Search results for: biomass energy
8024 Biomass For Energy In Improving Sustainable Economic Development
Authors: Dahiru Muhammad, Muhammad Danladi, Muhammad Yahaya, Adamu Garba
Abstract:This paper put forward the potentialities of biomass for energy as divers means of sustainable economic development. The paper explains, in brief, the ways or methods that are used to generate energy from biomass, such as combustion, pyrolysis, anaerobic, and gasification, and also how biomass for energy can enhance the sustainable economic development of a Nation. Currently, the nation depends on fossil fuels as a sources of generating its energy which is finite and deflectable with time, while on the other hand, biomass is an alternative and endless product which consists of forest biomass, agricultural residues, and energy crops. Finally, recommendations and conclusion were made on the role of biomass for energy in improving sustainable economic development.
Keywords: biomass, energy, sustainability, economicProcedia PDF Downloads 18
8023 Biomass Energy In Improving Sustainable Economic Development
Authors: Dahiru Muhammad, Muhammad Danladi, Adamu Garba, Muhammad Yahaya
Abstract:This paper put forward the potentialities of biomass for energy as divers means of sustainable economic development. The paper explains in brief the ways or methods that are used to generate energy from biomass, such as combustion, pyrolysis, anaerobic, and gasification, and also how biomass for energy can enhance the sustainable economic development of a Nation. Currently, the nation depends on fossil fuels as a sources of generating its energy which is finite and deflectable with time, while on the other hand, biomass is an alternative and endless product which consists of a forest biomass, agricultural residues, and energy crops. Finally, recommendations and conclusion were made on the role of biomass for energy in improving sustainable economic development.
Keywords: biomass, energy, sustainable, economic, developmentProcedia PDF Downloads 13
8022 Modelling and Simulation of Biomass Pyrolysis
Authors: P. Ahuja, K. S. S. Sai Krishna
Abstract:There is a concern over the energy shortage in the modern societies as it is one of the primary necessities. Renewable energy, mainly biomass, is found to be one feasible solution as it is inexhaustible and clean energy source all over the world. Out of various methods, thermo chemical conversion is considered to be the most common and convenient method to extract energy from biomass. The thermo-chemical methods that are employed are gasification, liquefaction and combustion. On gasification biomass yields biogas, on liquefaction biomass yields bio-oil and on combustion biomass yields bio-char. Any attempt to biomass gasification, liquefaction or combustion calls for a good understanding of biomass pyrolysis. So, Irrespective of the method used the first step towards the thermo-chemical treatment of biomass is pyrolysis. Pyrolysis mainly converts the solid mass into liquid with gas and residual char as the byproducts. Liquid is used for the production of heat, power and many other chemicals whereas the gas and char can be used as fuels to generate heat.
Keywords: biomass, fluidisation, pyrolysis, simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 277
8021 Biomass Availability Matrix: Methodology to Define High Level Biomass Availability for Bioenergy Purposes, a Quebec Case Study
Authors: Camilo Perez Lee, Mark Lefsrud, Edris Madadian, Yves Roy
Abstract:Biomass availability is one of the most important aspects to consider when determining the proper location of potential bioenergy plants. Since this aspect has a direct impact on biomass transportation and storage, biomass availability greatly influences the operational cost. Biomass availability is more than the quantity available on a specific region; other elements such as biomass accessibility and potential play an important role. Accessibility establishes if the biomass could be extracted and conveyed easily considering factors such as biomass availability, infrastructure condition and other operational issues. On the other hand, biomass potential is defined as the capacity of a specific region to scale the usage of biomass as an energy source, move from another energy source or to switch the type of biomass to increase their biomass availability in the future. This paper defines methodologies and parameters in order to determine the biomass availability within the administrative regions of the province of Quebec; firstly by defining the forestry, agricultural, municipal solid waste and energy crop biomass availability per administrative region, next its infrastructure accessibility and lastly defining the region potential. Thus, these data are processed to create a biomass availability matrix allowing to define the overall biomass availability per region and to determine the most optional candidates for bioenergy plant location.
Keywords: biomass, availability, bioenergy, accessibility, biomass potentialProcedia PDF Downloads 245
8020 The Temperature Influence for Gasification in the Advanced Biomass Gasifier
Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy
Abstract:The paper is to discuss about the influence of the temperature in the advanced biomass gasifier for gasification, when tested four different biomass fuels individually in the gasification laboratory of Centre for Energy Technology (CET). The gasifier is developed in CET to test any kind of biomass fuel for gasification without changing the gasifier. The gasifier can be used for batch operations and observed and found that there were no operational problems.
Keywords: biomass fuels, temperature, advanced downdraft gasifier, tar, renewable energy sourcesProcedia PDF Downloads 429
8019 Investigation on Biomass as an Alternate Source for Power Generation
Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy
Abstract:The purpose of the paper is to discuss the biomass as a renewable source of energy for power generation. The setup is designed and fabricated in the Centre for Energy Technology (CET) and four different fuels are tested in the laboratory, but here the focus is on wood blocks (fuel) combustion with temperature, gas composition percentage by volume and the heating values.
Keywords: biomass, downdraft gasifier, power generation, renewable energy sourcesProcedia PDF Downloads 466
8018 Analyzing the Effects of Real Income and Biomass Energy Consumption on Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions: Empirical Evidence from the Panel of Biomass-Consuming Countries
Authors: Eyup Dogan
Abstract:This empirical aims to analyze the impacts of real income and biomass energy consumption on the level of emissions in the EKC model for the panel of biomass-consuming countries over the period 1980-2011. Because we detect the presence of cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity across countries for the analyzed data, we use panel estimation methods robust to cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity. The CADF and the CIPS panel unit root tests indicate that carbon emissions, real income and biomass energy consumption are stationary at the first-differences. The LM bootstrap panel cointegration test shows that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. Results from the panel group-mean DOLS and the panel group-mean FMOLS estimators show that increase in biomass energy consumption decreases CO2 emissions and the EKC hypothesis is validated. Therefore, countries are advised to boost their production and increase the use of biomass energy for lower level of emissions.
Keywords: biomass energy, CO2 emissions, EKC model, heterogeneity, cross-sectional dependenceProcedia PDF Downloads 232
8017 Biomass Energy: "The Boon for the Would"
Authors: Shubham Giri Goswami, Yogesh Tiwari
Abstract:In today’s developing world, India and other countries are developing different instruments and accessories for the better standard and life to be happy and prosper. But rather than this we human-beings have been using different energy sources accordingly, many persons such as scientist, researchers etc have developed many Energy sources like renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Like fossil fuel, coal, gas, petroleum products as non-renewable sources, and solar, wind energy as renewable energy source. Thus all non-renewable energy sources, these all Created pollution as in form of air, water etc. due to ultimate use of these sources by human the future became uncertain. Thus to minimize all this environmental affects and destroy the healthy environment we discovered a solution as renewable energy source. Renewable energy source in form of biomass energy, solar, wind etc. We found different techniques in biomass energy, that good energy source for people. The domestic waste, and is a good source of energy as daily extract from cow in form of dung and many other domestic products naturally can be used eco-friendly fertilizers. Moreover, as from my point of view the cow is able to extract 08-12 kg of dung which can be used to make wormy compost fertilizers. Furthermore, the calf urine as insecticides and use of such a compounds will lead to destroy insects and thus decrease communicable diseases. Therefore, can be used by every person and biomass energy can be in those areas such as rural areas where non-renewable energy sources cannot reach easily. Biomass can be used to develop fertilizers, cow-dung plants and other power generation techniques, and this energy is clean and pollution free and is available everywhere thus saves our beautiful planet or blue or life giving planet called as “EARTH”. We can use the biomass energy, which may be boon for the world in future.
Keywords: biomass, energy, environment, human, pollution, renewable, solar energy, sources, windProcedia PDF Downloads 461
8016 Comparison of MODIS-Based Rice Extent Map and Landsat-Based Rice Classification Map in Determining Biomass Energy Potential of Rice Hull in Nueva Ecija, Philippines
Authors: Klathea Sevilla, Marjorie Remolador, Bryan Baltazar, Imee Saladaga, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Ma. Rosario Concepcion Ang
Abstract:The underutilization of biomass resources in the Philippines, combined with its growing population and the rise in fossil fuel prices confirms demand for alternative energy sources. The goal of this paper is to provide a comparison of MODIS-based and Landsat-based agricultural land cover maps when used in the estimation of rice hull’s available energy potential. Biomass resource assessment was done using mathematical models and remote sensing techniques employed in a GIS platform.
Keywords: biomass, geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing, renewable energyProcedia PDF Downloads 414
8015 Use of Biomass as Co-Fuel in Briquetting of Low-Rank Coal: Strengthen the Energy Supply and Save the Environment
Authors: Mahidin, Yanna Syamsuddin, Samsul Rizal
Abstract:In order to fulfill world energy demand, several efforts have been done to look for new and renewable energy candidates to substitute oil and gas. Biomass is one of new and renewable energy sources, which is abundant in Indonesia. Palm kernel shell is a kind of biomass discharge from palm oil industries as a waste. On the other hand, Jatropha curcas that is easy to grow in Indonesia is also a typical energy source either for bio-diesel or biomass. In this study, biomass was used as co-fuel in briquetting of low-rank coal to suppress the release of emission (such as CO, NOx and SOx) during coal combustion. Desulfurizer, CaO-base, was also added to ensure the SOx capture is effectively occurred. Ratio of coal to palm kernel shell (w/w) in the bio-briquette were 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10, while ratio of calcium to sulfur (Ca/S) in mole/mole were 1:1; 1.25:1; 1.5:1; 1.75:1 and 2:1. The bio-briquette then subjected to physical characterization and combustion test. The results show that the maximum weight loss in the durability measurement was ±6%. In addition, the highest stove efficiency for each desulfurizer was observed at the coal/PKS ratio of 90:10 and Ca/S ratio of 1:1 (except for the scallop shell desulfurizer that appeared at two Ca/S ratios; 1.25:1 and 1.5:1, respectively), i.e. 13.8% for the lime; 15.86% for the oyster shell; 14.54% for the scallop shell and 15.84% for the green mussel shell desulfurizers.
Keywords: biomass, low-rank coal, bio-briquette, new and renewable energy, palm kernel shellProcedia PDF Downloads 382
8014 Energy Analysis and Integration of the H₂ Production from Biomass Fast Pyrolysis and in Line Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming
Authors: P. Comendador, M. Suarez, L. Olazar, M. Cortazar, M. Artetxe, G. Lopez, M. Olazar
Abstract:H₂ production from fast biomass pyrolysis and line Steam Reforming (SR) has been extensively studied in the last years. However, Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming (SESR) is gaining attention as an alternative to the conventional SR since it allows obtaining higher H₂ yields and a purity near 100 % in the product stream. In this work, both alternatives were compared through an energy analysis. The processes were modeled with PRO II v.2021 software. First, general energy balances were carried out in order to identify the total energy requirements in a wide range of operating conditions. At H₂ yield optimum conditions for both processes (steam to biomass ratio of 2 and temperature of 600 ºC), the total energy requirement for the SR alternative is 936 kJ/kgH₂, whereas for the SESR alternative is 1134 kJ/kgH₂. Then, the energy needs were grouped into operation stages, aiming at identifying the energy sinks and sources of the processes. It was determined that the SESR alternative is more energy intensive due to the need for a calcination stage for regenerating the sorbent. Finally, a configuration of the SESR alternative with energy integration was developed in order to compensate for the energy demand.
Keywords: Biomass valorization, CO₂ capture, Energy analysis, H₂ productionProcedia PDF Downloads 12
8013 Comprehensive Study of Renewable Energy Resources and Present Scenario in India
Authors: Aparna Bhat, Rajeshwari Hegde
Abstract:Renewable energy sources also called non-conventional energy sources that are continuously replenished by natural processes. For example, solar energy, wind energy, bio-energy- bio-fuels grown sustain ably), hydropower etc., are some of the examples of renewable energy sources. A renewable energy system converts the energy found in sunlight, wind, falling-water, sea-waves, geothermal heat, or biomass into a form, we can use such as heat or electricity. Most of the renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from sun and wind and can never be exhausted, and therefore they are called renewable. This paper presents a review about conventional and renewable energy scenario of India. The paper also presents current status, major achievements and future aspects of renewable energy in India and implementing renewable for the future is also been presented.
Keywords: solar energy, renewabe energy, wind energy, bio-diesel, biomass, feedinProcedia PDF Downloads 528
8012 Risk Assessment Results in Biogas Production from Agriculture Biomass
Authors: Sandija Zeverte-Rivza, Irina Pilvere, Baiba Rivza
Abstract:The use of renewable energy sources incl. biogas has become topical in accordance with the increasing demand for energy, decrease of fossil energy resources and the efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as well as to increase energy independence from the territories where fossil energy resources are available. As the technologies of biogas production from agricultural biomass develop, risk assessment and risk management become necessary for farms producing such a renewable energy. The need for risk assessments has become particularly topical when discussions on changing the biogas policy in the EU take place, which may influence the development of the sector in the future, as well as the operation of existing biogas facilities and their income level. The current article describes results of the risk assessment for farms producing biomass from agriculture biomass in Latvia, the risk assessment system included 24 risks, that affect the whole biogas production process and the obtained results showed the high significance of political and production risks.
Keywords: biogas production, risks, risk assessment, biosystems engineeringProcedia PDF Downloads 319
8011 Valorization of Residues from Forest Industry for the Generation of Energy
Authors: M. A. Amezcua-Allieri, E. Torres, J. A. Zermeño Eguía-Lis, M. Magdaleno, L. A. Melgarejo, E. Palmerín, A. Rosas, D. López, J. Aburto
Abstract:The use of biomass to produce renewable energy is one of the forms that can be used to reduce the impact of energy production. Like any other energy resource, there are limitations for biomass use, and it must compete not only with fossil fuels but also with other renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy. Combustion is currently the most efficient and widely used waste-to-energy process, in the areas where direct use of biomass is possible, without the need to make large transfers of raw material. Many industrial facilities can use agricultural or forestry waste, straw, chips, bagasse, etc. in their thermal systems without making major transformations or adjustments in the feeding to the ovens, making this waste an attractive and cost-effective option in terms of availability, access, and costs. In spite of the facilities and benefits, the environmental reasons (emission of gases and particulate material) are decisive for its use for energy purpose. This paper describes a valorization of residues from forest industry to generate energy, using a case study.
Keywords: bioenergy, forest waste, life-cycle assessment, waste-to-energy, electricityProcedia PDF Downloads 223
8010 Atmospheric Fluid Bed Gasification of Different Biomass Fuels
Authors: Martin Lisý, Marek Baláš, Michal Špiláček, Zdeněk Skála
Abstract:This paper shortly describes biomass types and growing amount in the Czech Republic. The considerable part of this paper deals with energy parameters of the most frequent utilizing biomass types and results of their gasification testing. There was chosen sixteen the most exploited "Czech" woody plants and grasses. There were determinated raw, element and biochemical analysis, basic calorimetric values, ash composition and ash characteristic temperatures. After that, each biofuel was tested by fluid bed gasification. The essential part of this paper yields results of chosen biomass types gasification experiments. Partly, there are described an operating conditions in detail with accentuation of individual fuels particularities partly, there is summarized gas composition and impurities content. The essential difference was determined mainly between woody plants and grasses both from point of view of the operating conditions and gas quality. The woody plants was evaluated as more suitable fuels for fluid bed gasifiers. This results will be able to significantly help with decision which energy plants are suitable for growing or with optimal biomass-treatment technology selection.
Keywords: biomass growing, biomass types, gasification, biomass fuelsProcedia PDF Downloads 496
8009 Evaluation of Biomass Introduction Methods in Coal Co-Gasification
Authors: Ruwaida Abdul Rasid, Kevin J. Hughes, Peter J. Henggs, Mohamed Pourkashanian
Abstract:Heightened concerns over the amount of carbon emitted from coal-related processes are generating shifts to the application of biomass. In co-gasification, where coal is gasified along with biomass, the biomass may be fed together with coal (co-feeding) or an independent biomass gasifier needs to be integrated with the coal gasifier. The main aim of this work is to evaluate the biomass introduction methods in coal co-gasification. This includes the evaluation of biomass concentration input (B0 to B100) and its gasification performance. A process model is developed and simulated in Aspen HYSYS, where both coal and biomass are modeled according to its ultimate analysis. It was found that the syngas produced increased with increasing biomass content for both co-feeding and independent schemes. However, the heating values and heat duties decreases with biomass concentration as more CO2 are produced from complete combustion.
Keywords: aspen HYSYS, biomass, coal, co-gasification modelling, simulationProcedia PDF Downloads 341
8008 Biomass Carbon Credit Estimation for Sustainable Urban Planning and Micro-climate Assessment
Authors: R. Niranchana, K. Meena Alias Jeyanthi
Abstract:As a result of the present climate change dilemma, the energy balancing strategy is to construct a sustainable environment has become a top concern for researchers worldwide. The environment itself has always been a solution from the earliest days of human evolution. Carbon capture begins with its accurate estimation and monitoring credit inventories, and its efficient use. Sustainable urban planning with deliverables of re-use energy models might benefit from assessment methods like biomass carbon credit ranking. The term "biomass energy" refers to the various ways in which living organisms can potentially be converted into a source of energy. The approaches that can be applied to biomass and an algorithm for evaluating carbon credits are presented in this paper. The micro-climate evaluation using Computational Fluid dynamics was carried out across the location (1 km x1 km) at Dindigul, India (10°24'58.68" North, 77°54.1.80 East). Sustainable Urban design must be carried out considering environmental and physiological convection, conduction, radiation and evaporative heat exchange due to proceeding solar access and wind intensities.
Keywords: biomass, climate assessment, urban planning, multi-regression, carbon estimation algorithmProcedia PDF Downloads 14
8007 Quantifying and Prioritizing Agricultural Residue Biomass Energy Potential in Ethiopia
Authors: Angesom Gebrezgabiher Tesfay, Afafaw Hailesilasie Tesfay, Muyiwa Samuel Adaramola
Abstract:The energy demand boost in Ethiopia urges sustainable fuel options while it is mainly supplemented by traditional biomass and imported conventional fuels. To satisfy the deficiency it has to be sourced from all renewables. Thus identifying resources and estimating potential is vital to the sector. This study aims at an in-depth assessment to quantify, prioritize, and analyze agricultural residue biomass energy and related characteristic forms. Biomass use management and modernization seeks successive information and a clue about the resource quantity and characteristic. Five years of crop yield data for thirteen crops were collected. Conversion factors for their 20 residues are surveyed from the literature. Then residues amount potentially available for energy and their energy is estimated regional, crop-wise, residue-wise, and shares compared. Their potential value for energy is analyzed from two perspectives and prioritized. The gross potential is estimated to be 495PJ, equivalent to 12/17 million tons of oil/coal. At 30% collection efficiency, it is the same as conventional fuel import in 2018. Maize and sorghum potential and spatial availability are preeminent. Cotton and maize presented the highest potential values for energy from application and resource perspectives. Oromia and Amhara regions' contributions are the highest. The resource collection and application trends are required for future management that implicates a prospective study.
Keywords: crop residue, biomass potential, biomass resource, Ethiopian energyProcedia PDF Downloads 25
8006 Economic Development and New Challenges: Biomass Energy and Sustainability
Authors: Fabricia G. F. S. Rossato, Ieda G. Hidalgo, Andres Susseta, Felipe Casale, Leticia H. Nakamiti
Abstract:This research was conducted to show the useful source of biomass energy provided from forest waste and the black liquor from the pulping process. This energy source could be able to assist and improve its area environment in a sustainable way. The research will demonstrate the challenges from producing the biomass energy and the implantation of the pulp industry in the city of Três Lagoas, MS. – Brazil. Planted forest’s potential, energy production in the pulp industries and its consequence of impacts on the local region environmental was also studied and examined. The present study is classified as descriptive purposes as it exposes the characteristics of a given population and the means such as bibliographical and documentary. All the data and information collected and demonstrate in this study was carefully analyzed and provided from reliable sources such as official government agencies.
Keywords: Brazil, pulp industry, renewable energy, Três LagoasProcedia PDF Downloads 262
8005 Increasing the Efficiency of the Biomass Gasification Technology with Using the Organic Rankin Cycle
Authors: Jaroslav Frantík, Jan Najser
Abstract:This article deals with increasing the energy efficiency of a plant in terms of optimizing the process. The European Union is striving to achieve the climate-energy package in the area increasing of energy efficiency. The goal of energy efficiency is to reduce primary energy consumption by 20% within the EU until 2020. The objective of saving energy consumption in the Czech Republic was set at 47.84 PJ (13.29 TWh). For reducing electricity consumption, it is possible to choose: a) mandatory increasing of energy efficiency, b) alternative scheme, c) combination of both actions. The Czech Republic has chosen for reducing electricity consumption using-alternative scheme. The presentation is focused on the proposal of a technological unit dealing with the gasification process of processing of biomass with an increase of power in the output. The synthesis gas after gasification of biomass is used as fuel in a cogeneration process of reciprocating internal combustion engine with the classic production of heat and electricity. Subsequently, there is an explanation of the ORC system dealing with the conversion of waste heat to electricity with the using closed cycle of the steam process with organic medium. The arising electricity is distributed to the power grid as a further energy source, or it is used for needs of the partial coverage of the technological unit. Furthermore, there is a presented schematic description of the technology with the identification of energy flows starting from the biomass treatment by drying, through its conversion to gaseous fuel, producing of electricity and utilize of thermal energy with minimizing losses. It has been found that using of ORC system increased the efficiency of the produced electricity by 7.5%.
Keywords: biomass, efficiency, gasification, ORC systemProcedia PDF Downloads 152
8004 Locating Potential Site for Biomass Power Plant Development in Central Luzon Philippines Using GIS-Based Suitability Analysis
Authors: Bryan M. Baltazar, Marjorie V. Remolador, Klathea H. Sevilla, Imee Saladaga, Loureal Camille Inocencio, Ma. Rosario Concepcion O. Ang
Abstract:Biomass energy is a traditional source of sustainable energy, which has been widely used in developing countries. The Philippines, specifically Central Luzon, has an abundant source of biomass. Hence, it could supply abundant agricultural residues (rice husks), as feedstock in a biomass power plant. However, locating a potential site for biomass development is a complex process which involves different factors, such as physical, environmental, socio-economic, and risks that are usually diverse and conflicting. Moreover, biomass distribution is highly dispersed geographically. Thus, this study develops an integrated method combining Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and methods for energy planning; Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), for locating suitable site for biomass power plant development in Central Luzon, Philippines by considering different constraints and factors. Using MCDA, a three level hierarchy of factors and constraints was produced, with corresponding weights determined by experts by using AHP. Applying the results, a suitability map for Biomass power plant development in Central Luzon was generated. It showed that the central part of the region has the highest potential for biomass power plant development. It is because of the characteristics of the area such as the abundance of rice fields, with generally flat land surfaces, accessible roads and grid networks, and low risks to flooding and landslide. This study recommends the use of higher accuracy resource maps, and further analysis in selecting the optimum site for biomass power plant development that would account for the cost and transportation of biomass residues.
Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, biomass energy, GIS, multi-criteria decision analysis, site suitability analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 327
8003 Electric Field Impact on the Biomass Gasification and Combustion Dynamics
Authors: M. Zake, I. Barmina, R. Valdmanis, A. Kolmickovs
Abstract:Experimental investigations of the DC electric field effect on thermal decomposition of biomass, formation of the axial flow of volatiles (CO, H2, CxHy), mixing of volatiles with swirling airflow at low swirl intensity (S ≈ 0.2-0.35), their ignition and on formation of combustion dynamics are carried out with the aim to understand the mechanism of electric field influence on biomass gasification, combustion of volatiles and heat energy production. The DC electric field effect on combustion dynamics was studied by varying the positive bias voltage of the central electrode from 0.6 kV to 3 kV, whereas the ion current was limited to 2 mA. The results of experimental investigations confirm the field-enhanced biomass gasification with enhanced release of volatiles and the development of endothermic processes at the primary stage of thermochemical conversion of biomass determining the field-enhanced heat energy consumption with the correlating decrease of the flame temperature and heat energy production at this stage of flame formation. Further, the field-enhanced radial expansion of the flame reaction zone correlates with a more complete combustion of volatiles increasing the combustion efficiency by 3 % and decreasing the mass fraction of CO, H2 and CxHy in the products, whereas by 10 % increases the average volume fraction of CO2 and the heat energy production downstream the combustor increases by 5-10 %
Keywords: biomass, combustion, electrodynamic control, gasificationProcedia PDF Downloads 382
8002 Application of Biomass Ashes as Supplementary Cementitious Materials in the Cement Mortar Production
Authors: S. Šupić, M. Malešev, V. Radonjanin, M. Radeka, M. Laban
Abstract:The production of low cost and environmentally friendly products represents an important step for developing countries. Biomass is one of the largest renewable energy sources, and Serbia is among the top European countries in terms of the amount of available and unused biomass. Substituting cement with the ashes obtained by the combustion of biomass would reduce the negative impact of concrete industry on the environment and would provide a waste valorization by the reuse of this type of by-product in mortars and concretes manufacture. The study contains data on physical properties, chemical characteristics and pozzolanic properties of obtained biomass ashes: wheat straw ash and mixture of wheat and soya straw ash in Serbia, which were, later, used as supplementary cementitious materials in preparation of mortars. Experimental research of influence of biomass ashes on physical and mechanical properties of cement mortars was conducted. The results indicate that the biomass ashes can be successfully used in mortars as substitutes of cement without compromising their physical and mechanical performances.
Keywords: biomass, ash, cementitious material, mortarProcedia PDF Downloads 129
8001 The Gasification of Fructose in Supercritical Water
Authors: Shyh-Ming Chern, H. Y. Cheng
Abstract:Biomass is renewable and sustainable. As an energy source, it will not release extra carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Hence, tremendous efforts have been made to develop technologies capable of transforming biomass into suitable forms of bio-fuel. One of the viable technologies is gasifying biomass in supercritical water (SCW), a green medium for reactions. While previous studies overwhelmingly selected glucose as a model compound for biomass, the present study adopted fructose for the sake of comparison. The gasification of fructose in SCW was investigated experimentally to evaluate the applicability of supercritical water processes to biomass gasification. Experiments were conducted with an autoclave reactor. Gaseous product mainly consists of H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and C2H6. The effect of two major operating parameters, the reaction temperature (673-873 K) and the dosage of oxidizing agent (0-0.5 stoichiometric oxygen), on the product gas composition, yield and heating value was also examined, with the reaction pressure fixed at 25 MPa.
Keywords: biomass, fructose, gasification, supercritical waterProcedia PDF Downloads 286
8000 Efficient Utilization of Biomass for Bioenergy in Environmental Control
Authors: Subir Kundu, Sukhendra Singh, Sumedha Ojha, Kanika Kundu
Abstract:The continuous decline of petroleum and natural gas reserves and non linear rise of oil price has brought about a realisation of the need for a change in our perpetual dependence on the fossil fuel. A day to day increased consumption of crude and petroleum products has made a considerable impact on our foreign exchange reserves. Hence, an alternate resource for the conversion of energy (both liquid and gas) is essential for the substitution of conventional fuels. Biomass is the alternate solution for the present scenario. Biomass can be converted into both liquid as well as gaseous fuels and other feedstocks for the industries.
Keywords: bioenergy, biomass conversion, biorefining, efficient utilisation of night soilProcedia PDF Downloads 343
7999 Modeling and Benchmarking the Thermal Energy Performance of Palm Oil Production Plant
Authors: Mathias B. Michael, Esther T. Akinlabi, Tien-Chien Jen
Abstract:Thermal energy consumption in palm oil production plant comprises mainly of steam, hot water and hot air. In most efficient plants, hot water and air are generated from the steam supply system. Research has shown that thermal energy utilize in palm oil production plants is about 70 percent of the total energy consumption of the plant. In order to manage the plants’ energy efficiently, the energy systems are modelled and optimized. This paper aimed to present the model of steam supply systems of a typical palm oil production plant in Ghana. The models include exergy and energy models of steam boiler, steam turbine and the palm oil mill. The paper further simulates the virtual plant model to obtain the thermal energy performance of the plant under study. The simulation results show that, under normal operating condition, the boiler energy performance is considerably below the expected level as a result of several factors including intermittent biomass fuel supply, significant moisture content of the biomass fuel and significant heat losses. The total thermal energy performance of the virtual plant is set as a baseline. The study finally recommends number of energy efficiency measures to improve the plant’s energy performance.
Keywords: palm biomass, steam supply, exergy and energy models, energy performance benchmarkProcedia PDF Downloads 288
7998 Energy Conversion from Waste Paper Industry Using Fluidized Bed Combustion
Authors: M. Dyah Ayu Yuli, S. Faisal Dhio, P. Johandi, P. Muhammad Sofyan
Abstract:Pulp and paper mills generate various quantities of energy-rich biomass as wastes, depending on technological level, pulp and paper grades and wood quality. These wastes are produced in all stages of the process: wood preparation, pulp and paper manufacture, chemical recovery, recycled paper processing, waste water treatment. Energy recovery from wastes of different origin has become a generally accepted alternative to their disposal. Pulp and paper industry expresses an interest in adapting and integrating advanced biomass energy conversion technologies into its mill operations using Fluidized Bed Combustion. Industrial adoption of these new technologies has the potential for higher efficiency, lower capital cost, and safer operation than conventional operations that burn fossil fuels for energy. Incineration with energy recovery has the advantage of hygienic disposal, volume reduction, and the recovery of thermal energy by means of steam or super heated water that can be used for heating and power generation.
Keywords: biomass, fluidized bed combustion, pulp and paper mills, wasteProcedia PDF Downloads 413
7997 A Review of Renewable Energy Conditions in Iran Country
Authors: Ehsan Atash Zaban, Mehdi Beyk
Abstract:In recent years, concerns over the depletion of non-renewable fuels and environmental pollution have led countries around the world to look for alternative energy sources for these fuels. An energy source that can have the necessary reliability, be a suitable alternative to fossil fuels, be technologically achievable, comply with environmental standards to the maximum, and at the same time cause countries to meet domestic consumption for electricity production. Iran is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of various energy sources because, on the one hand, it has extensive sources of fossil and non-renewable fuels such as oil and gas, and on the other hand, it has great potential for renewable energy. In this paper, the potential of renewable energy in Iran, which includes solar, wind, geothermal, hydrogen technology, and biomass, has been reviewed and analyzed.
Keywords: renewable energy, solar stations, wind, biomass, hydropowerProcedia PDF Downloads 17
7996 The Environmental and Economic Analysis of Extended Input-Output Table for Thailand’s Biomass Pellet Industry
Authors: Prangvalai Buasan, Boonrod Sajjakulnukit, Thongchart Bowonthumrongchai
Abstract:The demand for biomass pellets in the industrial sector has significantly increased since 2020. The revised version of Thailand’s power development plan as well as the Alternative Energy Development Plan, aims to promote biomass fuel consumption by around 485 MW by 2030. The replacement of solid fossil fuel with biomass pellets will affect medium-term and long-term national benefits for all industries throughout the supply chain. Therefore, the evaluation of environmental and economic impacts throughout the biomass pellet supply chain needs to be performed to provide better insight into the goods and financial flow of this activity. This study extended the national input-output table for the biomass pellet industry and applied the input-output analysis (IOA) method, a sort of macroeconomic analysis, to interpret the result of transactions between industries in the monetary unit when the revised national power development plan was adopted and enforced. Greenhouse gas emissions from consuming energy and raw material through the supply chain are also evaluated. The total intermediate transactions of all economic sectors, which included the biomass pellets sector (CASE 2), increased by 0.02% when compared with the conservative case (CASE 1). The control total, which is the sum of total intermediate transactions and value-added, the control total of CASE 2 is increased by 0.07% when compared with CASE 1. The pellet production process emitted 432.26 MtCO2e per year. The major sharing of the GHG is from the plantation process of raw biomass.
Keywords: input-output analysis, environmental extended input-output analysis, macroeconomic planning, biomass pellets, renewable energyProcedia PDF Downloads 40
7995 Estimation of Eucalyptus Wood Calorific Potential for Energy Recovering
Authors: N. Ouslimani, N. Hakimi, H. Aksas
Abstract:The reduction of oil reserves in the world makes that many countries are directed towards the study and the use of local and renewable energies. For this purpose, wood energy represents the material of choice. The energy production is primarily thermal and corresponds to a heating of comfort, auxiliary or principal. Wood is generally conditioned in the form of logs, of pellets, even of plates. In Algeria, this way of energy saving could contribute to the safeguarding of the environment, as to the recovery of under wood products (branches, barks and various wastes on the various transformation steps). This work is placed within the framework general of the search for new sources of energy starting from the recovery of the lignocellulosic matter. In this direction, we proposed various sources of products (biomass, under product and by-products) relating to the ‘Eucalyptus species’ being able to be developed, of which we carried out a preliminary physicochemical study, necessary to the development of the densified products with high calorific value.
Keywords: biomass, calorific value, combustion, energy recoveryProcedia PDF Downloads 197