Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2035

Search results for: protection for victim of trafficking

2035 The Active Subject and the Victim of Trafficking in Human Beings: Material and Procedural Criminal Law Approaches

Authors: Andrei Nastas, Sergiu Cernomopret

Abstract:

This research addresses trafficking in human beings, in terms of the active subject and the victim of this crime, through the prism of national and international regulations in material and procedural criminal matters. For the correlative approach of both mentioned aspects, the active subject and the victim of trafficking in human beings, the research addresses both its constituent elements and the way to prevent and combat this phenomenon through criminal proceedings. As follows, trafficking in human beings, from a material criminal point of view, involves two subjects of this crime (active subject - offender and passive subject - victim), while their procedural status differs depending on the case (victim or injured party). The result of the research highlights some clarifications, which find a theoretical-practical basis in the legal provisions, the specialized doctrine, and the judicial practice.

Keywords: victim, active subject, abuse, injured party, crime

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2034 Looking At Labor Trafficking In Poland

Authors: Ashlyn Smith, Chloe Zampelli, Vincent Manna, Vernon Murray

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According to Polaris (a UN affiliate), there are currently 44 million human trafficking victims globally. Using a sample of 137 labor trafficking victims in Poland, we found that all were Ukrainian citizens. We categorized victims according to the “Victim Intervention Marketing” (Murray) social marketing framework. The largest victim type consisted of “Willing Assimilators” (57%). This means they entered their particular trafficking situations without coercion and were left at will. Such victims are typically driven by financial desperation. Twenty percent (20%) of Willing Assimilators were men, and 80% were women. Victims who were not Willing Assimilators were forced as either “Enlightened Apostates” (37%) or “Tricked and Trapped” (7%). All of the forced victims were women. Crosstabs with Chi-square test (Pearson Chi-Square test significance = .002) results indicated that the male victims were all between 30 and 38 years old, while female victim ages ranged from 24 to 47. Accordingly, labor trafficking victim interventions in Poland should be age-sensitive and focus on three areas: 1) economic development for the Willing Assimilators, 2) training to identify fraudulent job postings, etc. for the Tricked and Trapped segment, and 3) training to equip potential victims to distrust certain close “loved ones” for the Enlightened Apostates.

Keywords: Poland, labor trafficking, social marketing, victim intervention marketing

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2033 Conflating Voluntary Sex Work and Trafficked Sex Work in Malaysia

Authors: Haezreena Begum Abdul Hamid

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This article will explore the conflation between voluntary sex work and trafficked sex work. In doing so, the article will analyse the meaning of trafficking according to the United Nations ‘Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children’ and the Malaysian Anti-Trafficking in Persons and Anti-Migrant Smuggling Act, 2007 (ATIP), and discuss the ambiguities that may arise in understanding the term. While the law on human trafficking has long been understood by scholars, key stakeholders, and enforcement officers, identifying a victim of trafficking is far from being straight forward. This is because of the diverse understanding on sex trafficking and sex work, and the fact that ‘consent’ by trafficked persons remains irrelevant in cases of trafficking. As a result, women who voluntarily engage in sex work are sometimes categorised as ‘trafficked’ and are ‘rescued’ by the authorities in the name of ‘protection’, while those who insist of having agency can be charged for violating the immigration laws. In light of such circumstances, this article aims to explore the conflation between voluntary sex work and trafficked sex work and how such conflation have succeeded in fostering distrust between sex workers and authorities.

Keywords: voluntary sex work, trafficked sex work, sex work, coercion, protection

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2032 Oath Taking-An Approach to Combating Criminality: Challenges and Implication to the Victim Centered Approach in Human Trafficking

Authors: Faith G. Ehiemua, Chandra E. Ulinfun

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This work presents two approaches that use competing models to combat criminality in human trafficking. It argues that oath-taking is an approach used to combat and repress crime by natives of African descent. Therefore, certain value choices reflected explicitly or implicitly in its habitual functioning are features of crime control, a model of the criminal process used to repress and prevent crime. By pitting the approaches against each other, the work examines the utility of the purpose of each approach with the aim of assessing moral worthiness. The approaches adopted are descriptive, normative, and theoretical. The findings reveal that oath-taking is effective in human trafficking mainly because Africans believe that the African traditional system is efficient. However, the utilitarian ethical theory applied to the use of oath-taking in human trafficking shows oath-taking as protecting the interest of human traffickers against the general good of society.

Keywords: human rights, human trafficking, oath taking, utilitarianism, victim-centered approach

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2031 Trafficking in Children as a Qualified Form of the Crime of Trafficking in Human Beings

Authors: Vanda Božić, Željko Nikač

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Trafficking in children, especially vulnerable victims, is a qualified form of committing the crime of human trafficking, and a special form of abuse and violation of children's rights. Given that trafficking in children is dangerous, but also a specific form of crime in relation to trafficking in human beings, this paper will in the first part indicate the forms of trafficking in children (trafficking in children for sexual exploitation, child pornography, and pedophilia, exploitation of labor, begging, performance of criminal acts, adoption, marriage and participation in armed conflicts). The second part references the international documents which regulate this matter as well as the solutions in national criminal legislations of Republic of Croatia and Republic of Serbia. It points to the essential features and characteristics of the victims, according to sex, age, and citizenship, as well as the age of children at the stage of solicitation and recruitment and the status of the family from which the child comes from. The work includes a special emphasis on international police cooperation in the fight against trafficking in children. Concluding remarks set out proposals de lege ferenda that can be of significant impact, particularly on prevention, and then also on repression in combating this serious crime.

Keywords: trafficking in children, trafficking in human beings, child as a victim of human trafficking, children’s rights

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2030 How Tattoos and Brands Impact the Recovery of Sex Trafficking Victim: An Exploratory Study of Sex Trafficking Survivors.

Authors: Jeremy Berry, Shannon Rodrigue, Caroline Norris

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This study explores the impact of tattoos and/or brands on the recovery of sex trafficking survivors. Many victims of sex trafficking are forced or coerced to take markings of ownership while in the sex trafficking trade in the form of painful tattoos or brands. As a result, victims who are rescued and in recovery often must live with permanent reminders of their traumatic experiences or are left to resort to expensive cosmetic or cover-up jobs, which for many are out of reach. As is often true of domestic violence victims who are left with scars from their abusers, the impact of these permanent markers can delay the healing process and contribute to post-traumatic stress. This study tells the story from the perspectives of the survivors of sex trafficking, how these specific permanent reminders impacted their healing. The study employs a thematic analysis of interviews with sex trafficking victims via focus group interviews.

Keywords: sex trafficking, tattoos, trauma, healing

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2029 Religious Coercion as Means of Trafficking in Women and Faith Communities’ Role in Ending Such Religious Exploitation

Authors: Xiaoyu Stephanie Ren

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With the increase of massive migration, economic polarization, as well as increasing awareness and respects for religious freedom in the world, women have become unprecedentedly vulnerable to trafficking involving religious coercion. Such cases can also bring enormous challenges for prosecution in which the prosecutor bears the burden of proving that the victim acted, or not acted in a certain way due to the exploitation of her belief system: (1) Jurors who are nonbelievers tend not to be convinced that something of intangible nature can act as the force to get victim into women trafficking situation; (2) Court more often than not rules in favor of victims in women trafficking cases involving religious exploitation only when there is physical coercion in addition to religious coercion; (3) Female victims are often reluctant to testify at court due to their godly fear and loyalty to trafficker. Using case study methodology, this paper examines the unique characteristics of religious coercion as means of trafficking in women from a legal perspective and proposes multiple ways based on communal beliefs that faith communities, as victims for such crime themselves, can act in order to help to end religious exploitation. The purpose of this paper is threefold: to improve acknowledgment for the role of religious coercion as a sole force for women trafficking situation; to discuss legal hurdles in prosecuting women trafficking cases involving religious coercion; and to propose collaboration across borders among faith communities to end such exploitation.

Keywords: women trafficking, sex violence, religious exploitation, faith community, prosecution, law

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2028 Public-Private Partnership for Better Protection of Trafficked Victims in Thailand: Case Study on Public Protection and Welfare Center in Cooperation with Jim Thompson Foundation in Occupational Development on Silk Sewing and Tailoring

Authors: Aungkana Kmonpetch

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Protection of trafficked victims and partnership among stakeholders are established as core principles in 5P’ strategies in international and national anti-human trafficking policies. In this article, it is of interest to discuss how the role of public-private partnerships in promoting the occupation development for employment in wage will enhance the better protection for victims of trafficking who affirmatively decide they want a criminal justice intervention, using Thailand as a case. Most of the victims who have accepted to be witness in the criminal justice system have lost income during their absence from work. The analysis of Thailand case is based on two methodological approaches: 1) interview with victims of trafficking, protection authorities, service providers, trainers and teachers, social workers, NGOs, police, prosecutors, business owners and enterprises, ILO, UNDP etc.; 2) create collaborative effort through workshops/consultation meetings in participation of all stakeholders – governmental agencies, private organizations, UN and international agencies. The linking of protection and partnership is anchored in international conventions and human trafficking directives. While this is actually framed as a responsive advantage for 5P strategies of anti-human trafficking – prevention, protection, persecution, punishment, and partnership, in reality, there might have more practical requirements of care and support. The article addresses how the partnership between governmental agencies and private organizations provide opportunities for trafficked victims to engage in high-skilled occupational development such as Silk-Sewing and Tailoring. The discussion is also focused how this approach of capacity building of the trainer for trainee, be enable the trafficked victims to cultivate the practices of high-skilled training to engage them into the business of social enterprise with employment in wage. The partnership coordination draws specifically to two aspects: firstly, to formulate appropriate assistance for promotion and protection of human rights of the trafficked victims in response to the 5P’ strategies of anti-human trafficking policy; secondly, to empower them to settle some economic stability for livelihood opportunity in the country of origin on their return and reintegration. Therefore, they can define how they want to move forward to prevent them at risk of vulnerable situations where they might being trafficked again or going on to work in exploitative conditions. It strengthens proper access to protection and assistance, depending on how the incentive of protection for cooperation is perceived to be and how useful the capacity building in occupation development for employment in wage will be implemented practically both in the host country and in the country of origin. This also brings into question how the victim of trafficking are able to access to the trade of market and are supported the employment opportunity according to the concept of decent work as they are constituted as witnesses. We discuss these issues in the area of a broader literature on social protection, economic security, gender, law, and victimhood.

Keywords: employment opportunity, occupation development, protection for victim of trafficking, public-private partnership

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2027 Victim Witnesses of Human Trafficking: A Phenomenological Study

Authors: Jireh Reinor L. Vitto, Mylene S. Gumarao, Levy M. Fajanilan, Sheryll Ann M. Castillo, Leonardo B. Dorado, Miriam P. Narbarte

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Human trafficking may happen to anyone. The study aimed to explore the experiences of victim witnesses of human trafficking. It utilized a qualitative phenomenological study design. Eighteen women, 15 to 46 years old, had experienced human trafficking (sex or labor trafficking), and with a filed case or not. An in-depth semi-structured, open-ended interview was employed to gather information. Guardians were also interviewed for triangulation purposes. Findings showed that the participants experienced fatigue and abuse for their physical aspect and gained negative feelings such as burdened, sad, scared (fear), stress, anger, trauma, depress and suicidal thoughts for their psychological aspect. For the spiritual aspect, the participants concluded to have enhanced spiritual life where they knew about God, became closer to God, and learned how to pray. They also faced challenges such as dysfunctional family, delinquent friends, exploitation, problems kept from the family, and poverty, which resulted in their becoming victims of human trafficking. To cope with the situation, they utilized family support, prayers, guts or courage (lakas ng loob), negotiation with their employer, and support from kababayans. Their practices and mechanisms to recover were the Blas Ople Center, rescue/entrapment operation, shelter, and embassy. After the incident, the participants shared that they earned to have thoughts of having a good life without going abroad/makabayan, knowledge of overseas Filipino workers, wise choice of friends, contentment, and value for the family.

Keywords: victim-witnesses, human trafficking, lived experiences, challenges, coping strategies

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2026 Structuring the Role of Indonesia's Dilemma Position in ASEAN to Combat Human Trafficking

Authors: Febi Eka Putri, Prabowo Anggorono

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Human Trafficking has become a threat in the global phenomenon, including Indonesia as a country adopting democracy to uphold the human rights value. Indonesia is classified as a source of trafficking in persons which dominate by women and children for sexual exploitation and forced labor purposes. In this case, Indonesia has committed to combat trafficking in persons by enacted domestic law to criminalize all types of human trafficking in domestic and international level. Tracing to the efforts, we cannot just simplify it, however, in 2016 Indonesia has placed as a tier 2 country because the government does not fully achieve the minimum standard by U. S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act due to only making efforts as progress. While as a part of ASEAN member, Indonesia has signed ASEAN Human Rights Declaration but when it comes to Human Trafficking issue, there is only few ASEAN member who has ratified ASEAN Convention on Trafficking in Persons, in particular Women and Children such as Singapore, Cambodia, and Thailand. This brings the evidence to structuring the role of Indonesia to combat human trafficking.

Keywords: Indonesia, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), human trafficking, Tier 2 country

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2025 Human Security and Human Trafficking Related Corruption

Authors: Ekin D. Horzum

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The aim of the proposal is to examine the relationship between human trafficking related corruption and human security. The proposal suggests that the human trafficking related corruption is about willingness of the states to turn a blind eye to the human trafficking cases. Therefore, it is important to approach human trafficking related corruption in terms of human security and human rights violation to find an effective way to fight against human trafficking. In this context, the purpose of this proposal is to examine the human trafficking related corruption as a safe haven in which trafficking thrives for perpetrators.

Keywords: human trafficking, human security, human rights, corruption, organized crime

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2024 Deconstructing Reintegration Services for Survivors of Human Trafficking: A Feminist Analysis of Australian and Thai Government and Non-Government Responses

Authors: Jessica J. Gillies

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Awareness of the tragedy that is human trafficking has increased exponentially over the past two decades. The four pillars widely recognised as global solutions to the problem are prevention, prosecution, protection, and partnership between government and non-government organisations. While ‘sex-trafficking’ initially received major attention, this focus has shifted to other industries that conceal broader experiences of exploitation. However, within the regions of focus for this study, namely Australia and Thailand, trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation remains the commonly uncovered narrative of criminal justice investigations. In these regions anti-trafficking action is characterised by government-led prevention and prosecution efforts; whereas protection and reintegration practices have received criticism. Typically, non-government organisations straddle the critical chasm between policy and practice; therefore, they are perfectly positioned to contribute valuable experiential knowledge toward understanding how both sectors can support survivors in the post-trafficking experience. The aim of this research is to inform improved partnerships throughout government and non-government post-trafficking services by illuminating gaps in protection and reintegration initiatives. This research will explore government and non-government responses to human trafficking in Thailand and Australia, in order to understand how meaning is constructed in this context and how the construction of meaning effects survivors in the post-trafficking experience. A qualitative, three-stage methodology was adopted for this study. The initial stage of enquiry consisted of a discursive analysis, in order to deconstruct the broader discourses surrounding human trafficking. The data included empirical papers, grey literature such as publicly available government and non-government reports, and anti-trafficking policy documents. The second and third stages of enquiry will attempt to further explore the findings of the discourse analysis and will focus more specifically on protection and reintegration in Australia and Thailand. Stages two and three will incorporate process observations in government and non-government survivor support services, and semi-structured interviews with employees and volunteers within these settings. Two key findings emerged from the discursive analysis. The first exposed conflicting feminist arguments embedded throughout anti-trafficking discourse. Informed by conflicting feminist discourses on sex-work, a discursive relationship has been constructed between sex-industry policy and anti-trafficking policy. In response to this finding, data emerging from the process observations and semi-structured interviews will be interpreted using a feminist theoretical framework. The second finding progresses from the construction in the first. The discursive construction of sex-trafficking appears to have had influence over perceptions of the legitimacy of survivors, and therefore the support they receive in the post-trafficking experience. For example; women who willingly migrate for employment in the sex-industry, and on arrival are faced with exploitative conditions, are not perceived to be deserving of the same support as a woman who is not coerced, but rather physically forced, into such circumstances, yet both meet the criteria for a victim of human trafficking. The forthcoming study is intended to contribute toward building knowledge and understanding around the implications of the construction of legitimacy; and contextualise this in reference to government led protection and reintegration support services for survivors in the post-trafficking experience.

Keywords: Australia, government, human trafficking, non-government, reintegration, Thailand

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2023 Trafficking of Women and Children and Solutions to Combat It: The Case of Nigeria

Authors: Olatokunbo Yakeem

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Human trafficking is a crime against gross violations of human rights. Trafficking in persons is a severe socio-economic dilemma that affects the national and international dimensions. Human trafficking or modern-day-slavery emanated from slavery, and it has been in existence before the 6ᵗʰ century. Today, no country is exempted from dehumanizing human beings, and as a result, it has been an international issue. The United Nations (UN) presented the International Protocol to fight human trafficking worldwide, which brought about the international definition of human trafficking. The protocol is to prevent, suppress, and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children. The trafficking protocol has a link with transnational organised crime rather than migration. Over a hundred and fifty countries nationwide have enacted their criminal and panel code trafficking legislation from the UN trafficking protocol. Sex trafficking is the most common type of exploitation of women and children. Other forms of this crime involve exploiting vulnerable victims through forced labour, child involvement in warfare, domestic servitude, debt bondage, and organ removal for transplantation. Trafficking of women and children into sexual exploitation represents the highest form of human trafficking than other types of exploitation. Trafficking of women and children can either happen internally or across the border. It affects all kinds of people, regardless of their race, social class, culture, religion, and education levels. However, it is more of a gender-based issue against females. Furthermore, human trafficking can lead to life-threatening infections, mental disorders, lifetime trauma, and even the victim's death. The study's significance is to explore why the root causes of women and children trafficking in Nigeria are based around poverty, entrusting children in the hands of relatives and friends, corruption, globalization, weak legislation, and ignorance. The importance of this study is to establish how the national, regional, and international organisations are using the 3P’s Protection, Prevention, and Prosecution) to tackle human trafficking. The methodology approach for this study will be a qualitative paradigm. The rationale behind this selection is that the qualitative method will identify the phenomenon and interpret the findings comprehensively. The data collection will take the form of semi-structured in-depth interviews through telephone and email. The researcher will use a descriptive thematic analysis to analyse the data by using complete coding. In summary, this study aims to recommend to the Nigerian federal government to include human trafficking as a subject in their educational curriculum for early intervention to prevent children from been coerced by criminal gangs. And the research aims to find the root causes of women and children trafficking. Also, to look into the effectiveness of the strategies in place to eradicate human trafficking globally. In the same vein, the research objective is to investigate how the anti-trafficking bodies such as law enforcement and NGOs collaborate to tackle the upsurge in human trafficking.

Keywords: children, Nigeria, trafficking, women

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2022 The Social Construction of the Family among the Survivors of Sex Trafficking

Authors: Nisha James, Shubha Ranganathan

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Sex trafficking is a traumatic ongoing process which includes human rights violations against the victims. Majority of the trafficked individuals in India are from families with low socioeconomic status, from rural areas, unmarried or married off at a very young age. Many of the sex trafficked feel that it is necessary to make sacrifices, for the benefit of their families. The combination of these cultural family values with the stigma of rape and prostitution are manipulated and used as a tool in the abuse of power against the sex trafficked. The rescue, rehabilitation and reintegration of these individuals are usually difficult due to the stigma and social exclusion that they face. In these circumstances, social support is very effective in social inclusion of these individuals. The present study was a qualitative one, using semi-structured interviews with 29 Indian survivors of sex trafficking and a few sex workers. Thematic analysis was done on the data derived from the semi-structured interviews. The major findings indicate that the family can be seen as both the ‘cause’ for being sex trafficked, and the factor in victim continuing to be sex trafficked. At the same time, it can also become a driver for getting rescued, rehabilitated and reintegrated. The study also explores the social construction about ‘family’ among the survivors of sex trafficking, reflecting on who they refer to as ‘family’, what they mean by the term ‘family’ and how these families emerge. Therefore the analytic concept of ‘family’ is a crucial element in sex trafficking and cannot be defined only in terms of its conventional definition of a basic unit of society.

Keywords: sex-trafficking, survivor, family, social construction

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2021 Gender Inequality and Human Trafficking

Authors: Kimberly McCabe

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The trafficking of women and children for abuse and exploitation is not a new problem under the umbrella of human trafficking; however, over the last decade, the problem has attracted increased attention from international governments and non-profits attempting to reduce victimization and provide services for survivors. Research on human trafficking suggests that the trafficking of human beings is, largely, a symptom of poverty. As the trafficking of human beings may be viewed as a response to the demand for people for various forms of exploitation, a product of poverty, and a consequence of the subordinate positions of women and children in society, it reaches beyond randomized victimization. Hence, human trafficking, and especially the trafficking of women and children, goes beyond the realm of poorness. Therefore, to begin to understand the reasons for the existence of human trafficking, one must identify and consider not only the immediate causes but also those underlying structural determinants that facilitate this form of victimization. Specifically, one must acknowledge the economic, social, and cultural factors that support human trafficking. This research attempts to study human trafficking at the country level by focusing on economic, social, and cultural characteristics. This study focuses on inequality and, in particular, gender inequality as related to legislative attempts to address human trafficking. Within the design of this project is the use of the US State Department’s tier classification system for Trafficking in Persons (TIP) and the USA CIA Fact Sheet of country characteristics for over 150 countries in an attempt to model legal outcomes as related to human trafficking. Results of this research demonstrate the significance of characteristics beyond poverty as related to country-level responses to human trafficking.

Keywords: child trafficking, gender inequality, human trafficking, inequality

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2020 Muddle Effort for Organized Crime in India: Social Work Concern for Anti Human Trafficking Unit

Authors: Rajkamal Ajmeri, Leena Mehta

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Growing magnitude of human trafficking is the indicatory symptom of ill society. Despite of many treaties, legislation and protocols control over human trafficking require additional attention. However, many Anti Human Trafficking Units (AHTU) are working throughout India but it is a fact that incidence pertaining to illegal human trade is not fully under control. Social work as discipline and practice base profession has a lot of concern about situation and the trafficked victims. United state put Indian in tier II watch list because they are not fully complying with the minimum standard of Trafficking Victims Protection laws but they are making a significant effort to bring themselves into compliance with those standards. In order to solve the issue, scientific research of experiences and opinions of government / non government machineries can play an effective role in raising the standard legislation for trafficked victims. Proper study can enhance understanding on various problems faced by government machineries. The study can help in developing the scientific model, which can effectively solve the problem in human trafficking field.

Keywords: human trafficking, legislations, victims, social work, government machinery

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2019 Glorification Trap in Combating Human Trafficking in Indonesia: An Application of Three-Dimensional Model of Anti-Trafficking Policy

Authors: M. Kosandi, V. Susanti, N. I. Subono, E. Kartini

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This paper discusses the risk of glorification trap in combating human trafficking, as it is shown in the case of Indonesia. Based on a research on Indonesian combat against trafficking in 2017-2018, this paper shows the tendency of misinterpretation and misapplication of the Indonesian anti-trafficking law into misusing the law for glorification, to create an image of certain extent of achievement in combating human trafficking. The objective of this paper is to explain the persistent occurrence of human trafficking crimes despite the significant progress of anti-trafficking efforts of Indonesian government. The research was conducted in 2017-2018 by qualitative approach through observation, depth interviews, discourse analysis, and document study, applying the three-dimensional model for analyzing human trafficking in the source country. This paper argues that the drive for glorification of achievement in the combat against trafficking has trapped Indonesian government in the loop of misinterpretation, misapplication, and misuse of the anti-trafficking law. In return, the so-called crime against humanity remains high and tends to increase in Indonesia.

Keywords: human trafficking, anti-trafficking policy, transnational crime, source country, glorification trap

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2018 A Loop between Victimhood and Women with Choice: Case of Trafficked North Korean Women in China

Authors: Jinah Kwon

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Why are there North Korean women who prefer their life in China, living as an undocumented migrant, to legal residence in South Korea? What is the line between choice and coercion in trafficking and how does it relate to family, especially in Asian culture? Is family function as a haven in the unsecured world or a fetter against the better world? Are the current international mechanisms on trafficked victims fully reflecting the voices of the victims? This study is about the paradoxical conditions of North Korean women situated in China as the trafficked victim and as members of their Chinese family. In order to answer the questions above, this study explored the case of trafficked North Korean women in China. This mixed-methods study employed in-depth interviews of 18 trafficked women living in China and a survey of 98 North Korean origin women residing in South Korea. From the survey, 40 out of 98 women from the survey indicated an unexpected function of trafficking, which was used as a channel of supporting the subjectivity of women in the North Korean context. Such results supported the actual observation and narratives of North Korean women who experienced trafficking from the author’s two visits to the Northeastern area of China in 2012 and 2018, respectively. Based on the findings, the last part of the study makes policy implications on international trafficking mechanisms—theories by Gayatri Spivak and Herbert A. Simon was employed to approach the relatively less dealt aspect of trafficking.

Keywords: China, North Korean women, trafficking, victimhood

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2017 Exploring the Risks and Vulnerabilities of Child Trafficking in West Java, Indonesia

Authors: B. Rusyidi, D. Mariana

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Although reforms in trafficking regulations have taken place since 2007, Indonesia is still struggling to fight child trafficking. This study aimed to identify and assess risk factors and vulnerabilities in the life of trafficked children prior to, during, and after being trafficked in order to inform the child protection system and its policies. The study was qualitative and utilized in-depth interviews to collect data. Data were gathered in 2014 and 2015 from 15 trafficked and sexually exploited girls aged 14 to 17 years originating from West Java. Social workers, safe home personnel and parents were also included as informants. Data analysis was guided by the ecological perspective and theme analyses. The study found that risks and vulnerabilities of the victims were associated with conditions at various levels of the environment. At the micro level, risk factors and vulnerabilities included young age, family conflict/violence, involvement with the “wrong” circle of friends/peers, family poverty, lack of social and economic support for the victim’s family, and psychological damages due to trafficking experiences. At the mezzo level, the lack of structured activities after school, economic inequality, stigma towards victims, lack of services for victims, and minimum public education on human trafficking were among the community hazards that increased the vulnerability and risks. Gender inequality, consumerism, the view of children as assets, corruption, weak law enforcement, the lack of institutional support, and community-wide ignorance regarding trafficking were found as factors that increased risks and vulnerabilities at the macro level. The findings from the study underline the necessity to reduce risk factors and promote protective factors at the individual, family, community and societal levels. Shifting the current focus from tertiary to primary/prevention policies and improving institutional efforts are pressing needs in the context of reducing child trafficking in Indonesia. The roles of human service providers including social work also should be promoted.

Keywords: child trafficking, child sexual exploitation, ecological perspective, risks and vulnerabilities

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2016 Human Trafficking In North East India

Authors: Neimenuo Kengurusie

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Human trafficking is considered a form of slavery in modern day era and a gross violation of human rights and one of the most organized crimes of the day transcending cultures, geography and time. Human trafficking is a highly complex phenomenon involving many actors like victims, survivors, their families, communities and third parties that recruit, transport and exploit the trafficked victims. It takes different forms such as child trafficking, trafficking for labour, trafficking for sexual exploitation, trafficking for organ transplantation etc. and affects virtually every corner of the world. This research draws on a variety of sources, including books, articles, journals, newspaper reports, human rights reports, online materials and interviews. In India, particularly the North East region, the issue of human trafficking has become a concern regionally, nationally and internationally. The focus of this paper is on the North Eastern part of India as it is a socially and economically backward region of the country which makes women and children susceptible to trafficking. Women and children from these regions are trafficked within and outside the state. Therefore, the paper seeks to explore the issue of human trafficking, especially trafficking of women and children in North East India, which receives insufficient attention in literature. The paper seeks to analyze and understand the trend and patterns of trafficking and the mechanisms that reinforces the process and perpetuates the phenomenon of trafficking considering the nature and scope of the problem. The paper also analyzes the anti-trafficking laws initiated by India and the North East states in particular for combating human trafficking in North East India.

Keywords: children, human trafficking, North East India, women

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2015 Strengthening Deradicalizing Islamist Extremism in Indonesia: A Victim-Centred Approach

Authors: Milda Istiqomah

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Deradicalization program has long been the subject of investigation. There is a steadily growing interest in examining the results on how Islamist terrorists agree to abandon violence and leave radicalism; however, it is argued that de-radicalization program on terrorism in many countries is still questionable for its effectiveness. This article aims to provide an overview of the deradicalization program specifically related to the victim-centred approach conducted by the Indonesian government and investigates critical issues surrounding the analysis of their effectiveness and outcomes. This research employs several case studies of a victim-centred approach conducted by the Indonesian Witness and Victim Protection Agency as well as the Indonesian Counter-terrorism Agency. This paper argues that the victim-centred approach to de-radicalize former terrorist prisoners faces several implemental challenges; however, the initiative may offer promise for future successful de-radicalization program. Furthermore, until more data surrounding the efficacy of this initiative available, the victim-centred approach may also constitute a significant and essential component of disengagement, de-radicalisation, and reintegration of terrorist prisoners. In conclusion, this paper suggests that further empirical research concerning prevention policies and disengagement interventions related to victim-centred approach need to be explored to give more inputs to the Indonesian government to achieve the effectiveness of de-radicalization program.

Keywords: terrorism, victim-centred approach, de-radicalization, Islamist extremism

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2014 Review of State Anti-Trafficking Laws in the United States of America and Their Success in Combating Human Trafficking and Protecting the Victims

Authors: Andrea Marcela Morales Reyes

Abstract:

In the year 2000, the federal government of the United States of America enacted anti-trafficking legislation to prevent human trafficking, prosecute traffickers, and protect the victims. Since then, all 50 states have followed the federal government's example by enacting state-level anti-trafficking legislation. In order to fight human trafficking in the United States, it is paramount that this legislation is not only comprehensively enacted but also enforced. This study reviewed the anti-trafficking laws enacted in each of the 50 states and investigated the success of such laws by reporting the number of trafficking related prosecutions, cases identified, and victims protected. This study reviewed human trafficking reports issued by nonprofits, and state and federal level agencies. An increase in the number of cases investigated since the state laws have been passed reflects a moderate success in the fight against human trafficking in the U.S. This review also found that although every state has passed anti-trafficking legislation, many still lack a comprehensive approach to combat human trafficking; some states lack key provisions to prevent human trafficking, prosecute traffickers, and protect it victims. This, along with the lack of enforcement of the anti-trafficking plans included in each of the state legislations, has meant that the human trafficking cases investigated in fiscal year 2016 are not near the estimated numbers; which in turn suggests that this crime is still greatly unaccounted for. This study concludes that although important steps have been taken at the national and state level to combat human trafficking, the identification and prosecution of human trafficking cases still proves challenging in the United States.

Keywords: enforcement of laws, human trafficking, anti-trafficking legislation, United States

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
2013 The Routes of Human Suffering: How Point-Source and Destination-Source Mapping Can Help Victim Services Providers and Law Enforcement Agencies Effectively Combat Human Trafficking

Authors: Benjamin Thomas Greer, Grace Cotulla, Mandy Johnson

Abstract:

Human trafficking is one of the fastest growing international crimes and human rights violations in the world. The United States Department of State (State Department) approximates some 800,000 to 900,000 people are annually trafficked across sovereign borders, with approximately 14,000 to 17,500 of these people coming into the United States. Today’s slavery is conducted by unscrupulous individuals who are often connected to organized criminal enterprises and transnational gangs, extracting huge monetary sums. According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), human traffickers collect approximately $32 billion worldwide annually. Surpassed only by narcotics dealing, trafficking of humans is tied with illegal arms sales as the second largest criminal industry in the world and is the fastest growing field in the 21st century. Perpetrators of this heinous crime abound. They are not limited to single or “sole practitioners” of human trafficking, but rather, often include Transnational Criminal Organizations (TCO), domestic street gangs, labor contractors, and otherwise seemingly ordinary citizens. Monetary gain is being elevated over territorial disputes and street gangs are increasingly operating in a collaborative effort with TCOs to further disguise their criminal activity; to utilizing their vast networks, in an attempt to avoid detection. Traffickers rely on a network of clandestine routes to sell their commodities with impunity. As law enforcement agencies seek to retard the expansion of transnational criminal organization’s entry into human trafficking, it is imperative that they develop reliable trafficking mapping of known exploitative routes. In a recent report given to the Mexican Congress, The Procuraduría General de la República (PGR) disclosed, from 2008 to 2010 they had identified at least 47 unique criminal networking routes used to traffic victims and that Mexico’s estimated domestic victims number between 800,000 adults and 20,000 children annually. Designing a reliable mapping system is a crucial step to effective law enforcement response and deploying a successful victim support system. Creating this mapping analytic is exceedingly difficult. Traffickers are constantly changing the way they traffic and exploit their victims. They swiftly adapt to local environmental factors and react remarkably well to market demands, exploiting limitations in the prevailing laws. This article will highlight how human trafficking has become one of the fastest growing and most high profile human rights violations in the world today; compile current efforts to map and illustrate trafficking routes; and will demonstrate how the proprietary analytical mapping analysis of point-source and destination-source mapping can help local law enforcement, governmental agencies and victim services providers effectively respond to the type and nature of trafficking to their specific geographical locale. Trafficking transcends state and international borders. It demands an effective and consistent cooperation between local, state, and federal authorities. Each region of the world has different impact factors which create distinct challenges for law enforcement and victim services. Our mapping system lays the groundwork for a targeted anti-trafficking response.

Keywords: human trafficking, mapping, routes, law enforcement intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
2012 Baseline Study on Human Trafficking Crimes: A Case Study of Mapping Human Trafficking Crimes in East Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: Ni Komang Desy Arya Pinatih

Abstract:

Transnational crime is a crime with 'unique' feature because the activities benefit the lack of state monitoring on the borders so dealing with it cannot be based on conventional engagement but also need joint operation with other countries. On the other hand with the flow of globalization and the growth of information technology and transportation, states become more vulnerable to transnational crime threats especially human trafficking. This paper would examine transnational crime activities, especially human trafficking in Indonesia. With the case study on the mapping of human trafficking crime in East Java province, Indonesia, this paper would try to analyze how the difference in human trafficking crime trends at the national and sub-national levels. The findings of this research were first, there is difference in human trafficking crime trends whereas at the national level the trend is rising, while at sub-national (province) level the trend is declining. Second, regarding the decline of human trafficking number, it’s interesting to see how the method to decrease human trafficking crime in East Jawa Province in order to reduce transnational crime accounts in the region. These things are hopefully becoming a model for transnational crimes engagement in other regions to reduce human trafficking numbers as much as possible.

Keywords: transnational crime, human trafficking, southeast Asia, anticipation model on transnational crimes

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
2011 Measures for Limiting Corruption upon Migration Wave in Europe

Authors: Jordan Georgiev Deliversky

Abstract:

Fight against migrant smuggling has been put as a priority issues at the European Union policy agenda for more than a decade. The trafficked person, who has been targeted as the object of criminal exploitation, is specifically unique for human trafficking. Generally, the beginning of human trafficking activities is related to profit from the victim’s exploitation. The objective of this paper is to present measures that could result in the limitation of corruption mainly through analyzing the existing legislation framework against corruption in Europe. The analysis is focused on exploring the multiple origins of factors influencing migration processes in Europe, as corruption could be characterized as one of the most significant reasons for refugees to flee their countries. The main results show that law enforcement must turn the focus on the financing of the organized crime groups that are involved in migrant smuggling activities. Corruption has a significant role in managing smuggling operations and in particular when criminal organizations and networks are involved. Illegal migrants and refugees usually represent significant sources of additional income for officials involved in the process of boarding protection and immigration control within the European Union borders.

Keywords: corruption, influence, human smuggling, legislation, migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
2010 Comparative Canadian Online News Coverage Analysis of Sex Trafficking Reported Cases in Ontario, and Nova Scotia

Authors: Alisha Fisher

Abstract:

Sex trafficking is a worldwide crisis that requires trauma-informed and survivor-centered media attention to accurate disseminate information. Much of the previous literature on sex trafficking tends to focus on the frequency of incidents, intervention, and support strategies for survivors, with few of them looking to how the media is conducting their reporting on sex trafficking cases to the public. Utilizing data of reports from the media of cases of sex trafficking in the two Canadian provinces with the highest cases of sex trafficking, Ontario and Nova Scotia, the authors sought to analyze the similarities and differences of how sex trafficking cases were being reported. A total of twenty articles were examined, with ten based within the province of Ontario and the remaining ten from the province of Nova Scotia. The authors coded in two processes, first, who the article was about, and second, the framing and content inclusion. The results suggest that there is high usage and reliance of voices and images of authority, with male people of color being shown as the perpetrators and white women being shown as the survivors. These findings can aid in the expansion of trauma-informed, survivor-centered media literacy of reports of sex trafficking to provide accurate insights and further developing robust methods to intersectional approaches to reporting cases of sex trafficking.

Keywords: sex trafficking, media coverage, Canada sex trafficking, content analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
2009 Evaluation of DNA Paternity Testing Accuracy of Child Trafficking Cases

Authors: Wing Kam Fung, Kexin Yu

Abstract:

Child trafficking has been a serious problem in modern China. The Chinese government has established a national anti-trafficking DNA database to help reunite missing children with their families. The database collects DNA information from missing children's parents, trafficked and homeless children, then conducts paternity tests to find matched pairs. This paper considers the matching accuracy in such cases by looking into the exclusion probability in paternity testing. First, the situation of child trafficking in China is introduced. Next, derivations of the exclusion probability for both one-parent and two-parents cases are given, followed by extension to allow for 1 or 2 mutations. The accuracy of paternity testing of child trafficking cases is then assessed using the exclusion probabilities and available data. Finally, the number of loci that should be used to ensure a correct match is investigated.

Keywords: child trafficking, DNA database, exclusion probability, paternity testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
2008 Understanding Human Trafficking in Benin City: Implications for Social Work Intervention

Authors: Tracy B. E. Omorogiuwa

Abstract:

Human trafficking also known as modern-day slavery can be seen as an effort by some privileged and criminally minded persons to take advantage of vulnerable individuals for their economic gains. Some factors; poverty, unemployment, poor educational opportunities, ignorance and traditional attitudes are attributed as causes and psychological, sexual, moral and health problems as impacts of human trafficking. This study examines the phenomenon of human trafficking in Benin City, one of the cities in Nigeria, situated as a source of trafficked persons for exploitation in Europe and African countries. Even though the Nigerian government and Non-governmental organizations have made considerable efforts in the past to reduce the incidence of human trafficking, the result has been an adjustment in the personality of the trafficked persons rather than professional measures to combat the issue. Hence, the study adopts the focused group discussions as a method for data collection; to sort the opinions of community members towards the understanding of the phenomenon. In addition, this paper provides social work implications to address the issue of human trafficking in the Benin City, Nigeria.

Keywords: human trafficking, trafficking in persons, modern-day slavery, social work implication

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
2007 Thailand and Procession of Trafficking Human Beings (Women and Children)

Authors: Kawinphat Lertpongmanee

Abstract:

The problems of trafficking human beings were continuously violent in Thailand. The problems occurred from a variety of factors such as unemployment, agricultural workers’ urban immigration, sex tour, attitude of materialism society, divorced family, unsavourily effected law, and officers’ ignorance. The purposes of this study were to study the structure, connection, a number of trafficking human beings in Thailand. Qualitative and quantitative and results of previous research were used in this research. The previous procurers, interested persons, experienced people, human beings-aiding organization, and women-children rights organization were interviewed in depth. The field was used in a variety of regions. The findings showed that the structure and connection of trafficking human beings and their values are $8,750 million. There are 240,000 people in trafficked human beings. The trend of trafficking human beings grows continuously. It is changed according to economic circumstance, society and culture, and law. The state must be aware of its problem. The law is enacted by adding high penalty for serious fear.

Keywords: human trade, prostitution trafficking, trafficking in women and children, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
2006 The Political Economy of Human Trafficking and Human Insecurity in Asia: The Case of Japan, Thailand and India

Authors: Mohammed Bashir Uddin

Abstract:

Human trafficking remains as a persistent problem in many parts of the world. It is considered by many countries as an issue of a threat to national security. Border enforcement to prevent trafficking has been the main incentive, which eventually causes human insecurity for vulnerable people, especially for women. This research argues that focus needs to be placed on the political economy of trafficking, hence on the supply and demand sides of trafficking from a broader socio-economic perspective. Trafficking is a global phenomenon with its contemporary origins in the international capitalist market system. This research investigates particularly the supply-demand nexus on the backdrop of globalization and its impact on human security. It argues that the nexus varies across the countries, particularly the demand side. While prostitution has been the sole focus of the demand side in all countries in Asia, the paper argues that organ trade, bonded labor, cheap and exploitable labor through false recruitment (male trafficking) and adoption are some of the rising demands that explore new trends of trafficking, which could be better explained through international political economy (IPE). Following a qualitative research method, the paper argues that although demands vary in destination countries, they are the byproducts of IPE which have different socio-economic impacts both on trafficked individuals and the states.

Keywords: globalization, human security, human trafficking, political economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 396