Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 44

Search results for: sawdust

44 Immediate and Long-Term Effect of the Sawdust Usage on Shear Strength of the Clayey Silt Soil

Authors: Dogan Cetin, Omar Hamdi Jasim


Using some additives is very common method to improve the soil properties such as shear strength, bearing capacity; and to reduce the settlement and lateral deformation. Soil reinforcement with natural materials is an attractive method to improve the soil properties because of their low cost. However, the studies conducted by using natural additive are very limited. This paper presents the results of an investigation on the immediate and long-term effects of the sawdust on the shear strength behavior of a clayey silt soil obtained in Arnavutkoy in Istanbul with sawdust. Firstly, compaction tests were conducted to be able to optimum moisture content for every percentage of sawdust. The samples were obtained from compacted soil at optimum moisture content. UU Triaxial Tests were conducted to evaluate the response of randomly distributed sawdust on the strength of low plasticity clayey silt soil. The specimens were tested with 1%, 2% and 3% content of sawdust. It was found that the undrained shear strength of clay soil with 1%, 2% and 3% sawdust were increased respectively 4.65%, 27.9% and 39.5% higher than the soil without additive. At 5%, shear strength of clay soil decreased by 3.8%. After 90 days cure period, the shear strength of the soil with 1%, 2%, 3% and %5 increased respectively 251%, 302%, 260% and 153%. It can be said that the effect of the sawdust usage has a remarkable effect on the undrained shear strength of the soil. Besides the increasing undrained shear strength, it was also found that the sawdust decreases the liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index by 5.5%, 2.9 and 10.9% respectively.

Keywords: compaction test, sawdust, shear strength, UU Triaxial Test

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
43 Adsorption of Methyl Violet Dye from Aqueous Solution onto Modified Kapok Sawdust : Characteristics and Equilibrium Studies

Authors: Widi Astuti, Triastuti Sulistyaningsih, Masni Maksiola


Kapok sawdust, an inexpensive material, has been utilized as an adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet in aqueous solution. To increase the adsorption capacity, kapok sawdust was reacted with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution having various concentrations. Various physico-chemical parameters such as solution pH, contact time and initial dye concentration were studied. Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich-Peterson isotherm model were used to analyze the equilibrium data. The research shows that the experimental data fitted well with the Redlich-Peterson model, with the value of constants are 41.001 for KR, 0.523 for aR and 0.799 for g.

Keywords: kapok sawdust, methyl violet, dye, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
42 The Sawdust Cultivation of Lentinula edodes with Broussonetia kazinoki

Authors: Yeun Sug Jeong, Yeongseon Jang, Rhim Ryoo, Donha Choi, Sung-Suk Lee, Kang-Hyeon Ka


Broussonetia kazinoki (paper mulberry) is a plant native to Asia, and it grows at the foot of a mountain. Its bark is used as a raw material of Hanji, traditional Korean paper, and fruit is used as a medicinal material. However, inside the bark (woody part) is not used and discarded. We tried to use it for Lentinula edodes (oak mushroom) cultivation. It is commonly cultivated using oak trees and sawdust, but it could be grown with other trees. The woody part of paper mulberry was ground and mixed with oak sawdust by five different ratios. The 1.2 kg cylindrical bag media were prepared and water contents were adjusted to 65%. The media were autoclaved at 100℃ for 60 min and 121℃ for 90 min. Two strains of oak mushroom, NIFoS 2462 and NIFoS 2778 were inoculated and cultivated for 90 days in dark condition, and 40 days in light condition. Compared to the control, the mycelial growth period was long and the hardness of the media was low when paper mulberry sawdust was added. After incubation period, fruiting was stimulated at 18℃ and more than 85% humidity. After each flush, there was a resting period of 2 weeks. In the first flush, mushrooms were small, and a lot of small mushrooms were harvested. On the other hand, no mushrooms of 5 g or less were harvested in the secondary flush. The highest productivity was obtained in a 3:1 ratio of paper mulberry and oak sawdust. The size of NIFoS 2778 was uniform in each condition. On the other hand, NIFoS 2462 had smaller mushrooms in the media containing paper mulberry sawdust, but the appearance was not significantly different. This study showed that paper mulberry wood could be used to grow oak mushrooms and some oak sawdust could be substituted.

Keywords: Broussonetia kazinoki, cultivation, Lentinula edodes, oak mushroom

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
41 Growth Performance, Body Linear Measurements and Body Condition Score of Savanna Brown Goats Fed Enzyme Treated Sawdust Diets as Replacement for Maize Offal and Managed Semi-intensively

Authors: Alabi Olushola John, Ogbiko Anthonia, Tsado Daniel Nma, Mbajiorgu Ejike Felix, Adama Theophilus Zubairu


A total of thirty (30) goats weighting between 5.8 and 7.3 kg were used to determine the growth performance, body linear measurements and body condition score of Semi intensively manged Savanna Brown goats fed enzyme treated sawdust diets (ETSD). They divided into five dietary treatments (T) groups with three replications using a completely randomized design. Treatment one (1) comprises of animals fed diet on 0 % enzyme treated sawdust while Treatment 2 (T2), Treatment 3 (T3), Treatment 4 (T4) and Treatment 5 (T5) comprises of animals fed diets containing 10, 20, 30 and 40 % enzyme treated sawdust diets, respectively. The study lasted 16 weeks. Data on growth performance parameters, body linear measurement (height at wither, body length, chest girth, hind leg length, foreleg length, facial length) and body condition score were collected and analyzed using one way analysis of variance. No significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the all growth performance parameters and linear body measurements. However, significant difference was observed in body length and daily body length gains with highest value observed in animals fed the control diets (7.38 and 0.08 cm respectively) and animals on 30 % ETSD (7.25 and 0.07 cm respectively) and lowest values (4.75 and 0.05 cm respectively) were observed in animals fed 10 % ETSD among the treatment groups. It was, therefore, concluded that enzyme treated sawdust can be used in the diets of Savanna Brown goats up to 40 % replacement for maize offal since this treatment improved the body length and daily body length gains.

Keywords: performance, sawdust, enzyme treated, semi-intensively, replacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
40 Survey of the Elimination of Red Acid Dye by Wood Dust

Authors: N. Ouslimani, T. Abadlia, M. Fadel


This work focused on the elimination of acid textile dye (red bermacide acid dye BN-CL-200), widely used for dyeing wool and polyamide fibers, by adsorption on a natural material, wood sawdust, in the static mode by keeping under continuous stirring, a specific mass of the adsorbent, with a dye solution of known concentration. The influence of various parameters is studied like the influence of particle size, mass, pH and time. The best results were obtained with 0.4 mm grain size, mass of 3g, Temperature of 20 °C, pH 2 and Time contact of 120 min.

Keywords: acid dye, environment, wood sawdust, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
39 Experimental Characterization of the Thermal Behavior of a Sawdust Mortar

Authors: F. Taouche-Kheloui, O. Fedaoui-Akmoussi, K. Ait tahar, Li. Alex


Currently, the reduction of energy consumption, through the use of abundant and recyclable natural materials, for better thermal insulation represents an important area of research. To this end, the use of bio-sourced materials has been identified as one of the green sectors with a very high economic development potential for the future. Because of its role in reducing the consumption of fossil-based raw materials, it contributes significantly to the storage of atmospheric carbon, limits greenhouse gas emissions and creates new economic opportunities. This study constitutes a contribution to the elaboration and the experimental characterization of the thermal behavior of a sawdust-reduced mortar matrix. We have taken into account the influence of the size of the grain fibers of sawdust, hence the use of three different ranges and also different percentage in the different confections. The intended practical application consists of producing a light weight compound at a lower cost to ensure a better thermal and acoustic behavior compared to that existing in the field, in addition to the desired resistances. Improving energy performance, while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the building sector, is amongst the objectives to be achieved. The results are very encouraging and highlight the value of the proposed design of organic-source mortar panels which have specific mechanical properties acceptable for their use, low densities, lower cost of manufacture and labor, and above all a positive impact on the environment.

Keywords: mortar, sawdust waste, thermal, experimental, analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
38 Characteristics of Tremella fuciformis and Annulohypoxylon stygium for Optimal Cultivation Conditions

Authors: Eun-Ji Lee, Hye-Sung Park, Chan-Jung Lee, Won-Sik Kong


We analyzed the DNA sequence of the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer) region of the 18S ribosomal gene and compared it with the gene sequence of T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. in the BLAST database. The sequences of collected T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. have over 99% homology in the T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. sequence BLAST database. In order to select the optimal medium for T. fuciformis, five kinds of a medium such as Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), Mushroom Complete Medium (MCM), Malt Extract Agar (MEA), Yeast extract (YM), and Compost Extract Dextrose Agar (CDA) were used. T. fuciformis showed the best growth on PDA medium, and Hypoxylon sp. showed the best growth on MCM. So as to investigate the optimum pH and temperature, the pH range was set to pH4 to pH8 and the temperature range was set to 15℃ to 35℃ (5℃ degree intervals). Optimum culture conditions for the T. fuciformis growth were pH5 at 25℃. Hypoxylon sp. were pH6 at 25°C. In order to confirm the most suitable carbon source, we used fructose, galactose, saccharose, soluble starch, inositol, glycerol, xylose, dextrose, lactose, dextrin, Na-CMC, adonitol. Mannitol, mannose, maltose, raffinose, cellobiose, ethanol, salicine, glucose, arabinose. In the optimum carbon source, T. fuciformis is xylose and Hypoxylon sp. is arabinose. Using the column test, we confirmed sawdust a suitable for T. fuciformis, since the composition of sawdust affects the growth of fruiting bodies of T. fuciformis. The sawdust we used is oak tree, pine tree, poplar, birch, cottonseed meal, cottonseed hull. In artificial cultivation of T. fuciformis with sawdust medium, T. fuciformis and Hypoxylon sp. showed fast mycelial growth on mixture of oak tree sawdust, cottonseed hull, and wheat bran.

Keywords: cultivation, optimal condition, tremella fuciformis, nutritional source

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
37 Thermochemical and Biological Pretreatment Study for Efficient Sugar Release from Lignocellulosic Biomass (Deodar and Sal Wood Residues)

Authors: Neelu Raina, Parvez Singh Slathia, Deepali Bhagat, Preeti Sharma


Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for generating suitable substrates (starch/ sugars) for conversion to bioethanol is the most crucial step. In present study waste from furniture industry i.e sawdust from softwood Cedrus deodara (deodar) and hardwood Shorea robusta (sal) was used as lignocellulosic biomass. Thermochemical pretreatment was given by autoclaving at 121°C temperature and 15 psi pressure. Acids (H2SO4,HCl,HNO3,H3PO4), alkali (NaOH,NH4OH,KOH,Ca(OH)2) and organic acids (C6H8O7,C2H2O4,C4H4O4) were used at 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% concentration without giving any residence time. 1% HCl gave maximum sugar yield of 3.6587g/L in deodar and 6.1539 g/L in sal. For biological pretreatment a fungi isolated from decaying wood was used , sawdust from deodar tree species was used as a lignocellulosic substrate and before thermochemical pretreatment sawdust was treated with fungal culture at 37°C under submerged conditions with a residence time of one week followed by a thermochemical pretreatment methodology. Higher sugar yields were obtained with sal tree species followed by deodar tree species, i.e., 6.0334g/L in deodar and 8.3605g/L in sal was obtained by a combined biological and thermochemical pretreatment. Use of acids along with biological pretreatment is a favourable factor for breaking the lignin seal and thus increasing the sugar yield. Sugar estimation was done using Dinitrosalicyclic assay method. Result validation is being done by statistical analysis.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, bioethanol, pretreatment, sawdust

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
36 Physico-Mechanical Properties of Wood-Plastic Composites Produced from Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Bottle Wastes and Sawdust of Three Tropical Hardwood Species

Authors: Amos Olajide Oluyege, Akpanobong Akpan Ekong, Emmanuel Uchechukwu Opara, Sunday Adeniyi Adedutan, Joseph Adeola Fuwape, Olawale John Olukunle


This study was carried out to evaluate the influence of wood species and wood plastic ratio on the physical and mechanical properties of wood plastic composites (WPCs) produced from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottle wastes and sawdust from three hardwood species, namely, Terminalia superba, Gmelina arborea, and Ceiba pentandra. The experimental WPCs were prepared from sawdust particle size classes of ≤ 0.5, 0.5 – 1.0, and 1.0 – 2.0 mm at wood/plastic ratios of 40:60, 50:50 and 60:40 (percentage by weight). The WPCs for each study variable combination were prepared in 3 replicates and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The physical properties investigated water absorption (WA), linear expansion (LE) and thickness swelling (TS) while the mechanical properties evaluated were Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The mean values for WA, LE and TS ranged from 1.07 to 34.04, 0.11 to 1.76 and 0.11 to 4.05 %, respectively. The mean values of the three physical properties increased with decrease in wood plastic ratio. Wood plastic ratio of 40:60 at each particle size class generally resulted in the lowest values while wood plastic ratio of 60:40 had the highest values for each of the three species. For each of the physical properties, T. superba had the least mean values followed by G. arborea, while the highest values were observed C. pentandra. The mean values for MOE and MOR ranged from 458.17 to 1875.67 and 2.64 to 18.39 N/mm2, respectively. The mean values of the two mechanical properties decreased with increase in wood plastic ratio. Wood plastic ratio of 40:60 at each wood particle size class generally had the highest values while wood plastic ratio of 60:40 had the least values for each of the three species. For each of the mechanical properties, C. pentandra had the highest mean values followed by G. arborea, while the least values were observed T. superba. There were improvements in both the physical and mechanical properties due to decrease in sawdust particle size class with the particle size class of ≤ 0.5 mm giving the best result. The results of the Analysis of variance revealed significant (P < 0.05) effects of the three study variables – wood species, sawdust particle size class and wood/plastic ratio on all the physical and mechanical properties of the WPCs. It can be concluded from the results of this study that wood plastic composites from sawdust particle size ≤ 0.5 and PET plastic bottle wastes with acceptable physical and mechanical properties are better produced using 40:60 wood/plastic ratio, and that at this ratio, all the three species are suitable for the production of wood plastic composites.

Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate plastic bottle wastes, wood plastic composite, physical properties, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
35 Suitability of Wood Sawdust Waste Reinforced Polymer Composite for Fireproof Doors

Authors: Timine Suoware, Sylvester Edelugo, Charles Amgbari


The susceptibility of natural fibre polymer composites to flame has necessitated research to improve and develop flame retardant (FR) to delay the escape of combustible volatiles. Previous approaches relied mostly on FR such as aluminium tri-hydroxide (ATH) and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) to improve fire performances of wood sawdust polymer composites (WSPC) with emphasis on non-structural building applications. In this paper, APP was modified with gum Arabic powder (GAP) and then hybridized with ATH at 0, 12 and 18% loading ratio to form new FR species; WSPC12%APP-GAP and WSPC18%ATH/APP-GAP. The FR species were incorporated in wood sawdust waste reinforced in polyester resin to form panels for fireproof doors. The panels were produced using hand lay compression moulding technique and cured at room temperature. Specimen cut from panels were then tested for tensile strength (TS), flexural strength (FS) and impact strength (IS) using universal testing machine and impact tester; thermal stability using (TGA/DSC 1: Metler Toledo); time-to-ignition (Tig), heat release rates (HRR); peak HRR (HRRp), average HRR (HRRavg), total HRR (THR), peak mass loss rate (MLRp), average smoke production rate (SPRavg) and carbon monoxide production (COP ) were obtained using the cone calorimeter apparatus. From the mechanical properties obtained, improvements of IS for the panels were not noticeable whereas TS and FS for WSPC12%APP-GAP respectively stood at 12.44 MPa and 85.58 MPa more than those without FR (WSPC0%). For WSC18%ATH/APP-GAP TS and FS respectively stood at 16.45 MPa and 50.49 MPa more compared to (WSPC0%). From the thermal analysis, the panels did not exhibit any significant change as early degradation was observed. At 900 OC, the char residues improved by 15% for WSPC12%APP-GAP and 19% for WSPC18%ATH/APP-GAP more than (WSC0%) at 5%, confirming the APP-GAP to be a good FR. At 50 kW/m2 heat flux (HF), WSPC12%APP-GAP improved better the fire behaviour of the panels when compared to WSC0% as follows; Tig = 46 s, HRRp = 56.1 kW/2, HRRavg = 32.8 kW/m2, THR = 66.6 MJ/m2, MLRp = 0.103 g/s, TSR = 0.04 m2/s and COP = 0.051 kg/kg. These were respectively more than WSC0%. It can be concluded that the new concept of modifying FR with GAP in WSC could meet the requirement of a fireproof door for building applications.

Keywords: composite, flame retardant, wood sawdust, fireproof doors

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
34 Effect of Equivalence Ratio on Performance of Fluidized Bed Gasifier Run with Sized Biomass

Authors: J. P. Makwana, A. K. Joshi, Rajesh N. Patel, Darshil Patel


Recently, fluidized bed gasification becomes an attractive technology for power generation due to its higher efficiency. The main objective pursued in this work is to investigate the producer gas production potential from sized biomass (sawdust and pigeon pea) by applying the air gasification technique. The size of the biomass selected for the study was in the range of 0.40-0.84 mm. An experimental study was conducted using a fluidized bed gasifier with 210 mm diameter and 1600 mm height. During the experiments, the fuel properties and the effects of operating parameters such as gasification temperatures 700 to 900 °C, equivalence ratio 0.16 to 0.46 were studied. It was concluded that substantial amounts of producer gas (up to 1110 kcal/m3) could be produced utilizing biomass such as sawdust and pigeon pea by applying this fluidization technique. For both samples, the rise of temperature till 900 °C and equivalence ratio of 0.4 favored further gasification reactions and resulted into producer gas with calorific value 1110 kcal/m3.

Keywords: sized biomass, fluidized bed gasifier, equivalence ratio, temperature profile, gas composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
33 Production of High Purity Cellulose Products from Sawdust Waste Material

Authors: Simiksha Balkissoon, Jerome Andrew, Bruce Sithole


Approximately half of the wood processed in the Forestry, Timber, Pulp and Paper (FTPP) sector is accumulated as waste. The concept of a “green economy” encourages industries to employ revolutionary, transformative technologies to eliminate waste generation by exploring the development of new value chains. The transition towards an almost paperless world driven by the rise of digital media has resulted in a decline in traditional paper markets, prompting the FTTP sector to reposition itself and expand its product offerings by unlocking the potential of value-adding opportunities from renewable resources such as wood to generate revenue and mitigate its environmental impact. The production of valuable products from wood waste such as sawdust has been extensively explored in recent years. Wood components such as lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses, which can be extracted selectively by chemical processing, are suitable candidates for producing numerous high-value products. In this study, a novel approach to produce high-value cellulose products, such as dissolving wood pulp (DWP), from sawdust was developed. DWP is a high purity cellulose product used in several applications such as pharmaceutical, textile, food, paint and coatings industries. The proposed approach demonstrates the potential to eliminate several complex processing stages, such as pulping and bleaching, which are associated with traditional commercial processes to produce high purity cellulose products such as DWP, making it less chemically energy and water-intensive. The developed process followed the path of experimentally designed lab tests evaluating typical processing conditions such as residence time, chemical concentrations, liquid-to-solid ratios and temperature, followed by the application of suitable purification steps. Characterization of the product from the initial stage was conducted using commercially available DWP grades as reference materials. The chemical characteristics of the products thus far have shown similar properties to commercial products, making the proposed process a promising and viable option for the production of DWP from sawdust.

Keywords: biomass, cellulose, chemical treatment, dissolving wood pulp

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
32 Cryogenic Machining of Sawdust Incorporated Polypropylene Composites

Authors: K. N. Umesh


Wood Polymer Composites (WPC) were synthesized artificially by combining polypropylene, wood and resin. It is difficult to obtain a good surface finish by conventional machining on WPC because of material degradation due to excessive heat generated during the process. In order to preserve the material property and deliver a better surface finish and accuracy, a proper solution is devised for the machining of wood composites at low temperature. This research focuses on studying the effects of parameters of cryogenic machining on sawdust incorporated polypropylene composite material, in view of evolving the most suitable composition and an appropriate combination of process parameters. The machining characteristics of the six different compositions of WPC were evaluated by analyzing the trend. An attempt is made to determine proper combinations material composition and process control parameters, through process capability studies. A WPC of 80%-wood (saw dust particles), 20%-polypropylene and 0%-resin was found to be the best alternative for obtaining the best surface finish under cryogenic machining conditions.

Keywords: Cryogenic Machining, Process Capability, Surface Finish, Wood Polymer Composites

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
31 Mechanical, Thermal and Biodegradable Properties of Bioplast-Spruce Green Wood Polymer Composites

Authors: A. Atli, K. Candelier, J. Alteyrac


Environmental and sustainability concerns push the industries to manufacture alternative materials having less environmental impact. The Wood Plastic Composites (WPCs) produced by blending the biopolymers and natural fillers permit not only to tailor the desired properties of materials but also are the solution to meet the environmental and sustainability requirements. This work presents the elaboration and characterization of the fully green WPCs prepared by blending a biopolymer, BIOPLAST® GS 2189 and spruce sawdust used as filler with different amounts. Since both components are bio-based, the resulting material is entirely environmentally friendly. The mechanical, thermal, structural properties of these WPCs were characterized by different analytical methods like tensile, flexural and impact tests, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Their water absorption properties and resistance to the termite and fungal attacks were determined in relation with different wood filler content. The tensile and flexural moduli of WPCs increased with increasing amount of wood fillers into the biopolymer, but WPCs became more brittle compared to the neat polymer. Incorporation of spruce sawdust modified the thermal properties of polymer: The degradation, cold crystallization, and melting temperatures shifted to higher temperatures when spruce sawdust was added into polymer. The termite, fungal and water absorption resistance of WPCs decreased with increasing wood amount in WPCs, but remained in durability class 1 (durable) concerning fungal resistance and quoted 1 (attempted attack) in visual rating regarding to the termites resistance except that the WPC with the highest wood content (30 wt%) rated 2 (slight attack) indicating a long term durability. All the results showed the possibility to elaborate the easy injectable composite materials with adjustable properties by incorporation of BIOPLAST® GS 2189 and spruce sawdust. Therefore, lightweight WPCs allow both to recycle wood industry byproducts and to produce a full ecologic material.

Keywords: biodegradability, color measurements, durability, mechanical properties, melt flow index, MFI, structural properties, thermal properties, wood-plastic composites, WPCs

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
30 Optimization of Adsorption Performance of Lignocellulosic Waste Pretreatment and Chemical Modification

Authors: Bendjelloul Meriem, Elandaloussi El Hadj


In this work, we studied the effectiveness of a lignocellulosic waste (wood sawdust) for the removal of cadmium Cd (II) in aqueous solution. The adsorbent material SBO-CH2-CO2Na has been prepared by alkaline pretreatment of wood sawdust followed by a chemical modification with sodium salt of chloroacetic acid. The characterization of the as-prepared material by FTIR has proven that the grafting of acetate spacer took actually place in the lignocellulosic backbone by the appearance of characteristic band of carboxylic groups in the IR spectrum. The removal study of Cd2+ by SBO-CH2-CO2Na material at the solid-liquid interface was carried out by kinetics, sorption isotherms, effect of temperature and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. The last part of this work was dedicated to assess the regenerability of the adsorbent material after three reuse cycles. The results indicate that SBO-CH2-CO2Na matrix possesses a high effectiveness in removing Cd (II) with an adsorption capacity of 222.22 mg/g, yet a better value that those of many low-cost adsorbents so far reported in the literature. The results found in the course of this study suggest that ionic exchange is the most appropriate mechanism involved in the removal of cadmium ions.

Keywords: adsorption, cadmium, isotherms, lignocellulosic, regenerability

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
29 Thermodynamic Analysis of a Multi-Generation Plant Driven by Pine Sawdust as Primary Fuel

Authors: Behzad Panahirad, UğUr Atikol


The current study is based on a combined heat and power system with multi-objectives, driven by biomass. The system consists of a combustion chamber (CC), a single effect absorption cooling system (SEACS), an air conditioning unit (AC), a reheat steam Rankine cycle (RRC), an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and an electrolyzer. The purpose of this system is to produce hydrogen, electricity, heat, cooling, and air conditioning. All the simulations had been performed by Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software. Pine sawdust is the selected biofuel for the combustion process. The overall utilization factor (εₑₙ) and exergetic efficiency (ψₑₓ) were calculated to be 2.096 and 24.03% respectively. The performed renewable and environmental impact analysis indicated a sustainability index of 1.316 (SI) and a specific CO2 emission of 353.8 kg/MWh. The parametric study is conducted based on the variation of ambient (sink) temperature, biofuel mass flow rate, and boilers outlet temperatures. The parametric simulation showed that the increase in biofuel mass flow rate has a positive effect on the sustainability of the system.

Keywords: biomass, exergy assessment, multi-objective plant, CO₂ emission, irreversibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
28 Characteristics of Oak Mushroom Cultivar, Bambithyang Developed by Golden Seed Project

Authors: Yeongseon Jang, Rhim Ryoo, Young-Ae Park, Kang-Hyeon Ka, Donha Choi, Sung-Suk Lee


Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, oak mushroom, is one of the most largely produced mushrooms in the world. To increase the competitiveness of Korean oak mushroom, golden seed project is ongoing. In this project, we develop new oak mushroom varieties to increase its productivity, quality, disease resistance, and so on. Through the project, new oak mushroom cultivar, Bambithyang was developed by mono-mono hybridization method. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was at 25°C on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. For the mass production test, it was cultivated using sawdust media with sawdust block type for 100 days. The temperature for primordia formation and fruit body production was broad (between 11°C and 20°C) which is good for spring and fall. Each flush period lasted for 6-7 days and the highest fruit body production was recorded in the first flush. The fruiting is sporadic. The pileus was deep brown. Its diameter was 69.2 mm and width was 17.8 mm. The stipe was ivory. It was 14.7 mm thick and 54.7 mm long. We would continue to develop new varieties while increasing the market share of domestic spawn with this variety.

Keywords: Lentinula edodes, mono-mono hybridization, new cultivar, oak mushroom

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
27 Evaluation of the Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders Modified with Biochars Obtained from Various Biomasses by Pyrolysis Method

Authors: Muhammed Ertuğrul Çeloğlu, Mehmet Yılmaz


In this study, apricot seed shell, walnut shell, and sawdust were chosen as biomass sources. The materials were sorted by using a sieve No. 50 and the sieved materials were subjected to pyrolysis process at 400 °C, resulting in three different biochar products. The resulting biochar products were added to the bitumen at three different rates (5%, 10% and 15%), producing modified bitumen. Penetration, softening point, rotation viscometer and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests were conducted on modified binders. Thus the modified bitumen, which was obtained by using additives at 3 different rates obtained from biochar produced at 400 °C temperatures of 3 different biomass sources were compared and the effects of pyrolysis temperature and additive rates were evaluated. As a result of the conducted tests, it was determined that the rheology of the pure bitumen improved significantly as a result of the modification of the bitumen with the biochar. Additionally, with biochar additive, it was determined that the rutting parameter values obtained from softening point, viscometer and DSR tests were increased while the values in terms of penetration and phase angle decreased. It was also observed that the most effective biomass is sawdust while the least effective was ground apricot seed shell.

Keywords: rheology, biomass, pyrolysis, biochar

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
26 Treatment of Greywater at Household by Using Ceramic Tablet Membranes

Authors: Abdelkader T. Ahmed


Greywater is any wastewater draining from a household including kitchen sinks and bathroom tubs, except toilet wastes. Although this used water may contain grease, food particles, hair, and any number of other impurities, it may still be suitable for reuse after treatment. Greywater reusing serves two purposes including reduction the amount of freshwater needed to supply a household, and reduction the amount of wastewater entering sewer systems. This study aims to investigate and design a simple and cheap unit to treat the greywater in household via using ceramic membranes and reuse it in supplying water for toilet flushing. The study include an experimental program for manufacturing several tablet ceramic membranes from clay and sawdust with three different mixtures. The productivity and efficiency of these ceramic membranes were investigated by chemical and physical tests for greywater before and after filtration through these membranes. Then a treatment unit from this ceramic membrane was designed based on the experimental results of lab tests. Results showed that increase sawdust percent with the mixture increase the flow rate and productivity of treated water but decrease in the same time the water quality. The efficiency of the new ceramic membrane reached 95%. The treatment unit save 0.3 m3/day water for toilet flushing without need to consume them from the fresh water supply network.

Keywords: ceramic membranes, filtration, greywater, wastewater treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
25 Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Present in Tyre Pyrolytic Oil Using Low Cost Natural Adsorbents

Authors: Neha Budhwani


Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during the pyrolysis of scrap tyres to produce tyre pyrolytic oil (TPO). Due to carcinogenic, mutagenic, and toxic properties PAHs are priority pollutants. Hence it is essential to remove PAHs from TPO before utilising TPO as a petroleum fuel alternative (to run the engine). Agricultural wastes have promising future to be utilized as biosorbent due to their cost effectiveness, abundant availability, high biosorption capacity and renewability. Various low cost adsorbents were prepared from natural sources. Uptake of PAHs present in tyre pyrolytic oil was investigated using various low-cost adsor¬bents of natural origin including sawdust (shiham), coconut fiber, neem bark, chitin, activated charcol. Adsorption experiments of different PAHs viz. naphthalene, acenaphthalene, biphenyl and anthracene have been carried out at ambient temperature (25°C) and at pH 7. It was observed that for any given PAH, the adsorption capacity increases with the lignin content. Freundlich constant kf and 1/n have been evaluated and it was found that the adsorption isotherms of PAHs were in agreement with a Freundlich model, while the uptake capacity of PAHs followed the order: activated charcoal> saw dust (shisham) > coconut fiber > chitin. The partition coefficients in acetone-water, and the adsorption constants at equilibrium, could be linearly correlated with octanol–water partition coefficients. It is observed that natural adsorbents are good alternative for PAHs removal. Sawdust of Dalbergia sissoo, a by-product of sawmills was found to be a promising adsorbent for the removal of PAHs present in TPO. It is observed that adsorbents studied were comparable to those of some conventional adsorbents.

Keywords: natural adsorbent, PAHs, TPO, coconut fiber, wood powder (shisham), naphthalene, acenaphthene, biphenyl and anthracene

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24 Mechanical and Physical Properties of Wood Composite Panel from Recycled Plastic and Sawdust of Cordia alliodora (Ruiz and Pav.)

Authors: Ahmed Bolaji Alarape, Oluwatobi Damilola Aba, Usman Shehu


Wood plastic composite boards were made from sawn dust of Cordia alliodora and recycled polyethylene at a mixing ratio of 1.5ratio1, 2.5ratio1 and 3.5ratio1 and nominal densities of 600 kilograms per meter cube, 700 kilograms per meter cube, and 800 kilograms per meter cube, The material was hot pressed at 150-degree celsius to produce board of 250 millimeter by 250 millimeter by 6 millimeter of which 18 boards were produced. The experiment was subject to 3 by 3 factorial experiments in Completely Randomised Design (CRD). Analysis of variance and Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was adopted by 3 by 3 at 5 percent probability. The strength properties of the boards such as modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) were investigated, while the dimensional properties of the board such as the water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) were as well determined after 12hrs and 24hrs of water immersion. The result showed that the mean values of MOE ranged from 9100.73 Newtons per square millimeters to 12086.96 Newtons per square millimeters while MOR values ranged from 48.26 Newtons per square millimeters to 103.09 Newtons per square millimeters. The values of WA and TS after 12hrs immersion ranged from 1.21 percent to 1.56 percent and 0.00 percent to 0.13 percent, respectively. The values of WA and TS after 24hrs of water immersion ranged from 1.66 percent to 2.99 percent and 0.02 percent to 0.18 percent, respectively. The higher the value of board density and the high-density polythene /sawdust ratio, the stronger, the stiffer and more dimensionally stable the wood plastic composite boards obtained. In addition, as the density of the board increases, the strength property of the boards increases. Hence the board will be suitable for internal construction materials.

Keywords: wood Plastic composite, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, dimensional stability

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23 Designing, Manufacturing and Testing a Portable Tractor Unit Biocoal Harvester Combine of Agriculture and Animal Wastes

Authors: Ali Moharrek, Hosein Mobli, Ali Jafari, Ahmad Tabataee Far


Biomass is a material generally produced by plants living on soil or water and their derivatives. The remains of agricultural and forest products contain biomass which is changeable into fuel. Besides, you can obtain biogas and ethanol from the charcoal produced from biomass through specific actions. this technology was designed for as a useful Native Fuel and Technology in Energy disasters Management Due to the sudden interruption of the flow of heat energy One of the problems confronted by mankind in the future is the limitations of fossil energy which necessitates production of new energies such as biomass. In order to produce biomass from the remains of the plants, different methods shall be applied considering factors like cost of production, production technology, area of requirement, speed of work easy utilization, ect. In this article we are focusing on designing a biomass briquetting portable machine. The speed of installation of the machine on a tractor is estimated as 80 MF 258. Screw press is used in designing this machine. The needed power for running this machine which is estimated as 17.4 kW is provided by the power axis of tractor. The pressing speed of the machine is considered to be 375 RPM Finally the physical and mechanical properties of the product were compared with utilized material which resulted in appropriate outcomes. This machine is designed for Gathering Raw materials of the ground by Head Section. During delivering the raw materials to Briquetting section, they Crushed, Milled & Pre Heated in Transmission section. This machine is a Combine Portable Tractor unit machine and can use all type of Agriculture, Forest & Livestock Animals Resides as Raw material to make Bio fuel. The Briquetting Section was manufactured and it successfully made bio fuel of Sawdust. Also this machine made a biofuel with Ethanol of sugarcane Wastes. This Machine is using P.T.O power source for Briquetting and Hydraulic Power Source for Pre Processing of Row Materials.

Keywords: biomass, briquette, screw press, sawdust, animal wastes, portable, tractors

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22 Development of a Porous Porcelain Frape with Thermochromic Visualization

Authors: Jose Gois


The paper presents the development of a porous porcelain frappe with thermochromic visualization for port wines, having as a partner the Institute of Vinhos do Douro and Porto. This ceramic frappe is intended to promote the cooling and maintenance of the temperature of port wines through porous ceramic materials, consisting of a porcelain composite with sawdust addition, so as to contain, on the one hand, the similar cooling properties of the terracotta and, on the other, the resistance of materials such as porcelain. The application of the thermochromic element makes it possible to see if the wine is at optimal service temperatures, allowing users to drink the wine in the ideal conditions and contributing to more efficient maintenance of the service.

Keywords: design, frappe, porcelain, porous, thermochromic

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21 Chromium Adsorption by Modified Wood

Authors: I. Domingos, B. Esteves, A. Figueirinha, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes, J. Ferreira, H. Pereira


Chromium is one of the most common heavy metals which exist in very high concentrations in wastewater. The removal is very expensive due to the high cost of normal adsorbents. Lignocellulosic materials and mainly treated materials have proven to be a good solution for this problem. Adsorption tests were performed at different pH, different times and with varying concentrations. Results show that is at pH 3 that treated wood absorbs more chromium ranging from 70% (2h treatment) to almost 100% (12 h treatment) much more than untreated wood with less than 40%. Most of the adsorption is made in the first 2-3 hours for untreated and heat treated wood. Modified wood adsorbs more chromium throughout the time. For all the samples, adsorption fitted relatively well the Langmuir model with correlation coefficient ranging from 0.85 to 0.97. The results show that heat treated wood is a good adsorbent ant that this might be a good utilization for sawdust from treating companies.

Keywords: adsorption, chromium, heat treatment, wood modification

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20 A Review on the Use of Plastic Waste with Viable Materials in Composite Construction Block

Authors: Mohan T. Harish, Masson Lauriane, Sreevalsa Kolathayar


Environmental issues raise alarm in the constructional field which implies a need for exploring new construction materials derived from the waste and residual products. This paper presents a detailed review of the alternatives approaches employed in the construction field using plastic waste in mixture with mixed with fillers. A detailed analysis of the plastic waste used in concrete, with soil, sand, clay and natural residues like sawdust, rice husk etc are presented. The different process carried forward was also discussed along with the scrutiny of the change in mechanical properties. The effect of coupling agents in the proposed mixture has been appraised in detail which gives implications for its future application in the field of plastic waste with viable materials in composite construction blocks.

Keywords: plastic waste, composite materials, construction block, concrete, natural residue, coupling agent

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19 Optimization of Process Parameters for Peroxidase Production by Ensifer Species

Authors: Ayodeji O. Falade, Leonard V. Mabinya, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh


Given the high utility of peroxidase in several industrial processes, the search for novel microorganisms with enhanced peroxidase production capacity is of keen interest. This study investigated the process conditions for optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp, new ligninolytic proteobacteria with peroxidase production potential. Also, some agricultural residues were valorized for peroxidase production under solid state fermentation. Peroxidase production was optimum at an initial medium pH 7, incubation temperature of 30 °C and agitation speed of 100 rpm using alkali lignin fermentation medium supplemented with guaiacol as the most effective inducer and ammonium sulphate as the best inorganic nitrogen. Optimum peroxidase production by Ensifer sp. was attained at 48 h with specific productivity of 12.76 ± 1.09 U mg⁻¹. Interestingly, probable laccase production was observed with optimum specific productivity of 12.76 ± 0.45 U mg⁻¹ at 72 h. The highest peroxidase yield was observed with sawdust as solid substrate under solid state fermentation. In conclusion, Ensifer sp. possesses the capacity for enhanced peroxidase production that can be exploited for various biotechnological applications.

Keywords: catalase-peroxidase, enzyme production, peroxidase, polymerase chain reaction, proteobacteria

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18 Design of an Automatic Saw Cutting Machine for Wood and Aluminum

Authors: Jawad Ul Haq, Evan Mazur, Ahmed Qureshi, Mohamed Al-Hussein


The uses of wood in furniture, building, bridges and aluminum in transportation and construction, make aluminum and forest economy a prominent matter in North America. Machines available to date to cut the aforementioned materials are mostly industry oriented with complex structure and operations which require special training and skill. Furthermore, requirements such as pneumatics, 3-phase supply are associated with cost, maintenance, and safety hazards. Power saws are very useful tools used to cut and shape materials; however, they can cause serious hand injuries. Operator’s hands in table saw are vulnerable as they are used to guide pieces into the saw. Apart from hands, saw operator is also prone to material being kicked back out of the saw or sustain eye or respiratory injuries due to rapidly flying sawdust and other debris. In this paper, design of an automatic saw cutting machine has been proposed to ensure safety, portability, usage at domestic level and capability to cut both aluminum and wood. This paper demonstrates detailed Mechanical design in SOLIDWORKS and Control Systems using Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), based on the aforementioned design objectives.

Keywords: programmable logic controller, saw cutting, control, automation

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17 Oxygen Enriched Co-Combustion of Sub-Bituminous Coal/Biomass Waste Fuel Blends

Authors: Chaouki Ghenai


Computational Fluid Dynamic analysis of co-combustion of coal/biomass waste fuel blends is presented in this study. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of biomass portions (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%: weight percent) blended with coal and oxygen concentrations (21% for air, 35%, 50%, 75% and 100 % for pure oxygen) on the combustion performance and emissions. The goal is to reduce the air emissions from power plants coal combustion. Sub-bituminous Nigerian coal with calorific value of 32.51 MJ/kg and sawdust (biomass) with calorific value of 16.68 MJ/kg is used in this study. Coal/Biomass fuel blends co-combustion is modeled using mixture fraction/pdf approach for non-premixed combustion and Discrete Phase Modeling (DPM) to predict the trajectories and the heat/mass transfer of the fuel blend particles. The results show the effects of oxygen concentrations and biomass portions in the coal/biomass fuel blends on the gas and particles temperatures, the flow field, the devolitization and burnout rates inside the combustor and the CO2 and NOX emissions at the exit from the combustor. The results obtained in the course of this study show the benefits of enriching combustion air with oxygen and blending biomass waste with coal for reducing the harmful emissions from coal power plants.

Keywords: co-combustion, coal, biomass, fuel blends, CFD, air emissions

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16 Assessment of cellulase and xylanase Production by chryseobacterium sp. Isolated from Decaying Biomass in Alice, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: A. Nkohla, U. Nwodo, L. V. Mabinya, A. I. Okoh


A potential source for low-cost production of value added products is the utilization of lignocellulosic materials. However, the huddle needing breaching would be the dismantlement of the complex lignocellulosic structure as to free sugar base therein. the current lignocellosic material treatment process is expensive and not eco-friendly hence, the advocacy for enzyme based technique which is both cheap and eco-friendly is highly imperative. Consequently, this study aimed at the screening of cellulose and xylan degrading bacterial strain isolated from decaying sawdust samples. This isolate showed high activity for cellulase and xylanase when grown on carboxymethyl cellulose and birtchwood xylan as the sole carbon source respectively. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence of the isolate showed 98% similarity with that of Chryseobacterium taichungense thus, it was identified as a Chryseobacterium sp. Optimum culture conditions for cellulase and xylanase production were medium pH 6, incubation temperature of 25 °C at 50 rpm and medium pH 6, incubation temperature of 25 °C at 150 rpm respectively. The high enzyme activity obtained from this bacterial strain portends it as a good candidate for industrial use in the degradation of complex biomass for value added products.

Keywords: lignocellulosic material, chryseobacterium sp., submerged fermentation, cellulase, xylanase

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15 Comparative Analysis of Pit Composting and Vermicomposting in a Tropical Environment

Authors: E. Ewemoje Oluseyi, T. A. Ewemoje, A. A. Adedeji


Biodegradable solid waste disposal and management has been a major problem in Nigeria and indiscriminate dumping of this waste either into watercourses or drains has led to environmental hazards affecting public health. The study investigated the nutrients level of pit composting and vermicomposting. Wooden bins 60 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm3 in size were constructed and bedding materials (sawdust, egg shell, paper and grasses) and red worms (Eisenia fetida) introduced to facilitate the free movement and protection of the worms against harsh weather. A pit of 100 cm × 100 cm × 100 cm3 was dug and worms were introduced into the pit, which was turned every two weeks. Food waste was fed to the red worms in the bin and pit, respectively. The composts were harvested after 100 days and analysed. The analyses gave: nitrogen has average value 0.87 % and 1.29 %; phosphorus 0.66 % and 1.78 %; potassium 4.35 % and 6.27 % for the pit and vermicomposting, respectively. Higher nutrient status of vermicomposting over pit composting may be attributed to the secretions in the intestinal tracts of worms which are more readily available for plant growth. However, iron and aluminium were more in the pit compost than the vermin compost and this may be attributed to the iron and aluminium already present in the soil before the composting took place. Other nutrients in ppm concentrations were aluminium 4,999.50 and 3,989.33; iron 2,131.83 and 633.40 for the pit and vermicomposting, respectively. These nutrients are only needed by plants in small quantities. Hence, vermicomposting has the higher concentration of essential nutrients necessary for healthy plant growth.

Keywords: food wastes, pit composting, plant nutrient status, tropical environment, vermicomposting

Procedia PDF Downloads 271