design which will help to reduce consortium adaptation period and enhance the substrate utilisation resulting in improved efficacy of biogas process.

Keywords: amplicon sequencing, biomethane potential, community predominance, taxonomic analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
7588 Economic Evaluation of Biogas and Biomethane from Animal Manure

Authors: Shahab Shafayyan, Tara Naderi

Abstract:

Biogas is the product of decomposition of organic materials. A variety of sources, including animal wastes, municipal solid wastes, sewage and agricultural wastes may be used to produce biogas in an anaerobic process. The main forming material of biogas is methane gas, which can be used directly in a variety of ways, such as heating and as fuel, which is very common in a number of countries, such as China and India. In this article, the cost of biogas production from animal fertilizers, and its refined form, bio methane gas has been studied and it is shown that it can be an alternative for natural gas in terms of costs, in the near future. The cost of biogas purification to biomethane is more than three times the cost of biogas production for an average unit. Biomethane production costs, calculated for a small unit, is about $9/MMBTU and for an average unit is about $5.9/MMBTU.

Keywords: biogas, biomethane, anaerobic digestion, economic evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
7587 Anaerobic Digestion of Organic Wastes for Biogas Production

Authors: Ayhan Varol, Aysenur Ugurlu

Abstract:

Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and climate change, there is a rising interest in renewable energy sources. In this concept, a wide range of biomass (energy crops, animal manure, solid wastes, etc.) are used for energy production. There has been a growing interest in biomethane production from biomass. Biomethane production from organic wastes is a promising alternative for waste management by providing organic matter stabilization. Anaerobic digestion of organic material produces biogas, and organic substrate is degraded into a more stable material. Therefore, anaerobic digestion technology helps reduction of carbon emissions and produces renewable energy. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR), as well as TS (VS) loadings, influences the anaerobic digestion of organic wastes significantly. The optimum range for HRT varies between 15 days to 30 days, whereas OLR differs between 0.5 to 5 g/L.d depending on the substrate type and its lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. The organic wastes have biogas production potential through anaerobic digestion. In this study, biomethane production potential of wastes like sugar beet bagasse, agricultural residues, food wastes, olive mill pulp, and dairy manure having different characteristics was investigated in mesophilic CSTR reactor, and their performances were compared. The reactor was mixed in order to provide homogenized content at a rate of 80 rpm. The organic matter content of these wastes was between 85 to 94 % with 61% (olive pulp) to 22 % (food waste) dry matter content. The hydraulic retention time changed between 20-30 days. High biogas productions, 13.45 to 5.70 mL/day, were achieved from the wastes studied when operated at 9 to 10.5% TS loadings where OLR varied between 2.92 and 3.95 gVS/L.day. The results showed that food wastes have higher specific methane production rate and volumetric methane production potential than the other wastes studied, under the similar OLR values. The SBP was 680, 585, 540, 390 and 295 mL/g VS for food waste, agricultural residues, sugar beet bagasse, olive pulp and dairy manure respectively. The methane content of the biogas varied between 72 and 60 %. The volatile solids conversion rate for food waste was 62%.

Keywords: biogas production, organic wastes, biomethane, anaerobic digestion

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7586 Anaerobic Digestion of Coffee Wastewater from a Fast Inoculum Adaptation Stage: Replacement of Complex Substrate

Authors: D. Lepe-Cervantes, E. Leon-Becerril, J. Gomez-Romero, O. Garcia-Depraect, A. Lopez-Lopez

Abstract:

In this study, raw coffee wastewater (CWW) was used as a complex substrate for anaerobic digestion. The inoculum adaptation stage, microbial diversity analysis and biomethane potential (BMP) tests were performed. A fast inoculum adaptation stage was used by the replacement of vinasse to CWW in an anaerobic sequential batch reactor (AnSBR) operated at mesophilic conditions. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to analyze the microbial diversity. While, BMP tests using inoculum adapted to CWW were carried out at different inoculum to substrate (I/S) ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1, on a VS basis). Results show that the adaptability percentage was increased gradually until it reaches the highest theoretical value in a short time of 10 d; with a methane yield of 359.10 NmL CH4/g COD-removed; Methanobacterium beijingense was the most abundant microbial (75%) and the greatest specific methane production was achieved at I/S ratio 4:1, whereas the lowest was obtained at 2:1, with BMP values of 320 NmL CH4/g VS and 151 NmL CH4/g VS, respectively. In conclusion, gradual replacement of substrate was a feasible method to adapt the inoculum in a short time even using complex raw substrates, whereas in the BMP tests, the specific methane production was proportional to the initial amount of inoculum.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biomethane potential test, coffee wastewater, fast inoculum adaptation

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
7585 Industrial Wastewater from Paper Mills Used for Biofuel Production and Soil Improvement

Authors: Karin M. Granstrom

Abstract:

Paper mills produce wastewater with a high content of organic substances. Treatment usually consists of sedimentation, biological treatment of activated sludge basins, and chemical precipitation. The resulting sludges are currently a waste problem, deposited in landfills or used as low-grade fuels for incineration. There is a growing awareness of the need for energy efficiency and environmentally sound management of sludge. A resource-efficient method would be to digest the wastewater sludges anaerobically to produce biogas, refine the biogas to biomethane for use in the transportation sector, and utilize the resulting digestate for soil improvement. The biomethane yield of pulp and paper wastewater sludge is comparable to that of straw or manure. As a bonus, the digestate has an improved dewaterability compared to the feedstock biosludge. Limitations of this process are predominantly a weak economic viability - necessitating both sufficiently large-scale paper production for the necessary large amounts of produced wastewater sludge, and the resolving of remaining questions on the certifiability of the digestate and thus its sales price. A way to improve the practical and economical feasibility of using paper mill wastewater for biomethane production and soil improvement is to co-digest it with other feedstocks. In this study, pulp and paper sludge were co-digested with (1) silage and manure, (2) municipal sewage sludge, (3) food waste, or (4) microalgae. Biomethane yield analysis was performed in 500 ml batch reactors, using an Automatic Methane Potential Test System at thermophilic temperature, with a 20 days test duration. The results show that (1) the harvesting season of grass silage and manure collection was an important factor for methane production, with spring feedstocks producing much more than autumn feedstock, and pulp mill sludge benefitting the most from co-digestion; (2) pulp and paper mill sludge is a suitable co-substrate to add when a high nitrogen content cause impaired biogas production due to ammonia inhibition; (3) the combination of food waste and paper sludge gave higher methane yield than either of the substrates digested separately; (4) pure microalgae gave the highest methane yield. In conclusion, although pulp and paper mills are an almost untapped resource for biomethane production, their wastewater is a suitable feedstock for such a process. Furthermore, through co-digestion, the pulp and paper mill wastewater and mill sludges can aid biogas production from more nutrient-rich waste streams from other industries. Such co-digestion also enhances the soil improvement properties of the residue digestate.

Keywords: anaerobic, biogas, biomethane, paper, sludge, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
7584 Quantification of Biomethane Potential from Anaerobic Digestion of Food Waste at Vaal University of Technology

Authors: Kgomotso Matobole, Pascal Mwenge, Tumisang Seodigeng

Abstract:

The global urbanisation and worldwide economic growth have caused a high rate of food waste generation, resulting in environmental pollution. Food waste disposed on landfills decomposes to produce methane (CH4), a greenhouse gas. Inadequate waste management practices contribute to food waste polluting the environment. Thus effective organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) management and treatment are attracting widespread attention in many countries. This problem can be minimised by the employment of anaerobic digestion process, since food waste is rich in organic matter and highly biodegradable, resulting in energy generation and waste volume reduction. The current study investigated the Biomethane Potential (BMP) of the Vaal University of Technology canteen food waste using anaerobic digestion. Tests were performed on canteen food waste, as a substrate, with total solids (TS) of 22%, volatile solids (VS) of 21% and moisture content of 78%. The tests were performed in batch reactors, at a mesophilic temperature of 37 °C, with two different types of inoculum, primary and digested sludge. The resulting CH4 yields for both food waste with digested sludge and primary sludge were equal, being 357 Nml/g VS. This indicated that food waste form this canteen is rich in organic and highly biodegradable. Hence it can be used as a substrate for the anaerobic digestion process. The food waste with digested sludge and primary sludge both fitted the first order kinetic model with k for primary sludge inoculated food waste being 0.278 day-1 with R2 of 0.98, whereas k for digested sludge inoculated food waste being 0.034 day-1, with R2 of 0.847.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas, bio-methane potential, food waste

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7583 Evaluating the Process of Biofuel Generation from Grass

Authors: Karan Bhandari

Abstract:

Almost quarter region of Indian terrain is covered by grasslands. Grass being a low maintenance perennial crop is in abundance. Farmers are well acquainted with its nature, yield and storage. The aim of this paper is to study and identify the applicability of grass as a source of bio fuel. Anaerobic break down is a well-recognized technology. This process is vital for harnessing bio fuel from grass. Grass is a lignocellulosic material which is fibrous and can readily cause problems with parts in motion. Further, it also has a tendency to float. This paper also deals with the ideal digester configuration for biogas generation from grass. Intensive analysis of the literature is studied on the optimum production of grass storage in accordance with bio digester specifications. Subsequent to this two different digester systems were designed, fabricated, analyzed. The first setup was a double stage wet continuous arrangement usually known as a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR). The next was a double stage, double phase system implementing Sequentially Fed Leach Beds using an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (SLBR-UASB). The above methodologies were carried for the same feedstock acquired from the same field. Examination of grass silage was undertaken using Biomethane Potential values. The outcomes portrayed that the Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor system produced about 450 liters of methane per Kg of volatile solids, at a detention period of 48 days. The second method involving Leach Beds produced about 340 liters of methane per Kg of volatile solids with a detention period of 28 days. The results showcased that CSTR when designed exclusively for grass proved to be extremely efficient in methane production. The SLBR-UASB has significant potential to allow for lower detention times with significant levels of methane production. This technology has immense future for research and development in India in terms utilizing of grass crop as a non-conventional source of fuel.

Keywords: biomethane potential values, bio digester specifications, continuously stirred tank reactor, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket

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7582 Interplay of Material and Cycle Design in a Vacuum-Temperature Swing Adsorption Process for Biogas Upgrading

Authors: Federico Capra, Emanuele Martelli, Matteo Gazzani, Marco Mazzotti, Maurizio Notaro

Abstract:

Natural gas is a major energy source in the current global economy, contributing to roughly 21% of the total primary energy consumption. Production of natural gas starting from renewable energy sources is key to limit the related CO2 emissions, especially for those sectors that heavily rely on natural gas use. In this context, biomethane produced via biogas upgrading represents a good candidate for partial substitution of fossil natural gas. The upgrading process of biogas to biomethane consists in (i) the removal of pollutants and impurities (e.g. H2S, siloxanes, ammonia, water), and (ii) the separation of carbon dioxide from methane. Focusing on the CO2 removal process, several technologies can be considered: chemical or physical absorption with solvents (e.g. water, amines), membranes, adsorption-based systems (PSA). However, none emerged as the leading technology, because of (i) the heterogeneity in plant size, ii) the heterogeneity in biogas composition, which is strongly related to the feedstock type (animal manure, sewage treatment, landfill products), (iii) the case-sensitive optimal tradeoff between purity and recovery of biomethane, and iv) the destination of the produced biomethane (grid injection, CHP applications, transportation sector). With this contribution, we explore the use of a technology for biogas upgrading and we compare the resulting performance with benchmark technologies. The proposed technology makes use of a chemical sorbent, which is engineered by RSE and consists of Di-Ethanol-Amine deposited on a solid support made of γ-Alumina, to chemically adsorb the CO2 contained in the gas. The material is packed into fixed beds that cyclically undergo adsorption and regeneration steps. CO2 is adsorbed at low temperature and ambient pressure (or slightly above) while the regeneration is carried out by pulling vacuum and increasing the temperature of the bed (vacuum-temperature swing adsorption - VTSA). Dynamic adsorption tests were performed by RSE and were used to tune the mathematical model of the process, including material and transport parameters (i.e. Langmuir isotherms data and heat and mass transport). Based on this set of data, an optimal VTSA cycle was designed. The results enabled a better understanding of the interplay between material and cycle tuning. As exemplary application, the upgrading of biogas for grid injection, produced by an anaerobic digester (60-70% CO2, 30-40% CH4), for an equivalent size of 1 MWel was selected. A plant configuration is proposed to maximize heat recovery and minimize the energy consumption of the process. The resulting performances are very promising compared to benchmark solutions, which make the VTSA configuration a valuable alternative for biomethane production starting from biogas.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, biogas upgrading energetic cost, CO2 adsorption, VTSA process modelling

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7581 Macroalgae as a Gaseous Fuel Option: Potential and Advanced Conversion Technologies

Authors: Muhammad Rizwan Tabassum, Ao Xia, Jerry D. Murphy

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to provide an overview of macroalgae as an alternative feedstock for gaseous fuel production and key innovative technologies. Climate change and continuously depleting resources are the key driving forces to think for alternative sources of energy. Macroalgae can be favored over land based energy crops because they are not in direct competition with food crops. However, some drawbacks, such as high moisture content, seasonal variation in chemical composition and process inhibition limit the economic practicability. Macroalgae, like brown seaweed can be converted into gaseous and liquid fuel by different conversion technologies. Biomethane via anaerobic digestion is the appealing technology due to its dual advantage of a commercially applicable and environment friendly technology. Other technologies like biodiesel and bioethanol conversion technologies from seaweed are still under progress. Screening of high yielding macroalgae species, peak harvesting season and process optimization make the technology economically feasible for alternative source of feedstock for biofuel production in future.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biofuels, bio-methane, advanced conversion technologies, macroalgae

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7580 Discerning of Antimicrobial Potential of Phenylpropanoic Acid Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Shivkanya Fuloria, Amit Singh

Abstract:

2-Phenyl propionic acid and oxadiazoles possess antimicrobial potential. 2-Phenyl propane hydrazide (1), on cyclization with aromatic acids offered 2-aryl-5-(1-phenylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives (1A-E). The PPA derived oxadiazoles were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies. The compounds were screened for antimicrobial potential. The compound 1D bearing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to a certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the PPA derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antimicrobial, imines, oxadiazoles, PPA

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7579 Renewable Energy Potential of Diluted Poultry Manure during Ambient Anaerobic Stabilisation

Authors: Cigdem Yangin-Gomec, Aigerim Jaxybayeva, Orhan Ince

Abstract:

In this study, the anaerobic treatability of chicken manure diluted with tap water (with an influent feed ratio of 1 kg of fresh chicken manure to 6 liter of tap water) was investigated in a lab-scale anaerobic sludge bed (ASB) reactor inoculated with the granular sludge already adapted to chicken manure. The raw waste digested in this study was the manure from laying-hens having average total solids (TS) of about 30% with ca. 60% volatile content. The ASB reactor was fed semi-continuously at ambient operating temperature range (17-23C) at a HRT of 13 and 26 days for about 6 months, respectively. The respective average total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were ca. 90% and 75%, whereas average biomethane production rate was calculated ca. 180 lt per kg of CODremoved from the ASB reactor at an average HRT of 13 days. Moreover, total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) in the influent were reduced more than 97%. Hence, high removals of the organic compounds with respective biogas production made anaerobic stabilization of the diluted chicken manure by ASB reactor at ambient operating temperatures viable. By this way, external heating up to 35C (i.e. anaerobic processes have been traditionally operated at mesophilic conditions) could be avoided in the scope of this study.

Keywords: ambient anaerobic digestion, biogas recovery, poultry manure, renewable energy

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7578 Interactions between Water-Stress and VA Mycorrhizal Inoculation on Plant Growth and Leaf-Water Potential in Tomato

Authors: Parisa Alizadeh Oskuie, Shahram Baghban Ciruse

Abstract:

The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus(Glomus mossea) on plant growth and leaf-water potential of tomato (lycopersicum esculentum L.cv.super star) were studied in potted culture water stress stress period of 3 months in greenhouse conditions with the soil matric potential maintained at Fc1, Fc2, Fc3, and Fc4 respectively (0.8,0.7,0.6,0.5 Fc). Seven-day-old seedlings of tomato were transferred to pots containing Glomus mossea or non-AMF. AM colonization significantly stimulated shoot dry matter and leaf-water potential but water stress significantly decreased leaf area, shoot dry matter colonization and leaf-water potential.

Keywords: leaf-water potential, plant growth, tomato, VA mycorrhiza, water-stress

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7577 Radiative Reactions Analysis at the Range of Astrophysical Energies

Authors: A. Amar

Abstract:

Analysis of the elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei has been done in the framework of the optical model and single folding model at the beam energies up to 17 MeV. We could enhance the optical potential parameters using Esis88 Code, as well as SPI GENOA Code. Linear relationship between volume real potential (V0) and proton energy (Ep) has been obtained. Also, surface imaginary potential WD is proportional to the proton energy (Ep) in the range 0.400 and 17 MeV. The radiative reaction 10B(p,γ)11C has been analyzed using potential model. A comparison between 10B(p,γ)11C and 6Li(p,γ)7Be has been made. Good agreement has been found between theoretical and experimental results in the whole range of energy. The radiative resonance reaction 7Li(p,γ)8Be has been studied.

Keywords: elastic scattering of protons on 10B nuclei, optical potential parameters, potential model, radiative reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
7576 A Literature Review on the Role of Local Potential for Creative Industries

Authors: Maya Irjayanti

Abstract:

Local creativity utilization has been a strategic investment to be expanded as a creative industry due to its significant contribution to the national gross domestic product. Many developed and developing countries look toward creative industries as an agenda for the economic growth. This study aims to identify the role of local potential for creative industries from various empirical studies. The method performed in this study will involve a peer-reviewed journal articles and conference papers review addressing local potential and creative industries. The literature review analysis will include several steps: material collection, descriptive analysis, category selection, and material evaluation. Finally, the outcome expected provides a creative industries clustering based on the local potential of various nations. In addition, the finding of this study will be used as future research reference to explore a particular area with well-known aspects of local potential for creative industry products.

Keywords: business, creativity, local potential, local wisdom

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
7575 Market Integration in the ECCAS Sub-Region

Authors: Mouhamed Mbouandi Njikam

Abstract:

This work assesses the trade potential of countries in the Economic Community of Central Africa States (ECCAS). The gravity model of trade is used to evaluate the trade flows of member countries, and to compute the trade potential index of ECCAS during 1995-2010. The focus is on the removal of tariffs and non-tariff barriers in the sub-region. Estimates from the gravity model are used for the calculation of the sub-region’s commercial potential. Its three main findings are: (i) the background research shows a low level of integration in the sub-region and open economies; (ii) a low level of industrialization and diversification are the main factors reducing trade potential in the sub-region; (iii) the trade creation predominate on the deflections of trade between member countries.

Keywords: gravity model, ECCAS, trade flows, trade potential, regional cooperation

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7574 Correlation between Potential Intelligence Explanatory Study in the Perspective of Multiple Intelligence Theory by Using Dermatoglyphics and Culture Approaches

Authors: Efnie Indrianie

Abstract:

Potential Intelligence constitutes one essential factor in every individual. This intelligence can be a provision for the development of Performance Intelligence if it is supported by surrounding environment. Fingerprint analysis is a method in recognizing this Potential Intelligence. This method is grounded on pattern and number of finger print outlines that are assumed symmetrical with the number of nerves in our brain, in which these areas have their own function among another. These brain’s functions are later being transposed into intelligence components in accordance with the Multiple Intelligences theory. This research tested the correlation between Potential Intelligence and the components of its Performance Intelligence. Statistical test results that used Pearson correlation showed that five components of Potential Intelligence correlated with Performance Intelligence. Those five components are Logic-Math, Logic, Linguistic, Music, Kinesthetic, and Intrapersonal. Also, this research indicated that cultural factor had a big role in shaping intelligence.

Keywords: potential intelligence, performance intelligence, multiple intelligences, fingerprint, environment, brain

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7573 The Role of Ionic Strength and Mineral Size to Zeta Potential for the Adhesion of P. putida to Mineral Surfaces

Authors: Fathiah Mohamed Zuki, Robert George Edyvean

Abstract:

Electrostatic interaction energy (∆EEDL) is a part of the Extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) theory, which, together with van der Waals (∆EVDW) and acid base (∆EAB) interaction energies, has been extensively used to investigate the initial adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. Electrostatic or electrical double layer interaction energy is considerably affected by surface potential, however it cannot be determined experimentally and is usually replaced by zeta (ζ) potential via electrophoretic mobility. This paper focuses on the effect of ionic concentration as a function of pH and the effect of mineral grain size on ζ potential. It was found that both ionic strength and mineral grain size play a major role in determining the value of ζ potential for the adhesion of P. putida to hematite and quartz surfaces. Higher ζ potential values lead to higher electrostatic interaction energies and eventually to higher total XDLVO interaction energy resulting in bacterial repulsion.

Keywords: XDLVO, electrostatic interaction energy, zeta potential, P. putida, mineral

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7572 A Comparative Case Study on the Relationship between Solar Energy Potential and Block Typology and Density in Shanghai Context

Authors: Dan Zhu, Jie Shi

Abstract:

This study explores the relationship between solar potential and block typology and density by analyzing sixteen existing typical street blocks with different topologies and densities in Shanghai, a representative high-density urban in China. Several indicators are proposed to quantify, and a methodology is conducted to evaluate and compare the solar potential both on façade and roof across various selected urban forms. 1) The importance of appropriate solar energy indicators and geometric parameters to be used in comparative studies, and 2) the relationship between urban typology, density, and solar performance are discussed. In this way, the results reveal the key design attributes contributing to increasing solar potential.

Keywords: block typology, geometric parameters, high-density urban, solar potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
7571 Adsorption of Bovine Serum Albumine on CeO2

Authors: Roman Marsalek

Abstract:

Preparation of nano-particles of cerium oxide and adsorption of bovine serum albumine on them were studied. Particle size distribution and influence of pH on zeta potential of prepared CeO2 were determined. Average size of prepared cerium oxide nano-particles was 9 nm. The simultaneous measurements of the bovine serum albumine adsorption and zeta potential determination of the (adsorption) suspensions were carried out. The adsorption isotherms were found to be of typical Langmuir type; values of the bovine serum albumin adsorption capacities were calculated. Increasing of pH led to decrease of zeta potential and decrease of adsorption capacity of cerium oxide nano-particles. The maximum adsorption capacity was found for strongly acid suspension (am=118 mg/g). The samples of nanoceria with positive zeta potential adsorbed more bovine serum albumine on the other hand, the samples with negative zeta potential showed little or no protein adsorption. Surface charge or better say zeta potential of CeO2 nano-particles plays the key role in adsorption of proteins on such type of materials.

Keywords: adsorption, BSA, cerium oxide nanoparticles, zeta potential, albumin

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7570 Modified Single-Folded Potentials for the Alpha-²⁴Mg and Alpha-²⁸Si Elastic Scattering

Authors: M. N. A. Abdullah, Pritha Roy, R. R. Shil, D. R. Sarker

Abstract:

Alpha-nucleus interaction is obscured because it produces enhanced cross-sections at large scattering angles known as anomaly in large angle scattering (ALAS). ALAS is prominent in the elastic scattering of α-particles as well as in non-elastic processes involving α-particles for incident energies up to 50 MeV and for targets of mass A ≤ 50. The Woods-Saxon type of optical model potential fails to describe the processes in a consistent manner. Folded potential is a good candidate and often used to construct the potential which is derived from the microscopic as well as semi-microscopic folding calculations. The present work reports the analyses of the elastic scattering of α-particles from ²⁴Mg and ²⁸Si at Eα=22-100 MeV and 14.4-120 MeV incident energies respectively in terms of the modified single-folded (MSF) potential. To derive the MSF potential, we take the view that the nucleons in the target nuclei ²⁴Mg and ²⁸Si are primarily in α-like clusters and the rest of the time in unclustered nucleonic configuration. The MSF potential, found in this study, does not need any renormalization over the whole range of incident α energies, and the renormalization factor has been found to be exactly 1 for both the targets. The best-fit parameters yield 4Aα = 21 and AN = 3 for α-²⁴Mg potential, and 4Aα = 26 and AN = 2 for α-²⁸Si potential in time-average pictures. The root-mean-square radii of both ²⁴Mg and ²⁸Si are also deduced, and the results obtained from this work agree well with the outcomes of other studies.

Keywords: elastic scattering, optical model, folded potential, renormalization

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7569 Carbon Sequestering And Structural Capabilities Of Eucalyptus Cloeziana

Authors: Holly Sandberg, Christina McCoy, Khaled Mansy

Abstract:

Eucalyptus Cloeziana, commonly known as Gympie Messmate, is a fast-growing hardwood native to Australia. Its quick growth makes it advantageous for carbon sequestering, while its strength class lends itself to structural applications. Market research shows that the demand for timber is growing, especially mass timber. An environmental product declaration, or EPD, for eucalyptus Cloeziana in the Australian market has been evaluated and compared to the EPD’s of steel and Douglas fir of the same region. An EPD follows a product throughout its life cycle, stating values for global warming potential, ozone depletion potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and abiotic depletion potential. This paper highlights the market potential, as well as the environmental benefits and challenges to using Gympie Messmate as a structural building material. In addition, a case study is performed to compare steel, Douglas fir, and eucalyptus in terms of embodied carbon and structural weight within a single structural bay. Comparisons among the three materials highlight both the differences in structural capabilities as well as environmental impact.

Keywords: eucalyptus, timber, construction, structural, material

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7568 The Concept of Anchor Hazard Potential Map

Authors: Sao-Jeng Chao, Chia-Yun Wei, Si-Han Lai, Cheng-Yu Huang, Yu-Han Teng

Abstract:

In Taiwan, the landforms are mainly dominated by mountains and hills. Many road sections of the National Highway are impossible to avoid problems such as slope excavation or slope filling. In order to increase the safety of the slope, various slope protection methods are used to stabilize the slope, especially the soil anchor technique is the most common. This study is inspired by the soil liquefaction potential map. The concept of the potential map is widely used. The typhoon, earth-rock flow, tsunami, flooded area, and the recent discussion of soil liquefaction have safety potential concepts. This paper brings the concept of safety potential to the anchored slope. Because the soil anchor inspection is only the concept of points, this study extends the concept of the point to the surface, using the Quantum GIS program to present the slope damage area, and depicts the slope appearance and soil anchor point with the slope as-built drawing. The soil anchor scores are obtained by anchor inspection data, and the low, medium and high potential areas are remitted by interpolation. Thus, the area where the anchored slope may be harmful is judged and relevant maintenance is provided. The maintenance units can thus prevent judgment and deal with the anchored slope as soon as possible.

Keywords: anchor, slope, potential map, lift-off test, existing load

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7567 Application of Remote Sensing and GIS for Delineating Groundwater Potential Zones of Ariyalur, Southern Part of India

Authors: G. Gnanachandrasamy, Y. Zhou, S. Venkatramanan, T. Ramkumar, S. Wang

Abstract:

The natural resources of groundwater are the most precious resources around the world that balances are shrinking day by day. In connection, there is an urgency need for demarcation of potential groundwater zone. For these rationale integration of geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing techniques (RS) for the hydrological studies have become a dramatic change in the field of hydrological research. These techniques are provided to locate the potential zone of groundwater. This research has been made to indent groundwater potential zone in Ariyalur of the southern part of India with help of GIS and remote sensing techniques. To identify the groundwater potential zone used by different thematic layers of geology, geomorphology, drainage, drainage density, lineaments, lineaments density, soil and slope with inverse distance weighting (IDW) methods. From the overall result reveals that the potential zone of groundwater in the study area classified into five classes named as very good (12.18 %), good (22.74 %), moderate (32.28 %), poor (27.7 %) and very poor (5.08 %). This technique suggested that very good potential zone of groundwater occurred in patches of northern and central parts of Jayamkondam, Andimadam and Palur regions in Ariyalur district. The result exhibited that inverse distance weighting method offered in this research is an effective tool for interpreting groundwater potential zones for suitable development and management of groundwater resources in different hydrogeological environments.

Keywords: GIS, groundwater potential zone, hydrology, remote sensing

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7566 Identifying Factors for Evaluating Livability Potential within a Metropolis: A Case of Kolkata

Authors: Arpan Paul, Joy Sen

Abstract:

Livability is a holistic concept whose factors include many complex characteristics and levels of interrelationships among them. It has been considered as people’s need for public amenities and is recognized as a major element to create social welfare. The concept and principles of livability are essential for recognizing the significance of community well-being. The attributes and dimensions of livability are also important aspects to measure the overall quality of environment. Livability potential is mainly considered as the capacity to develop into the overall well-being of an urban area in future. The intent of the present study is to identify the prime factors to evaluate livability potential within a metropolis. For ground level case study, the paper has selected Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) as it has wide physical, social, and economic variations within it. The initial part of the study deals with detailed literature review on livability and its significance of evaluating its potential within a metropolis. The next segment is dedicated for identifying the primary factors which would evaluate livability potential within a metropolis. In pursuit of identifying primary factors, which have a direct impact on urban livability, this study delineates the metropolitan area into various clusters, having their distinct livability potential. As a final outcome of the study, variations of livability potential of those selected clusters are highlighted to explain the complexity of the metropolitan development.

Keywords: Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA), livability potential, metropolis, wellbeing

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7565 Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activity of Tolyloxy Derived Oxadiazoles

Authors: Shivkanya Fuloria, Neeraj Kumar Fuloria, Sokinder Kumar

Abstract:

m-Cresol and oxadiazoles are the potent antimicrobial moieties. 2-(m-Tolyloxy)acetohydrazide (1) on cyclization with aromatic acids yielded 2-(aryl)-5-(m-tolyloxymethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole (1A-E). The structures of newer oxadiazoles were confirmed by elemental and spectral analysis. The newer compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential. The compound 1E containing strong electron withdrawing group showed maximum antimicrobial potential. Other compounds also displayed antimicrobial potential to certain extent. The SAR of newer oxadiazoles indicated that substitution of strong electronegative group in the tolyloxy derived oxadiazoles enhanced their antimicrobial potential.

Keywords: antibacterial, cresol, hydrazide, oxadiazoles

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7564 Determination of the Oxidative Potential of Organic Materials: Method Development

Authors: Jui Afrin, Akhtarul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper, the solution of glucose, yeast and glucose yeast mixture are being used as sample solution for determining the chemical oxygen demand (COD). In general COD determination method used to determine the different rang of oxidative potential. But in this work has shown to determine the definite oxidative potential for different concentration for known COD value and wanted to see the difference between experimental value and the theoretical value for evaluating the method drawbacks. In this study, made the values of oxidative potential like 400 mg/L, 500 mg/L, 600 mg/L, 700 mg/L and 800mg/L for various sample solutions and determined the oxidative potential according to our developed method. Plotting the experimental COD values vs. sample solutions of various concentrations in mg/L to draw the curve. From these curves see that the curves for glucose solution is not linear; its deviate from linearity for the lower concentration and the reason for this deviation is unknown. If these drawback can be removed this method can be effectively used to determine Oxidative Potential of Industrial wastewater (such as: Leather industry wastewater, Municipal wastewater, Food industry wastewater, Textile wastewater, Pharmaceuticals waste water) that’s why more experiment and study required.

Keywords: bod (biological oxygen demand), cod (chemical oxygen demand), oxidative potential, titration, waste water, development

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7563 Generation of Electro-Encephalography Readiness Potentials by Intention

Authors: Seokbeen Lim, Gilwon Yoon

Abstract:

The readiness potential in brain waves is a brain activity related with an intention whose potential arises even before its conscious intention. This study was carried out in order to understand the generation and mechanism of the readiness potential more. The experiment with two subjects was conducted in two ways following the Oddball task protocol. Firstly, auditory stimuli were randomly presented to the subjects. The subject was allowed to press the keyboard with the right index finger only when the subject heard the target stimulus but not the standard stimulus. Secondly, unlike the first one, the auditory stimuli were randomly presented, and the subjects pressed the keyboard in the same manner, but at the same time with grasping action of the left hand. The readiness potential showed up for both of these experiments. In the first Oddball experiment, the readiness potential was detected only when the target stimulus was presented. However, in the second Oddball experiment with the left hand action of grasping something, the readiness potential was detected at the presentation of for both standard and target stimuli. However, detected readiness potentials with the target stimuli were larger than those of the standard stimuli. We found an interesting phenomenon that the readiness potential was able to be detected even the standard stimulus. This indicates that motor-related readiness potentials can be generated only by the intention to move. These results present a new perspective in psychology and brain engineering since subconscious brain action may be prior to conscious recognition of the intention.

Keywords: readiness potential, auditory stimuli, event-related potential, electroencephalography, oddball task

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7562 Characterizing the Diffused Double Layer Properties of Clay Minerals

Authors: N. Saranya

Abstract:

The difference in characteristic behavior of clay minerals for different electrolyte solution is dictated by the corresponding variation occurring at its diffused double layer thickness (DDL). The diffused double layer of clay mineral has two distinct regions; the inner region is termed as ‘Stern layer’ where ions are strongly attached to the clay surface. In the outer region, the ions are not strongly bonded with the clay surface, and this region is termed as ‘diffuse layer’. Within the diffuse layer, there is a plane that forms a boundary between the moving ions and the ions attached to the clay surface, which is termed as slipping or shear plane, and the potential of this plane is defined as zeta potential (ζ). Therefore, the variation in diffused double layer properties of clay mineral for different electrolyte solutions can be modeled if the corresponding variation in surface charge, surface potential, and zeta potential are computed. In view of this, the present study has attempted to characterize the diffused double layer properties of three different clay minerals interacting with different pore fluids by measuring the corresponding variation in surface charge, surface potential, and zeta potential. Further, the obtained variation in the diffused double layer property is compared with the Gouy-Chapman model, which is the widely accepted theoretical model to characterize the diffused double layer properties of clay minerals.

Keywords: DDL, surface charge, surface potential, zeta potential

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7561 Three Star Hotels in Sukhumvit Area of Bangkok and the Potential to Be in Tourism Industry Joining the ASEAN Community

Authors: Benjaporn Yaemjamuang, Sasitorn Jetanont

Abstract:

The three star hotels in Sukhumvit area of Bangkok and the potential to be in the tourism industry joining the ASEAN Community were studied. The findings revealed that the representative samples satisfy the potential of hotel services at a high level in all aspects. The level of service satisfaction by gender is not different. On the other hand, for different ethnic origins, ages, occupations, levels of education, the satisfaction on the services varies in significance level of 0.05. Factors associated with satisfaction in the services of the hotel include a potential location and environment. It was also found that satisfaction with the service aspects are related as follows: services (r = .810), food (r = .807), booking service (r = .768), room condition (r = .762) and security (r =.756) which is aligned with the coefficient .826.

Keywords: three star hotel, ASEAN community, potential in tourism industry, Bangkok

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7560 Quantitative Analysis of the Trade Potential of the United States with Members of the European Union: A Gravity Model Approach

Authors: Zahid Ahmad, Nauman Ali

Abstract:

This study has estimated the trade between USA and individual members of European Union using Gravity Model of Trade as The USA has a complex trade relationship with the European countries consist of a large number of consumers, which make USA dependent on EU for major of its total world trade. However, among the member of EU, the trade potential of USA with individual members of EU is not known. Panel data techniques e.g. Random Effect, Fixed Effect and Pooled Panel have been applied to secondary quantitative data to analyze the Trade between USA and EU. Trade Potential of USA with individual members of EU has been obtained using the ratio of Actual trade of USA with EU members and the trade as predicted by Gravity Model. The Study concluded that the USA has greater trade potential with 16 members of EU, including Croatia, Portugal and United Kingdom on top. On the other hand, Finland, Ireland, and France are the top countries with which the USA has exhaustive trade potential.

Keywords: analytical technique, economic, gravity, international trade, significant

Procedia PDF Downloads 156