Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: sewing

25 Effect of Sewing Speed on the Physical Properties of Firefighter Sewing Threads

Authors: Adnan Mazari, Engin Akcagun, Antonin Havelka, Funda Buyuk Mazari, Pavel Kejzlar

Abstract:

This article experimentally investigates various physical properties of special fire retardant sewing threads under different sewing speeds. The aramid threads are common for sewing the fire-fighter clothing due to high strength and high melting temperature. 3 types of aramid threads with different linear densities are used for sewing at different speed of 2000 to 4000 r/min. The needle temperature is measured at different speeds of sewing and tensile properties of threads are measured before and after the sewing process respectively. The results shows that the friction and abrasion during the sewing process causes a significant loss to the tensile properties of the threads and needle temperature rises to nearly 300oC at 4000 r/min of machine speed. The Scanning electron microscope images are taken before and after the sewing process and shows no melting spots but significant damage to the yarn. It is also found that machine speed of 2000r/min is ideal for sewing firefighter clothing for higher tensile properties and production.

Keywords: Kevlar, needle temperautre, nomex, sewing

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24 Eli-Twist Spun Yarn: An Alternative to Conventional Sewing Thread

Authors: Sujit Kumar Sinha, Madan Lal Regar

Abstract:

Sewing thread plays an important role in the transformation of a two-dimensional fabric into a three-dimensional garment. The interaction of the sewing thread with the fabric at the seam not only influences the appearance of a garment but also its performance. Careful selection of sewing thread and associated parameters can only help in improvement. Over the years, ring spinning has been dominating the yarn market. In the pursuit of improvement to challenge its dominance alternative technology has also been developed. But no real challenge has been posed by the any of the developed spinning systems. Eli-Twist spinning system can be a new method of yarn manufacture to provide a product with improved mechanical and physical properties with respect to the conventional ring spun yarn. The system, patented by Suessen has gained considerable attention in the recent times. The process of produces a two-ply compact yarn with improved fiber utilization. It produces a novel structure combining all advantages of condensing and doubling. In the present study, sewing threads of three different counts each from cotton, polyester and polyester/cotton (50/50) blend were produced on a ring and Eli-Twist systems. A twist multiplier of 4.2 was used to produce all the yarns. A comparison of hairiness, tensile strength and coefficient of friction with conventional ring yarn was made. Eli-Twist yarn has shown better frictional characteristics, better tensile strength and less hairiness. The performance of the Eli-Twist sewing thread has also been found to be better than the conventional 2-ply sewing thread. The performance was estimated through seam strength, seam elongation and seam efficiency of sewn fabric. Eli-Twist sewing thread has shown less friction, less hairiness, and higher tensile strength. Eli-Twist sewing thread resulted in better seam characteristics in comparison to conventional 2-ply sewing thread.

Keywords: ring spun yarn, Eli-Twist yarn, sewing thread, seam strength, seam elongation, seam efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
23 Strain Sensing Seams for Monitoring Body Movement

Authors: Sheilla Atieno Odhiambo, Simona Vasile, Alexandra De Raeve, Ann Schwarz

Abstract:

Strain sensing seams have been developed by integrating conductive sewing threads in different types of seams design on a fabric typical for sports clothing using sewing technology. The aim is to have a simple integrated textile strain sensor that can be applied to sports clothing to monitor the movements of the upper body parts of the user during sports. Different types of commercially available sewing threads were used as the bobbin thread in the production of different architectural seam sensors. These conductive sewing threads have been integrated into seams in particular designs using specific seam types. Some of the threads are delicate and needed to be laid into the seam with as little friction as possible and less tension; thus, they could only be sewn in as the bobbin thread and not the needle thread. Stitch type 304; 406; 506; 601;602; 605. were produced. The seams were made on a fabric of 80% polyamide 6.6 and 20% elastane. The seams were cycled(stretch-release-stretch) for five cycles and up to 44 cycles following EN ISO 14704-1: 2005 (modified), using a tensile instrument and the changes in the resistance of the seams with time were recorded using Agilent meter U1273A. Both experiments were conducted simultaneously on the same seam sample. Sensing functionality, among which is sensor gauge and reliability, were evaluated on the promising sensor seams. The results show that the sensor seams made from HC Madeira 40 conductive yarns performed better inseam stitch 304 and 602 compared to the other combination of stitch type and conductive sewing threads. These sensing seams 304, 406 and 602 will further be interconnected to our developed processing and communicating unit and further integrated into a sports clothing prototype that can track body posture. This research is done within the framework of the project SmartSeam.

Keywords: conductive sewing thread, sensing seams, smart seam, sewing technology

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22 Taguchi Approach for the Optimization of the Stitching Defects of Knitted Garments

Authors: Adel El-Hadidy

Abstract:

For any industry, the production and quality management or wastages reductions have major impingement on overall factory economy. This work discusses the quality improvement of garment industry by applying Pareto analysis, cause and effect diagram and Taguchi experimental design. The main purpose of the work is to reduce the stitching defects, which will also minimize the rejection and reworks rate. Application of Pareto chart, fish bone diagram and Process Sigma Level/and or Performance Level tools helps solving those problems on priority basis. Among all, only sewing, defects are responsible form 69.3% to 97.3 % of total defects. Process Sigma level has been improved from 0.79 to 1.3 and performance rate improved, from F to D level. The results showed that the new set of sewing parameters was superior to the original one. It can be seen that fabric size has the largest effect on the sewing defects and that needle size has the smallest effect on the stitching defects.

Keywords: garment, sewing defects, cost of rework, DMAIC, sigma level, cause and effect diagram, Pareto analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
21 Seam Slippage of Light Woven Fabrics with Regards to Sewing Parameters

Authors: Mona Shawky, Khaled M. Elsheikh, Heba M. Darwish, Eman Abd El Elsamea

Abstract:

Seams are the basic component in the structure of any apparel. The seam quality of the garment is a term that indicates both the aesthetic and functional performance of the garment. Seam slippage is one of the important properties that determine garment performance. Lightweight fabrics are preferred for their aesthetic properties. Since seam slippage is one of the most occurable faults for woven garments, in this study, a design of experiment of the following sewing parameters (three levels of needle size, three levels of stitch density, three levels of the seam allowance, two levels of sewing thread count, and two fabric types) was used to obtain the effect of the interaction between different sewing parameters on-seam slippage force. Two lightweight polyester woven fabrics with different constructions were used with lock stitch 301 to perform this study. Regression equations which can predict seam slippage force in both warp and weft directions were concluded. It was found that fabric type has a significant positive effect on seam slippage force in the warp direction, while it has a significant negative effect on seam slippage force on weft direction. Also, the interaction between needle size and stitch density has a significant positive effect on seam slippage force on warp direction, while the interaction between stitch density and seam allowance has a negative effect on seam slippage force in the weft direction.

Keywords: needle size, regression equation, seam allowance, seam slippage, stitch density

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20 Study of the Effect of Sewing on Non Woven Textile Waste at Dry and Composite Scales

Authors: Wafa Baccouch, Adel Ghith, Xavier Legrand, Faten Fayala

Abstract:

Textile waste recycling has become a necessity considering the augmentation of the amount of waste generated each year and the ecological problems that landfilling and burning can cause. Textile waste can be recycled into many different forms according to its composition and its final utilization. Using this waste as reinforcement to composite panels is a new recycling area that is being studied. Compared to virgin fabrics, recycled ones present the disadvantage of having lower structural characteristics, when they are eco-friendly and with low cost. The objective of this work is transforming textile waste into composite material with good characteristic and low price. In this study, we used sewing as a method to improve the characteristics of the recycled textile waste in order to use it as reinforcement to composite material. Textile non-woven waste was afforded by a local textile recycling industry. Performances tests were evaluated using tensile testing machine and based on the testing direction for both reinforcements and composite panels; machine and transverse direction. Tensile tests were conducted on sewed and non sewed fabrics, and then they were used as reinforcements to composite panels via epoxy resin infusion method. Rule of mixtures is used to predict composite characteristics and then compared to experimental ones.

Keywords: composite material, epoxy resin, non woven waste, recycling, sewing, textile

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19 Electric Characteristics of Coils and Antennas with Sewing Techniques for Wireless Power Transfer

Authors: Hikari Ryu, Yuki Fukuda, Kento Oishi, Chiharu Igarashi, Shogo Kiryu

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Recently, wireless power transfer has been developed in various fields. Three coupling techniques in the power deliveries have been used. Magnetic coupling is popular for feeding power at a relatively short distance and at a lower frequency. Electric field coupling is suitable when wide electrodes can be utilized. Electro-magnetic wave coupling at a high frequency is used for long-distance power transfer. The wireless power transfer has attracted attention in e-textile fields. Rigid batteries are required for many body-worn electric systems at the present time. The technology enables such butteries to be removed from the systems. Flexible coils have been studied for such applications. Coils with a high Q factor are required in the magnetic-coupling power transfer. Antennas with low return loss are needed for the electro-magnetic coupling. Litz wire is so flexible to fabricate coils and antennas sewn on a fabric and has low resistivity. In this study, the electric characteristics of some coils and antennas fabricated with the litz wire by using two sewing techniques are investigated. As examples, a coil and an antenna are described. Both were fabricated with 330/0.04 mm litz wire. The coil was a planar coil with a square shape. The outer side was 150 mm, the number of turns was 15, and the pitch interval between each turn was 5 mm. The litz wire of the coil was overstitched with a sewing machine. The coil was fabricated as an auxiliary coil for a magnetic coupled wireless power transfer. The Q factor was 200 at a frequency of 800 kHz. As an example of an antenna with a sewing technique, a fractal pattern antenna was stitched on a 500 mm x 500 mm fabric by using a needle punch method. The pattern was 2nd-oder Vicsec fractal. The return loss of the antenna was -28 dB at a frequency of 144 MHz.

Keywords: e-textile, flexible coils and antennas, litz wire, wireless power transfer

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18 Motherhood Factors Influencing the Business Growth of Women-Owned Sewing Businesses in Lagos, Nigeria: A Mixed Method Study

Authors: Oyedele Ogundana, Amon Simba, Kostas Galanakis, Lynn Oxborrow

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The debate about factors influencing the business growth of women-owned businesses has been a topical issue in business management. Currently, scholars have identified the issues of access to money, market, and management as canvasing factors influencing the business growth of women-owned businesses. However, the influence of motherhood (household/family context) on business growth is inconclusive in the literature; despite that women are more family-oriented than their male counterparts. Therefore, this research study considers the influence of motherhood factor (household/family context) on the business growth of women-owned sewing businesses (WOSBs) in Lagos, Nigeria. The sewing business sector is chosen as the fashion industry (which includes sewing businesses) currently accounts for the second largest number of jobs in Sub-Saharan Africa, following agriculture. Thus, sewing businesses provide a rich ground for contributing to existing scholarly work. Research questions; (1) In what way does the motherhood factor influence the business growth of WOSBs in Lagos? (2) To what extent does the motherhood factor influence the business growth of WOSBs in Lagos? For the method design, a pragmatic approach, a mixed-methods technique and an abductive form of reasoning are adopted. The method design is chosen because it fits, better than other research perspectives, with the research questions posed in this study. For instance, using a positivist approach will not sufficiently answer research question 1, neither will an interpretive approach sufficiently answer research question 2. Therefore, the research method design is divided into 2 phases, and the results from one phase are used to inform the development of the subsequent phases (only phase 1 has been completed at the moment). The first phase uses qualitative data and analytical method to answer research question 1. While the second phase of the research uses quantitative data and analytical method to answer research question 2. For the qualitative phase, 5 WOSBs were purposefully selected and interviewed. The sampling technique is selected as it was not the intention of the researcher to make any statistical inferences, at this phase, rather the purpose was just exploratory. Therefore, the 5 sampled women comprised of 2 unmarried women, 1 married woman with no child, and 2 married women with children. A 40-60 minutes interview was conducted per participants. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thereafter, the data were analysed using thematic analysis in order to unearth patterns and relationships. Findings for the first phase of this research reveals that motherhood (household/family context) directly influences (positively/negatively) the performance of WOSBs in Lagos. Apart from a direct influence on WOSBs, motherhood also moderates (positively/negatively) other factors–e.g., access to money, management/human resources and market/opportunities– influencing WOSBs in Lagos. To further strengthen this conclusion, a word frequency query result shows that ‘family,’ ‘husband’ and ‘children’ are among the 10 words used frequently in all the interview transcripts. This first phase contributes to existing studies by showing the various forms by which motherhood influences WOSBs. The second phase (which data are yet to be collected) would reveal the extent to which motherhood influence the business growth of WOSBs in Lagos.

Keywords: women-owned sewing businesses, business growth, motherhood, Lagos

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17 Experimental Investigation of Visual Comfort Requirement in Garment Factories and Identify the Cost Saving Opportunities

Authors: M. A. Wijewardane, S. A. N. C. Sudasinghe, H. K. G. Punchihewa, W. K. D. L. Wickramasinghe, S. A. Philip, M. R. S. U. Kumara

Abstract:

Visual comfort is one of the major parameters that can be taken to measure the human comfort in any environment. If the provided illuminance level in a working environment does not meet the workers visual comfort, it will lead to eye-strain, fatigue, headache, stress, accidents and finally, poor productivity. However, improvements in lighting do not necessarily mean that the workplace requires more light. Unnecessarily higher illuminance levels will also cause poor visual comfort and health risks. In addition, more power consumption on lighting will also result in higher energy costs. So, during this study, visual comfort and the illuminance requirement for the workers in textile/apparel industry were studied to perform different tasks (i.e. cutting, sewing and knitting) at their workplace. Experimental studies were designed to identify the optimum illuminance requirement depending upon the varied fabric colour and type and finally, energy saving potentials due to controlled illuminance level depending on the workforce requirement were analysed. Visual performance of workers during the sewing operation was studied using the ‘landolt ring experiment’. It was revealed that around 36.3% of the workers would like to work if the illuminance level varies from 601 lux to 850 lux illuminance level and 45.9% of the workers are not happy to work if the illuminance level reduces less than 600 lux and greater than 850 lux. Moreover, more than 65% of the workers who do not satisfy with the existing illuminance levels of the production floors suggested that they have headache, eye diseases, or both diseases due to poor visual comfort. In addition, findings of the energy analysis revealed that the energy-saving potential of 5%, 10%, 24%, 8% and 16% can be anticipated for fabric colours, red, blue, yellow, black and white respectively, when the 800 lux is the prevailing illuminance level for sewing operation.

Keywords: Landolt Ring experiment, lighting energy consumption, illuminance, textile and apparel industry, visual comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
16 Study on the Prediction of Serviceability of Garments Based on the Seam Efficiency and Selection of the Right Seam to Ensure Better Serviceability of Garments

Authors: Md Azizul Islam

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Seam is the line of joining two separate fabric layers for functional or aesthetic purposes. Different kinds of seams are used for assembling the different areas or parts of the garment to increase serviceability. To empirically support the importance of seam efficiency on serviceability of garments, this study is focused on choosing the right type of seams for particular sewing parts of the garments based on the seam efficiency to ensure better serviceability. Seam efficiency is the ratio of seam strength and fabric strength. Single jersey knitted finished fabrics of four different GSMs (gram per square meter) were used to make the test garments T-shirt. Three distinct types of the seam: superimposed, lapped and flat seam was applied to the side seams of T-shirt and sewn by lockstitch (stitch class- 301) in a flat-bed plain sewing machine (maximum sewing speed: 5000 rpm) to make (3x4) 12 T-shirts. For experimental purposes, needle thread count (50/3 Ne), bobbin thread count (50/2 Ne) and the stitch density (stitch per inch: 8-9), Needle size (16 in singer system), stitch length (31 cm), and seam allowance (2.5cm) were kept same for all specimens. The grab test (ASTM D5034-08) was done in the Universal tensile tester to measure the seam strength and fabric strength. The produced T-shirts were given to 12 soccer players who wore the shirts for 20 soccer matches (each match of 90 minutes duration). Serviceability of the shirt were measured by visual inspection of a 5 points scale based on the seam conditions. The study found that T-shirts produced with lapped seam show better serviceability and T-shirts made of flat seams perform the lowest score in serviceability score. From the calculated seam efficiency (seam strength/ fabric strength), it was obvious that the performance (in terms of strength) of the lapped and bound seam is higher than that of the superimposed seam and the performance of superimposed seam is far better than that of the flat seam. So it can be predicted that to get a garment of high serviceability, lapped seams could be used instead of superimposed or other types of the seam. In addition, less stressed garments can be assembled by others seems like superimposed seams or flat seams.

Keywords: seam, seam efficiency, serviceability, T-shirt

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15 Application and Evaluation of 3D Printing Technology in Customized Fashion Industry

Authors: A. Ezza, B. M. Babar Ramzan, C. Hira

Abstract:

This study deliberates emerging design activates in 3D printing technology, the paper provides the insight into the broad opportunities in 3D printing applications in fashion world. 3D printing is becoming a reason for reduction of lead time. The process engenders the precise models and one of prototype components for design approbation; trail and testing significance through the production components to be utilized in true working environments. This emerging technology have given elevate to an emergent realm of digitally fabricated art and design. Bitonic Creations, CONTINUUM (3D printed shoes), Jiri Evenhuis, Michael Schmidt have be giving extensive amassments of haute couture dresses and accessories. Cosyflex TM, N12 undergarments are examples of an innovative process for 3D printing. Varied types of liquid polymers such as latex, silicon, polyurethane and Teflon as well as a variety of textile fibers such as cotton, viscose and polyamide enable tailor made fabrics for any need. Patterns, perforations, embossing and embellishments may be created by printing on 3D structure base plate. Computer solidifies material feedstock layer by layer with micro-millimeter detail. In lieu of producing textiles by meter, then cutting and sewing them into final product, 3D printing can become a reason to make sewing equipment obsolete. The findings positively corroborates the expected advantage of 3D printed sample that seem to facilitate the first steps for designer.

Keywords: 3D printing, customization, fashion industry, Haute couture

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14 Assessment of the Impact of Social Compliance Certification on Abolition of Forced Labour and Discrimination in the Garment Manufacturing Units in Bengaluru: A Perspective of Women Sewing Operators

Authors: Jonalee Das Bajpai, Sandeep Shastri

Abstract:

The Indian Textile and Garment Industry is one of the major contributors to the country’s economy. This industry is also one of the largest labour intensive industries after agriculture and livestock. This Indian garment industry caters to both the domestic and international market. Although this industry comes under the purview of Indian Labour Laws and other voluntary work place standards yet, this industry is often criticized for the undue exploitation of the workers. This paper explored the status of forced labour and discrimination at work place in the garment manufacturing units in Bengaluru. This study is conducted from the perspective of women sewing operators as majority of operators in Bengaluru are women. The research also explored to study the impact of social compliance certification in abolishing forced labour and discrimination at work place. Objectives of the Research: 1. To study the impact of 'Social Compliance Certification' on abolition of forced labour among the women workforce. 2. To study the impact of 'Social Compliance Certification' on abolition of discrimination at workplace among the women workforce. Sample Size and Data Collection Techniques: The main backbone of the data which is the primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire attempted to explore the extent of prevalence of forced labour and discrimination against women workers from the perspective of women workers themselves. The sample size for the same was 600 (n) women sewing operators from the garment industry with minimum one year of work experience. Three hundred samples were selected from units with Social Compliance Certification like SA8000, WRAP, BSCI, ETI and so on. Other three hundred samples were selected from units without Social Compliance Certification. Out of these three hundred samples, one hundred and fifty samples were selected from units with Buyer’s Code of Conduct and another one hundred and fifty were from domestic units that do not come under the purview of any such certification. The responses of the survey were further authenticated through on sight visit and personal interactions. Comparative analysis of the workplace environment between units with Social Compliance certification, units with Buyer’s Code of Conduct and domestic units that do not come under the purview of any such voluntary workplace environment enabled to analyze the impact of Social Compliance certification on abolition of workplace environment and discrimination at workplace. Correlation analysis has been conducted to measure the relationship between impact of forced labour and discrimination at workplace on the level of job satisfaction. The result displayed that abolition of forced labour and abolition of discrimination at workplace have a higher level of job satisfaction among the women workers.

Keywords: discrimination, garment industry, forced labour, social compliance certification

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13 Modelling the Behavior of Commercial and Test Textiles against Laundering Process by Statistical Assessment of Their Performance

Authors: M. H. Arslan, U. K. Sahin, H. Acikgoz-Tufan, I. Gocek, I. Erdem

Abstract:

Various exterior factors have perpetual effects on textile materials during wear, use and laundering in everyday life. In accordance with their frequency of use, textile materials are required to be laundered at certain intervals. The medium in which the laundering process takes place have inevitable detrimental physical and chemical effects on textile materials caused by the unique parameters of the process inherently existing. Connatural structures of various textile materials result in many different physical, chemical and mechanical characteristics. Because of their specific structures, these materials have different behaviors against several exterior factors. By modeling the behavior of commercial and test textiles as group-wise against laundering process, it is possible to disclose the relation in between these two groups of materials, which will lead to better understanding of their behaviors in terms of similarities and differences against the washing parameters of the laundering. Thus, the goal of the current research is to examine the behavior of two groups of textile materials as commercial textiles and as test textiles towards the main washing machine parameters during laundering process such as temperature, load quantity, mechanical action and level of water amount by concentrating on shrinkage, pilling, sewing defects, collar abrasion, the other defects other than sewing, whitening and overall properties of textiles. In this study, cotton fabrics were preferred as commercial textiles due to the fact that garments made of cotton are the most demanded products in the market by the textile consumers in daily life. Full factorial experimental set-up was used to design the experimental procedure. All profiles always including all of the commercial and the test textiles were laundered for 20 cycles by commercial home laundering machine to investigate the effects of the chosen parameters. For the laundering process, a modified version of ‘‘IEC 60456 Test Method’’ was utilized. The amount of detergent was altered as 0.5% gram per liter depending on varying load quantity levels. Datacolor 650®, EMPA Photographic Standards for Pilling Test and visual examination were utilized to test and characterize the textiles. Furthermore, in the current study the relation in between commercial and test textiles in terms of their performance was deeply investigated by the help of statistical analysis performed by MINITAB® package program modeling their behavior against the parameters of the laundering process. In the experimental work, the behaviors of both groups of textiles towards washing machine parameters were visually and quantitatively assessed in dry state.

Keywords: behavior against washing machine parameters, performance evaluation of textiles, statistical analysis, commercial and test textiles

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12 Softener Washes Affecting the Shrinkage and Appearance of Knitted Garments

Authors: Ezza Nasir, Babar Ramzan

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Silicon washes on altered knitted fabrics will provide diverse shrinkage trends. The expectation on shrinkage for various apparel products are also changed. However, the effect of shrinkage in garment is still ambiguous. As a result, analysis of shrinkage after different concentrations of silicon washes can provide a more realistic study. The purpose of this study is to analyze the shrinkage with commercial sewing threads in knitted fabric. Study focuses on the effect of different washes on garment measurement and to study the effect of washes on fabric shrinkage. Four different types of knitted fabric were sewn with same length and width measurements. To study the effect of softener washes on shrinkage of garment through subjective ranking, there were critical dimensions for measurements done on body length and width garment appearance and shrinkage.

Keywords: shrinkage, dimensions, knitted fabric, silicon

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11 Women Recreational Center in District Swabi Pakistan

Authors: Shehryar Afzal

Abstract:

Gender is one of the organizing principles of the society. Gender relations are based on the ideology of sexual division of labors. Consequently, women tend to have a lower level of education, vocational and professional skills then men in a conservative area. In Swabi women, overall take part in their daily work, either it is home management. I-e cooking, sewing. Their Economic roles are selling daily used commodities I-e poultry, embroidery Selling, etc. Their Social roles are participation in traditional ceremonies’ like Death, marriages, etc. The aim is to introduce the Society a new range of communal and recreational spaces acting as a community center for women and children, while developing plans for the community women and children, Providing recreational and communal activities for which the community strive and urge, having a sense of freedom and openness. Already interacting spaces are present where they have a social and communal gathering, but there is no such facilities to celebrate these activities.

Keywords: social sitting, communal spaces, tradition, freedom

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10 Public-Private Partnership for Better Protection of Trafficked Victims in Thailand: Case Study on Public Protection and Welfare Center in Cooperation with Jim Thompson Foundation in Occupational Development on Silk Sewing and Tailoring

Authors: Aungkana Kmonpetch

Abstract:

Protection of trafficked victims and partnership among stakeholders are established as core principles in 5P’ strategies in international and national anti-human trafficking policies. In this article, it is of interest to discuss how the role of public-private partnerships in promoting the occupation development for employment in wage will enhance the better protection for victims of trafficking who affirmatively decide they want a criminal justice intervention, using Thailand as a case. Most of the victims who have accepted to be witness in the criminal justice system have lost income during their absence from work. The analysis of Thailand case is based on two methodological approaches: 1) interview with victims of trafficking, protection authorities, service providers, trainers and teachers, social workers, NGOs, police, prosecutors, business owners and enterprises, ILO, UNDP etc.; 2) create collaborative effort through workshops/consultation meetings in participation of all stakeholders – governmental agencies, private organizations, UN and international agencies. The linking of protection and partnership is anchored in international conventions and human trafficking directives. While this is actually framed as a responsive advantage for 5P strategies of anti-human trafficking – prevention, protection, persecution, punishment, and partnership, in reality, there might have more practical requirements of care and support. The article addresses how the partnership between governmental agencies and private organizations provide opportunities for trafficked victims to engage in high-skilled occupational development such as Silk-Sewing and Tailoring. The discussion is also focused how this approach of capacity building of the trainer for trainee, be enable the trafficked victims to cultivate the practices of high-skilled training to engage them into the business of social enterprise with employment in wage. The partnership coordination draws specifically to two aspects: firstly, to formulate appropriate assistance for promotion and protection of human rights of the trafficked victims in response to the 5P’ strategies of anti-human trafficking policy; secondly, to empower them to settle some economic stability for livelihood opportunity in the country of origin on their return and reintegration. Therefore, they can define how they want to move forward to prevent them at risk of vulnerable situations where they might being trafficked again or going on to work in exploitative conditions. It strengthens proper access to protection and assistance, depending on how the incentive of protection for cooperation is perceived to be and how useful the capacity building in occupation development for employment in wage will be implemented practically both in the host country and in the country of origin. This also brings into question how the victim of trafficking are able to access to the trade of market and are supported the employment opportunity according to the concept of decent work as they are constituted as witnesses. We discuss these issues in the area of a broader literature on social protection, economic security, gender, law, and victimhood.

Keywords: employment opportunity, occupation development, protection for victim of trafficking, public-private partnership

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9 Evolution of Fashion Design in the Era of High-Tech Culture

Authors: Galina Mihaleva, C. Koh

Abstract:

Fashion, like many other design fields, undergoes numerous evolutions throughout the ages. This paper aims to recognize and evaluate the significance of advance technology in fashion design and examine how it changes the role of modern fashion designers by modifying the creation process. It also touches on how modern culture is involved in such developments and how it affects fashion design in terms of conceptualizing and fabrication. The methodology used is through surveying the various examples of technological applications to fashion design and drawing parallels between what was achievable then and what is achievable now. By comparing case studies, existing fashion design examples and crafting method experimentations; we then spot patterns in which to predict the direction of future developments in the field. A breakdown on the elements of technology in fashion design helps us understand the driving force behind such a trend. The results from explorations in the paper have shown that there is an observed pattern of a distinct increase in interest and progress in the field of fashion technology, which leads to the birth of hybrid crafting methods. In conclusion, it is shown that as fashion technology continues to evolve, their role in clothing crafting becomes more prominent and grows far beyond the humble sewing machine.

Keywords: fashion design, functional aesthetics, smart textiles, 3D printing

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8 Influence of Pressure from Compression Textile Bands: Their Using in the Treatment of Venous Human Leg Ulcers

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Rachid Halfaoui

Abstract:

The aim of study was to evaluate pressure distribution characteristics of the elastic textile bandages using two instrumental techniques: a prototype Instrument and a load Transference. The prototype instrument which simulates shape of real leg has pressure sensors which measure bandage pressure. Using this instrument, the results show that elastic textile bandages presents different pressure distribution characteristics and none produces a uniform distribution around lower limb. The load transference test procedure is used to determine whether a relationship exists between elastic textile bandage structure and pressure distribution characteristics. The test procedure assesses degree of load, directly transferred through a textile when loads series are applied to bandaging surface. A range of weave fabrics was produced using needle weaving machine and a sewing technique. A textile bandage was developed with optimal characteristics far superior pressure distribution than other bandages. From results, we find that theoretical pressure is not consistent exactly with practical pressure. It is important in this study to make a practical application for specialized nurses in order to verify the results and draw useful conclusions for predicting the use of this type of elastic band.

Keywords: textile, cotton, pressure, venous ulcers, elastic

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7 Local Female Dresses of Yuruk Community in Günaydin Village of Balikesir Region

Authors: Melek Tufan, Filiz Erden, E. Elhan Özus

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Apparel is a fact that has assigned wide cultural functions in development process even if it basically aims at protection during mankind's cultural development and course of live. It is an important cultural element that has been shaped by ecological conditions, social and personal values, traditions, cultural and economic conditions, at the same time it is a bearer of culture. Customs and traditions that maintain culture create differences in dressing styles of the region. These differences create traditional clothing forms specific to each region, which are different from each other or show close similarities. Differences which have dominant features create sense of dress specific to community owned. Samples of a kind of dress worn over salwar, long shirt, jacket, salwar and underpants that are types of local female dresses available in houses of yuruk community in Günaydın village of Balıkesir region have been found. By examining local dresses in terms of material, color, cutting, sewing, ornamentation technique and ornamentation subject and it has been aimed to record them with observation forms and transfer them to the next generations.

Keywords: women, traditional, Turkish Culture, art, fashion

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6 Prototype Development of Knitted Buoyant Swimming Vest for Children

Authors: Nga-Wun Li, Chu-Po Ho, Kit-Lun Yick, Jin-Yun Zhou

Abstract:

The use of buoyant vests incorporated with swimsuits can develop children’s confidence in the water, particularly for novice swimmers. Consequently, parents intend to purchase buoyant swimming vests for the children to reduce their anxiety to water. Although the conventional buoyant swimming vests can provide the buoyant function to the wearer, their bulkiness and hardness make children feel uncomfortable and not willing to wear. This study aimed to apply inlay knitting technology to design new functional buoyant swimming vests for children. This prototype involved a shell and a buoyant knitted layer, which is the main media to provide buoyancy. Polypropylene yarn and 6.4 mm of Expandable Polyethylene (EPE) foam were fabricated in Full needle stitch with inlay knitting technology and were then linked by sewing to form the buoyant layer. The shell of the knitted buoyant vest was made of Polypropylene circular knitted fabric. The structure of knitted fabrics of the buoyant swimsuit makes them inherently stretchable, and the arrangement of the inlaid material was designed based on the body movement that can improve the ease with which the swimmer moves. Further, the shoulder seam is designed at the back to minimize the irritation of the wearer. Apart from maintaining the buoyant function to them, this prototype shows its contribution in reducing bulkiness and improving softness to the conventional buoyant swimming vest by taking the advantages of a knitted garment. The results in this study are significant to the development of the buoyant swimming vest for both the textile and the fast-growing sportswear industry.

Keywords: knitting technology, buoyancy, inlay, swimming vest, functional garment

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5 Quality Approaches for Mass-Produced Fashion: A Study in Malaysian Garment Manufacturing

Authors: N. J. M. Yusof, T. Sabir, J. McLoughlin

Abstract:

Garment manufacturing industry involves sequential processes that are subjected to uncontrollable variations. The industry depends on the skill of labour in handling the varieties of fabrics and accessories, machines, and also a complicated sewing operation. Due to these reasons, garment manufacturers created systems to monitor and control the product’s quality regularly by conducting quality approaches to minimize variation. The aims of this research were to ascertain the quality approaches deployed by Malaysian garment manufacturers in three key areas-quality systems and tools; quality control and types of inspection; sampling procedures chosen for garment inspection. The focus of this research also aimed to distinguish quality approaches used by companies that supplied the finished garments to both domestic and international markets. The feedback from each of company’s representatives was obtained using the online survey, which comprised of five sections and 44 questions on the organizational profile and quality approaches used in the garment industry. The results revealed that almost all companies had established their own mechanism of process control by conducting a series of quality inspection for daily production either it was formally been set up or vice versa. Quality inspection was the predominant quality control activity in the garment manufacturing and the level of complexity of these activities was substantially dictated by the customers. AQL-based sampling was utilized by companies dealing with the export market, whilst almost all the companies that only concentrated on the domestic market were comfortable using their own sampling procedures for garment inspection. This research provides an insight into the implementation of quality approaches that were perceived as important and useful in the garment manufacturing sector, which is truly labour-intensive.

Keywords: garment manufacturing, quality approaches, quality control, inspection, Acceptance Quality Limit (AQL), sampling

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4 Modified Norhaya Upper Limp Elevation Sling-Quick Approach Ensuring Timely Limb Elevation

Authors: Prem, Norhaya, Vwrene C., Mohammad Harris A., Amarjit, Fazir M.

Abstract:

Upper limb surgery is a common orthopedic procedure. After surgery, it is necessary to raise the patient's arm to reduce limb swelling and promote recovery. After an injury or surgery, swelling (edema) in the limbs is common. This swelling can be painful, cause stiffness, and affect movement and ability to do daily activities. One of the easiest ways to manage swelling is to elevate the swollen limb. The goal is to elevate the swollen limb slightly above the level of the heart. This helps the extra fluid move back towards the heart for circulation to the rest of the body. Conventional arm sling or pillows are usually placed under the arm to raise it, but in this way the arm cannot be fixed well and easily slide down, without ideal raising effect. Conventional arm sling need experience to tie the sling and this delay in the application process. To reduce the waiting time and cost, modified Norhaya upper limb elevation sling was designed and made readily available. The sling is made from calico fabric, readily available in the ward. Measurements of patients’ arm lengths are obtained, and fabric sizes are cut into the average arm lengths, as well as 1 size above and below. The cut calico fabric is then sewn together with thick sewing threads. Its application is easy and junior most staff or doctor will be able to apply it on patient. The time taken to set up the sling is also reduced. Feedback gathered from ground staff regarding ease of setting up the sling was tremendous and patient also feel comfort in the modified Norhaya sling. The device can freely adjust the raising height of the affected limb and effectively fix the affected limb to reduce its swelling, thus promoting recovery. This device is worthy to be clinically popularized and applied. The Modified Norhaya upper limb elevation sling is the quickest to set up and the delay in elevating the patient’s hand is significantly reduced. Moreover, it is reproducible and there is also significant cost savings.

Keywords: elevate, effective, sling, timely

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3 Learning Fashion Construction and Manufacturing Methods from the Past: Cultural History and Genealogy at the Middle Tennessee State University Historic Clothing Collection

Authors: Teresa B. King

Abstract:

In the millennial age, with more students desiring a fashion major yet fewer having sewing and manufacturing knowledge, this increases demand on academicians to adequately educate. While fashion museums have a prominent place for historical preservation, the need for apparel education via working collections of handmade or mass manufactured apparel is lacking in most universities in the United States, especially in the Southern region. Created in 1988, Middle Tennessee State University’s historic clothing collection provides opportunities to study apparel construction methods throughout history, to compare and apply to today’s construction and manufacturing methods, as well as to learn the cyclical nature/importance of historic styles on current and upcoming fashion. In 2019, a class exercise experiment was implemented for which students researched their family genealogy using Ancestry.com, identified the oldest visual media (photographs, etc.) available, and analyzed the garment represented in said media. The student then located a comparable garment in the historic collection and evaluated the construction methods of the ancestor’s time period. A class 'fashion' genealogy tree was created and mounted for public viewing/education. Results of this exercise indicated that student learning increased due to the 'personal/familial connection' as it triggered more interest in historical garments as related to the student’s own personal culture. Students better identified garments regarding the historical time period, fiber content, fabric, and construction methods utilized, thus increasing learning and retention. Students also developed increased learning and recognition of custom construction methods versus current mass manufacturing techniques, which impact today’s fashion industry. A longitudinal effort will continue with the growth of the historic collection and as students continue to utilize the historic clothing collection.

Keywords: ancestry, clothing history, fashion history, genealogy, historic fashion museum collection

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2 Interactive Garments: Flexible Technologies for Textile Integration

Authors: Anupam Bhatia

Abstract:

Upon reviewing the literature and the pragmatic work done in the field of E- textiles, it is observed that the applications of wearable technologies have found a steady growth in the field of military, medical, industrial, sports; whereas fashion is at a loss to know how to treat this technology and bring it to market. The purpose of this paper is to understand the practical issues of integration of electronics in garments; cutting patterns for mass production, maintaining the basic properties of textiles and daily maintenance of garments that hinder the wide adoption of interactive fabric technology within Fashion and leisure wear. To understand the practical hindrances an experimental and laboratory approach is taken. “Techno Meets Fashion” has been an interactive fashion project where sensor technologies have been embedded with textiles that result in set of ensembles that are light emitting garments, sound sensing garments, proximity garments, shape memory garments etc. Smart textiles, especially in the form of textile interfaces, are drastically underused in fashion and other lifestyle product design. Clothing and some other textile products must be washable, which subjects to the interactive elements to water and chemical immersion, physical stress, and extreme temperature. The current state of the art tends to be too fragile for this treatment. The process for mass producing traditional textiles becomes difficult in interactive textiles. As cutting patterns from larger rolls of cloth and sewing them together to make garments breaks and reforms electronic connections in an uncontrolled manner. Because of this, interactive fabric elements are integrated by hand into textiles produced by standard methods. The Arduino has surely made embedding electronics into textiles much easier than before; even then electronics are not integral to the daily wear garments. Soft and flexible interfaces of MEMS (micro sensors and Micro actuators) can be an option to make this possible by blending electronics within E-textiles in a way that’s seamless and still retains functions of the circuits as well as the garment. Smart clothes, which offer simultaneously a challenging design and utility value, can be only mass produced if the demands of the body are taken care of i.e. protection, anthropometry, ergonomics of human movement, thermo- physiological regulation.

Keywords: ambient intelligence, proximity sensors, shape memory materials, sound sensing garments, wearable technology

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1 Gender, Agency, and Health: An Exploratory Study Using an Ethnographic Material for Illustrative Reasons

Authors: S. Gustafsson

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to explore the connection between gender, agency, and health on personal and social levels over time. The use of gender as an analytical tool for health research has been shown to be useful to explore thoughts and ideas that are taken for granted, which have relevance for health. The paper highlights the following three issues. There are multiple forms of femininity and masculinity. Agency and social structure are closely related and referred to in this paper as 'gender agency'. Gender is illuminated as a product of history but also treated as a social factor and a producer of history. As a prominent social factor in the process of shaping living conditions, gender is highlighted as being significant for understanding health. To make health explicit as a dynamic and complex concept and not merely the opposite of disease requires a broader alliance with feminist theory and a post-Bourdieusian framework. A personal story, included with other ethnographic material about women’s networking in rural Sweden, is used as an empirical illustration. Ethnographic material was chosen for its ability to illustrate historical, local, and cultural ways of doing gendered and capitalized health. New concepts characterize ethnography, exemplified in this study by 'processes of transformation'. The semi-structured interviews followed an interview guide drafted with reference to the background theory of gender. The interviews lasted about an hour and were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcribed interviews and the author’s field notes formed the basis for the writing up of this paper. Initially, the participants' interests in weaving, sewing, and various handicrafts became obvious foci for networking activities and seemed at first to shape compliance with patriarchy, which generally does the opposite of promoting health. However, a significant event disrupted the stability of this phenomenon. What was permissible for the women began to crack and new spaces opened up. By exploiting these new spaces, the participants found opportunities to try out alternatives to emphasized femininity. Over time, they began combining feminized activities with degrees of masculinity, as leadership became part of the activities. In response to this, masculine enactment was gradually transformed and became increasingly gender neutral. As the tasks became more gender neutral the activities assumed a more formal character and the women stretched the limits of their capacity by enacting gender agency, a process the participants referred to as 'personal growth' and described as health promotion. What was described in terms of 'personal growth' can be interpreted as the effects of a raised status. Participation in women’s networking strengthened the participants’ structural position. More specifically, it was the gender-neutral position that was rewarded. To clarify the connection between gender, agency, and health on personal and social levels over time the concept processes of transformation is used. This concept is suggested as a dynamic equivalent to habitus. Health is thus seen as resulting from situational access to social recognition, prestige, capital assets and not least, meanings of gender.

Keywords: a cross-gender bodily hexis, gender agency, gender as analytical tool, processes of transformation

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