Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12663

Search results for: occupation development

12663 Association Between Occupation Type and Obesity Prevalence - An Analysis of the 2018 KNHANES -

Authors: Jeong Heon Kim, Kyu Rae Lee

Abstract:

Purpose: Although occupational factors such as working hours, shift workers are associated with obesity, the relationships between occupation types and the prevalence of obesity, such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), were not still clarified. We, therefore, investigated the association between obesity markers (BMI and WC) and types of occupation using 2018 KNHANES data. Methods: We evaluated height, weight, WC, demographic variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking) from 2018 KNHANES data. The occupational groups were classified into 9 categories (managers, professionals and related workers, clerks, service workers, sales workers, skilled agriculture, forestry and fishery workers, craft and related trade workers, equipment, machine operating and assembling workers, elementary workers) using the Korean version of the Standard Classification of Occupations. We performed an ANCOVA test in order to assess the relationship between obesity markers (BMI, WC) and types of occupation. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in general and central obesity markers (BMI, WC) according to occupation categories after controlling socio-demographic covariates in men. The prevalence of general and central obesity in men was significantly higher in managers (25.7 +/- 2.6 kg/m2, 90.0 +/- 7.2 cm), and lower in craft and related trade workers (24.3 +/- 3.3 kg/m2, 85.2 +/- 8.4 cm) respectively. (p = 0.011) Conclusion: The central and general obesity prevalence was highest in the manager group and lowest in the craft and related trades workers group among all occupation groups of men.

Keywords: BMI, occupation, WC, men, Korea

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12662 The Illegal Architecture of Apartheid in Palestine

Authors: Hala Barakat

Abstract:

Architecture plays a crucial role in the colonization and organization of spaces, as well as the preservation of cultures and history. As a result of 70 years of occupation, Palestinian land, culture, and history are endangered today. The government of Israel has used architecture to strangulate Palestinians out and seize their land. The occupation has managed to fragment the West Bank and cause sensible scars on the landscape by creating obstacles, barriers, watchtowers, checkpoints, walls, apartheid roads, border devices, and illegal settlements to unjustly claim land from its indigenous population. The apartheid architecture has divided the Palestinian social and urban fabric into pieces, similarly to the Bantustans. The architectural techniques and methods used by the occupation are evidence of prejudice, and while the illegal settlements remain to be condemned by the United Nations, little is being done to officially end this apartheid. Illegal settlements range in scale from individual units to established cities and house more than 60,000 Israeli settlers that immigrated from all over Europe and the United States. Often architecture by Israel is being directed towards expressing ideologies and serving as evidence of its political agenda. More than 78% of what was granted to Palestine after the development of the Green Line in 1948 is under Israeli occupation today. This project aims to map the illegal architecture as a criticism of governmental agendas in the West Bank and Historic Palestinian land. The paper will also discuss the resistance to the newly developed plan for the last Arab village in Jerusalem, Lifta. The illegal architecture has isolated Palestinians from each other and installed obstacles to control their movement. The architecture of occupation has no ethical or humane logic but rather entirely political, administrative, and it should not be left for the silenced architecture to tell the story. Architecture is not being used as a connecting device but rather a way to implement political injustice and spatial oppression. By narrating stories of the architecture of occupation, we can highlight the spatial injustice of the complex apartheid infrastructure. The Israeli government has managed to intoxicate architecture to serve as a divider between cultural groups, allowing the unlawful and unethical architecture to define its culture and values. As architects and designers, the roles we play in the development of illegal settlements must align with the spatial ethics we practice. Most importantly, our profession is not performing architecturally when we design a house with a particular roof color to ensure it would not be mistaken with a Palestinian house and be attacked accidentally.

Keywords: apartheid, illegal architecture, occupation, politics

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12661 Changing Social Life of the Potters of Nongpok Sekmai in Manipur, India

Authors: Keisham Ingocha Singh, Mayanglambam Mani Babu, Lorho Mary Maheo

Abstract:

Background: The tradition of the development of pottery through the handling of clay is one of the earliest skills known to the Chakpas of Manipur. Nongpok Sekmai, a Chakpa village in Thoubal district of Manipur, India, is strictly associated with making pots of red ochre colour called uyan. In the past, pottery was in great demand, each family needed them in rituals, festive occasions and also for day to day use. The whole village was engaged in the occupation of pot making. However the tradition of pottery making is fast declining. People have switched over to other economic activities which can provide them a better socioeconomic life leaving behind the age-old tradition of pottery occupation. The present study was carried out to find out the social life of the potters of Nongpok Sekmai. Materials and Method: In-depth interviews, household survey and observation were conducted to collect information on the pottery trend in the village. Results: The total population of the surveyed village is 1194 persons out of which 582 are male and 612 are female, distributed through 252 households. At present 4.94 % of the total population are still engaged in this profession. The study recorded 19 occupations other than pottery among women indicating decline of the traditional occupation. Conclusion: The study has revealed the changing life of the potters due to technological development, globalization and social network.

Keywords: Chakpas, Nongpok Sekmai, pottery, uyan

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12660 Effect of Education and Occupation on Smokeless Tobacco Use: A Study of Male Adults in India

Authors: Ramu Rawat

Abstract:

Background: This paper is an effort to analyze the role of education and occupation as critical determinants in using smokeless tobacco among male adults in India and its selected states. Methodology: Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) India 2009-10 data have been used for this study. Bivariate and Multivariate (Cox proportion hazards model) analyses are carried out to measure the impact of education and occupation on use of smokeless tobacco among male adults in India. Results and Conclusion: The study evidently suggests that, majority of Indian male adults are using Khaini and Gutkha (local names for smokeless tobacco). The analysis also shows that education and occupation are two important critical predictors of use of smokeless tobacco. The males at younger age with no or little education from rural area use smokeless tobacco more than their counterpart group from urban areas. This distinction can be attributable to their lack of knowledge or ignorance about the consequences of tobacco consumption. Place of residence played significant role for declining use of smokeless tobacco along with the effect of society. Society awareness about harmful effects of smokeless tobacco with local level government may play important role for controlling the use of any type of tobacco or tobacco products in India.

Keywords: smokeless tobacco, male, Khaini, education, occupation

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12659 Hand Anthropometric Dimensions and Occupation

Authors: Hamid Falaki, Roya Kelkanlo, Mojtaba Tabatabaei

Abstract:

The present study aimed at distinguishing the effects of work type on hand dimensions and investigating the relationship between anthropometric dimensions and occupation. The anthropometric data used in study were collected on 12 hand anthropometric dimensions. The participants included 91 males in two groups, namely manual labor job and office workers. All the data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. All measurements were significantly greater than those of office jobs except for the grip diameter obtained from the manual workers. The hand perimeter was the greatest value among the 12 measured dimensions, while the thickness of the side little finger was the smallest one. In four dimensions, namely width of four fingers together from the central hinge; diameter of thumb to face; diameter of index finger to face; hand thickness from index finger revealed the availability of a significant difference between manual labor jobs and office workers. Moreover, no significant relation was observed between weight and stature with hand dimension, which represents the correlation between occupation and the four dimensions. The results of this study showed that the difference between the two occupational groups was significant in terms of the four dimensions. Therefore, it is suggested that tool designers should consider this finding in their designing process.

Keywords: hand dimensions, occupation, tool design, anthropometry

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12658 The Wage Differential between Migrant and Native Workers in Australia: Decomposition Approach

Authors: Sabrina Tabassum

Abstract:

Using Census Data for Housing and Population of Australia 2001, 2006, 2011, and 2016, this paper shows the existence of wage differences between natives and immigrants in Australia. Addressing the heterogeneous nature of immigrants, this study group the immigrants in three broad categories- migrants from English speaking countries and migrants from India and China. Migrants from English speaking countries and India earn more than the natives per week, whereas migrants from China earn far less than the natives per week. Oaxaca decomposition suggests that major part of this differential is unexplained. Using the occupational segregation concept and Brown decomposition, this study indicates that migrants from India and China would have been earned more than the natives if they had the same occupation distribution as natives due to their individual characteristics. Within occupation, wage differences are more prominent than inter-occupation wage differences for immigrants from China and India.

Keywords: Australia, labour, migration, wage

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12657 Loss Quantification Archaeological Sites in Watershed Due to the Use and Occupation of Land

Authors: Elissandro Voigt Beier, Cristiano Poleto

Abstract:

The main objective of the research is to assess the loss through the quantification of material culture (archaeological fragments) in rural areas, sites explored economically by machining on seasonal crops, and also permanent, in a hydrographic subsystem Camaquã River in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The study area consists of different micro basins and differs in area, ranging between 1,000 m² and 10,000 m², respectively the largest and the smallest, all with a large number of occurrences and outcrop locations of archaeological material and high density in intense farm environment. In the first stage of the research aimed to identify the dispersion of points of archaeological material through field survey through plot points by the Global Positioning System (GPS), within each river basin, was made use of concise bibliography on the topic in the region, helping theoretically in understanding the old landscaping with preferences of occupation for reasons of ancient historical people through the settlements relating to the practice observed in the field. The mapping was followed by the cartographic development in the region through the development of cartographic products of the land elevation, consequently were created cartographic products were to contribute to the understanding of the distribution of the absolute materials; the definition and scope of the material dispersed; and as a result of human activities the development of revolving letter by mechanization of in situ material, it was also necessary for the preparation of materials found density maps, linking natural environments conducive to ancient historical occupation with the current human occupation. The third stage of the project it is for the systematic collection of archaeological material without alteration or interference in the subsurface of the indigenous settlements, thus, the material was prepared and treated in the laboratory to remove soil excesses, cleaning through previous communication methodology, measurement and quantification. Approximately 15,000 were identified archaeological fragments belonging to different periods of ancient history of the region, all collected outside of its environmental and historical context and it also has quite changed and modified. The material was identified and cataloged considering features such as object weight, size, type of material (lithic, ceramic, bone, Historical porcelain and their true association with the ancient history) and it was disregarded its principles as individual lithology of the object and functionality same. As observed preliminary results, we can point out the change of materials by heavy mechanization and consequent soil disturbance processes, and these processes generate loading of archaeological materials. Therefore, as a next step will be sought, an estimate of potential losses through a mathematical model. It is expected by this process, to reach a reliable model of high accuracy which can be applied to an archeological site of lower density without encountering a significant error.

Keywords: degradation of heritage, quantification in archaeology, watershed, use and occupation of land

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12656 Payment of Carbon Offsetting: A Case Study in Dharan, Nepal

Authors: Mana Shrestha, Dhruba Khatri, Pralhad Kunwor

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to explore the vehicle owners’ willingness to pay (WTP) for offsetting carbon that could eventually facilitate local governmental institutions to take further step in environmental conservation. Contingent valuation method was used to find out how much amount people were willing to pay for the carbon service they are getting from providers. Open ended questionnaire was carried out with 181 respondents randomly. The result shows different mean willingness to pay amount depending upon demographic variations like education, occupation, sex and residence but the occupation and the educational status significantly affected the WTP of respondent. Total WTP amount was calculated as 650 NRS.

Keywords: community forest, carbon offset, Kyoto, REDD WTP

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12655 Quality of Today's Teachers: Post-Certified Teachers' Competence in Alleviating Poverties towards a Sustainable Development

Authors: Sudirman

Abstract:

Competence is a term describing capability that correlates with a person’s occupation. The competence of a teacher consists of four, i.e., pedagogical, professional, personality and social competence. These four components are implemented during interacting with students to motivate the students and improve their achievement. The objective of this qualitative study is to explore the roles and contributions of certified teachers in alleviating the issue of poverty to promote a sustainable development. The data comprise primary and secondary data which were generated from observation, interview, documentation and library research. Furthermore, this study offers in-depth information regarding the performance of the teachers in coping with poverty and sustaining development. The result shows that the teacher’s competence positively contributes to the improvement of students’ achievement. This helps the students to prepare for the real work experience by which it results in a better income and, therefore, alleviate poverty. All in all, the quality of today’s teachers can be measured by their contribution in enhancing the students’ competence prior to entering real work, resulting in a wealthy society. This is to deal with poverty and conceptualizing a sustainable development.

Keywords: competence, development, poverty, teachers

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12654 Critical Core Skills Profiling in the Singaporean Workforce

Authors: Bi Xiao Fang, Tan Bao Zhen

Abstract:

Soft skills, core competencies, and generic competencies are exchangeable terminologies often used to represent a similar concept. In the Singapore context, such skills are currently being referred to as Critical Core Skills (CCS). In 2019, SkillsFuture Singapore (SSG) reviewed the Generic Skills and Competencies (GSC) framework that was first introduced in 2016, culminating in the development of the Critical Core Skills (CCS) framework comprising 16 soft skills classified into three clusters. The CCS framework is part of the Skills Framework, and whose stated purpose is to create a common skills language for individuals, employers and training providers. It is also developed with the objectives of building deep skills for a lean workforce, enhance business competitiveness and support employment and employability. This further helps to facilitate skills recognition and support the design of training programs for skills and career development. According to SSG, every job role requires a set of technical skills and a set of Critical Core Skills to perform well at work, whereby technical skills refer to skills required to perform key tasks of the job. There has been an increasing emphasis on soft skills for the future of work. A recent study involving approximately 80 organizations across 28 sectors in Singapore revealed that more enterprises are beginning to recognize that soft skills support their employees’ performance and business competitiveness. Though CCS is of high importance for the development of the workforce’s employability, there is little attention paid to the CCS use and profiling across occupations. A better understanding of how CCS is distributed across the economy will thus significantly enhance SSG’s career guidance services as well as training providers’ services to graduates and workers and guide organizations in their hiring for soft skills. This CCS profiling study sought to understand how CCS is demanded in different occupations. To achieve its research objectives, this study adopted a quantitative method to measure CCS use across different occupations in the Singaporean workforce. Based on the CCS framework developed by SSG, the research team adopted a formative approach to developing the CCS profiling tool to measure the importance of and self-efficacy in the use of CCS among the Singaporean workforce. Drawing on the survey results from 2500 participants, this study managed to profile them into seven occupation groups based on the different patterns of importance and confidence levels of the use of CCS. Each occupation group is labeled according to the most salient and demanded CCS. In the meantime, the CCS in each occupation group, which may need some further strengthening, were also identified. The profiling of CCS use has significant implications for different stakeholders, e.g., employers could leverage the profiling results to hire the staff with the soft skills demanded by the job.

Keywords: employability, skills profiling, skills measurement, soft skills

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12653 A Theoretical Analysis on the Controversial Issue of Teaching Professional in the Institutionalized Perspective

Authors: Tien-Hui Chiang, Q. Zhou

Abstract:

For structural-functionalism, one set of the common traits of traditional professionals, such as medical practitioners and engineers, can be viewed as the criteria for evaluating whether a given occupation has the right of claiming its professional status or not. Under the influence of this professionalism, teaching practitioners have devoted themselves to acquiring this right as evidenced by the fact that initial training has been extended to even the level of postgraduate. However, for interactionalists, professionalism adopts a predetermined assumption so that it ignores the dynamic nature of social development, which is able to regulate the professional status of a given occupation. Such an interactive approach highlights the concept of professionalization. Furthermore, Marxists argue that structural-functionalists have ignored the impact of proletarianization on the white collar. While professionals gradually lose their control over their practices, the title of profession functions as a self-regulated icon that prevents them from collaborating with the working class and, in turn, creates the ideology of de-politicization sustaining the interests of the ruling class. This article adopts a theoretical analysis on these contradictory arguments. It argues that these criticisms neglect the influence of the institutionalized value system on social operation, which is the core element in sustaining the notion of the profession.

Keywords: teaching profession, professionalism, professionalization, proletarianialization, institutionalized value system

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12652 Factors Influencing Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Among Men Who Have Sex With men (MSM) Aged 18-24 years in Mtwapa Town, Kilifi County, Kenya

Authors: Oscar Maina Irungu

Abstract:

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mtwapa Town, Kilifi County are at high risk of HIV infection. Probability sample surveys to determine HIV prevalence among MSM in Mtwapa are needed to inform prevention and care services. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among MSM aged 18-24 years old, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Mtwapa. Consenting MSM were tested for HIV (fingerstick rapid test). Population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS Analysis Tool (RDSAT). Results: Among 274 MSM, the median age was 20 years (IQR: 19-23 years). Fifty percent of MSM reported not selling sex, while 13.2 % reported sex work as their “main occupation”, and another 28.4 % reported selling sex in the past two months (but not as their main occupation).Overall HIV prevalence was 19.2 % (CI: 12.2-23.6%). HIV prevalence was higher among MSM who reported sex work as their main occupation (28.3%,CI: 12.1-42.3%) or selling sex in the past two months (26.6 %, CI: 17.2-35.7 %),than among MSM who did not sell sex (11.6%,CI: 7.0-18.1%). Conclusion: HIV prevalence among MSM were high than among Kilifi’s general population aged 15-64 years (8.8%; 2010 KAIS) and highest in male sex workers. Health programs need to address concerns and modify services to meet needs of diverse subgroups of MSM. We recommend continued, periodic surveillance to monitor HIV prevalence among MSM in Mtwapa, and expansion to other areas in Kenya.

Keywords: power point, Kenya, homosexuality, sex

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12651 The Stereotypes of Female Roles in TV Drama of Taiwan and Japan

Authors: Ya Ting Tang

Abstract:

Social learning theory has told us that the cognitions of gender roles come from learning. Thus, the images of gender roles which media describes will shape our cognitions. Taiwan and Japan are both in the East Asian cultural Sphere, and more or less influenced by the traditional Chinese culture. But our social structure and changes must be different. Others, the study also concerns that, with the rise of female consciousness in society, whether the female stereotype in drama of Taiwan and Japan are improved. This research first uses content analysis to analyze drama of Taiwan and Japan in 2003 and 2013 on how to shape female roles. Then use text analysis to conduct a qualitative analysis. Result of this study showed that drama on how to depict women indeed have changed, women are no longer just talk about love, but can serve as president or doctor, and show its mettle in the workplace. In Japanese drama, the female roles have diverse occupation than Taiwanese drama, and not just a background character set. But in most Taiwanese drama, female roles are given a career, but it always put emphasis on women emotionally. To include, although the stereotype in the drama of Taiwan and Japan are improved, female will still be derided due to their ages, love or marriage situations. Taiwanese drama must depict the occupation of female more diverse and let the female roles have more space to play, rather than focusing on romance which women of any occupation can have.

Keywords: female images, stereotype, TV drama, gender roles

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12650 Dynamics of the Landscape in the Different Colonization Models Implemented in the Legal Amazon

Authors: Valdir Moura, FranciléIa De Oliveira E. Silva, Erivelto Mercante, Ranieli Dos Anjos De Souza, Jerry Adriani Johann

Abstract:

Several colonization projects were implemented in the Brazilian Legal Amazon in the 1970s and 1980s. Among all of these colonization projects, the most prominent were those with the Fishbone and Topographic models. Within this scope, the projects of settlements known as Anari and Machadinho were created, which stood out because they are contiguous areas with different models and structure of occupation and colonization. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) in two different colonization models, implanted in the State of Rondonia in the 1980s. The Fishbone and Topographic models were implanted in the Anari and Machadinho settlements respectively. The understanding of these two forms of occupation will help in future colonization programs of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. These settlements are contiguous areas with different occupancy structures. A 32-year Landsat time series (1984-2016) was used to evaluate the rates and trends in the LULC process in the different colonization models. In the different occupation models analyzed, the results showed a rapid loss of primary and secondary forests (deforestation), mainly due to the dynamics of use, established by the Agriculture/Pasture (A/P) relation and, with heavy dependence due to road construction.

Keywords: land-cover, deforestation, rate fragments, remote sensing, secondary succession

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12649 Analysis of Temporal Factors Influencing Minimum Dwell Time Distributions

Authors: T. Pedersen, A. Lindfeldt

Abstract:

The minimum dwell time is an important part of railway timetable planning. Due to its stochastic behaviour, the minimum dwell time should be considered to create resilient timetables. While there has been significant focus on how to determine and estimate dwell times, to our knowledge, little research has been carried out regarding temporal and running direction variations of these. In this paper, we examine how the minimum dwell time varies depending on temporal factors such as the time of day, day of the week and time of the year. We also examine how it is affected by running direction and station type. The minimum dwell time is estimated by means of track occupation data. A method is proposed to ensure that only minimum dwell times and not planned dwell times are acquired from the track occupation data. The results show that on an aggregated level, the average minimum dwell times in both running directions at a station are similar. However, when temporal factors are considered, there are significant variations. The minimum dwell time varies throughout the day with peak hours having the longest dwell times. It is also found that the minimum dwell times are influenced by weekday, and in particular, weekends are found to have lower minimum dwell times than most other days. The findings show that there is a potential to significantly improve timetable planning by taking minimum dwell time variations into account.

Keywords: minimum dwell time, operations quality, timetable planning, track occupation data

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12648 Public-Private Partnership for Better Protection of Trafficked Victims in Thailand: Case Study on Public Protection and Welfare Center in Cooperation with Jim Thompson Foundation in Occupational Development on Silk Sewing and Tailoring

Authors: Aungkana Kmonpetch

Abstract:

Protection of trafficked victims and partnership among stakeholders are established as core principles in 5P’ strategies in international and national anti-human trafficking policies. In this article, it is of interest to discuss how the role of public-private partnerships in promoting the occupation development for employment in wage will enhance the better protection for victims of trafficking who affirmatively decide they want a criminal justice intervention, using Thailand as a case. Most of the victims who have accepted to be witness in the criminal justice system have lost income during their absence from work. The analysis of Thailand case is based on two methodological approaches: 1) interview with victims of trafficking, protection authorities, service providers, trainers and teachers, social workers, NGOs, police, prosecutors, business owners and enterprises, ILO, UNDP etc.; 2) create collaborative effort through workshops/consultation meetings in participation of all stakeholders – governmental agencies, private organizations, UN and international agencies. The linking of protection and partnership is anchored in international conventions and human trafficking directives. While this is actually framed as a responsive advantage for 5P strategies of anti-human trafficking – prevention, protection, persecution, punishment, and partnership, in reality, there might have more practical requirements of care and support. The article addresses how the partnership between governmental agencies and private organizations provide opportunities for trafficked victims to engage in high-skilled occupational development such as Silk-Sewing and Tailoring. The discussion is also focused how this approach of capacity building of the trainer for trainee, be enable the trafficked victims to cultivate the practices of high-skilled training to engage them into the business of social enterprise with employment in wage. The partnership coordination draws specifically to two aspects: firstly, to formulate appropriate assistance for promotion and protection of human rights of the trafficked victims in response to the 5P’ strategies of anti-human trafficking policy; secondly, to empower them to settle some economic stability for livelihood opportunity in the country of origin on their return and reintegration. Therefore, they can define how they want to move forward to prevent them at risk of vulnerable situations where they might being trafficked again or going on to work in exploitative conditions. It strengthens proper access to protection and assistance, depending on how the incentive of protection for cooperation is perceived to be and how useful the capacity building in occupation development for employment in wage will be implemented practically both in the host country and in the country of origin. This also brings into question how the victim of trafficking are able to access to the trade of market and are supported the employment opportunity according to the concept of decent work as they are constituted as witnesses. We discuss these issues in the area of a broader literature on social protection, economic security, gender, law, and victimhood.

Keywords: employment opportunity, occupation development, protection for victim of trafficking, public-private partnership

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12647 Elimination of Occupational Segregation By Sex: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Mutiat Temitayo James, Oladapo Olakunle James, Kabiru Oyetunde

Abstract:

This paper examines occupational segregation by sex and sought to justify a case for its elimination or not. In doing this, we found that occupations are categorised among men and women in all parts of the world and this, in turn, affects the labour force participation rate of men and women in different sectors and aspects of the labour market. Data from the previous study shows that women are the most discriminated against as regards occupational segregation as many high profile jobs are regarded as men’s job and women relegated to the background. This has brought about low productivity for women and inequity in the labour market which can hinder the productivity levels of participants. It was however recommended that occupational segregation should be eliminated totally so that men and women alike can choose occupations of their choice irrespective of what gender the society ascribe to such occupation.

Keywords: occupation, gender, gender equality, labour market, segregation, discrimination

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12646 Development of a Program for the Evaluation of Thermal Performance Applying the Centre Scientifique et Techniques du Bâtiment Method Case Study: Classroom

Authors: Iara Rezende, Djalma Silva, Alcino Costa Neto

Abstract:

Considering the transformations of the contemporary world linked to globalization and climate changes caused by global warming, the environmental and energy issues have been increasingly present in the decisions of the world scenario. Thus, the aim of reducing the impacts caused by human activities there are the energy efficiency measures, which are also applicable in the scope of Civil Engineering. Considering that a large part of the energy demand from buildings is related to the need to adapt the internal environment to the users comfort and productivity, measures capable of reducing this need can minimize the climate changes impacts and also the energy consumption of the building. However, these important measures are currently little used by civil engineers, either because of the interdisciplinarity of the subject, the time required to apply certain methods or the difficult interpretation of the results obtained by computational programs that often have a complex and little applied approach. Thus, it was proposed the development of a Java application with a simpler and applied approach to evaluate the thermal performance of a building in order to obtain results capable of assisting the civil engineers in the decision making related to the users thermal comfort. The program was built in Java programming language and the method used for the evaluation was the Center Scientifique et Technique du Batiment (CSTB) method. The program was used to evaluate the thermal performance of a university classroom. The analysis was carried out from simulations considering the worst climatic situation of the building occupation. Thus, at the end of the process, the favorable result was obtained regarding the classroom comfort zone and the feasibility of using the program, thus achieving the proposed objectives.

Keywords: building occupation, CSTB method, energy efficiency measures, Java application, thermal comfort

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12645 Social Justice and Castes Discrimination: Experiences of Scheduled Castes Students in India

Authors: Dhaneswar Bhoi

Abstract:

In Indian History, the Dalits (Scheduled Castes) were exploited with caste, since the Vedic Age (1500 BCE). They were deprived of many rights in the society and their education was also restricted by the upper castes since the introduction of the Law of Manu (1500 BCE). The Dalits were treated as lower castes (Sudras and Ati-Sudra) in the society. Occupation of these caste groups were attached to some low profile and menial occupation. Whereas, the upper caste (Brahamins) declared themselves as the top most caste groups who chose the occupation of priests and had the supreme right to education. During those days occupation was not decided by the caliber of a person rather, it was decided by the upper caste Brahamins and kept on transferring from one generation to another generation. At this juncture of the society, the upper caste people oppressed and suppressed the lower caste people endlessly. To get rid of these social problems the emancipator and the charismatic leader (Prophet for the lower caste communities), Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar appeard in the scene of Indian unjust society. Restlessly he fought against the caste oppression, social dogmas and tyranny on the basis of caste. Finally, he succeeded to affirm statutory safeguards for the oppressed and depressed or lower caste communities. Today these communities are scheduled as Scheduled Castes to access social justice for their upliftment and development. Through the liberty, equality and fraternity, he established social justice for the first time in the Indian history with the implementation of Indian Constitution on 26th January 1950. Since then the social justice has been accessed through the Constitution and Indian Republics. However, even after sixty five years of the Indian Republic and Constitutional safeguards the Scheduled Castes (SCs) are suffering many problems in the phases of their life. Even if there are special provisions made by the state aimed to meet the challenges of the weaker sections, they are still deprived of access to it, which is true especially for the Dalits or SCs. Many of the people of these communities are still not accessing education and particularly, higher education. Those who are managing to access the education have been facing many challenges in their educational premises as well as in their social life. This paper tries to find out the problem of discrimination in educational and societal level. Secondly, this paper aims to know the relation between the discrimination and access to social justice for the SCs in the educational institution and society. It also enquires the experiences of SCs who faced discrimination in their educational and social life. This study is based on the both quantitative and qualitative methods. Both of which were interpreted through the data triangulation method in mixed methodology approach. In this paper, it is found that the SCs are struggling with injustice in their social and educational spheres. Starting from their primary level to higher education, they were discriminated in curricular, co-curricular and extra-curricular activities.

Keywords: social justice, discrimination, caste, scheduled castes, education

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12644 Women Participation in Agriculture and Rural Development Activities in Kwacciyar-Lalle and Mogonho Communities of Sokoto State, Nigeria

Authors: B. Z. Abubakar, J. P. Voh, B. F. Umar, S. Khalid, A. A. Barau, J. Aigbe

Abstract:

The study was conducted to identify and assess the various community development programmes designed and executed by Sokoto Agricultural and Community Development Project (SACDP) with the assistance of International Funds for Agricultural Development (IFAD) among women beneficiaries in Kwacciyar-lalle and Mogonho communities of Sokoto state. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select 20 project beneficiaries in each of the selected communities, making a total of 40 beneficiaries. Structured questionnaire, descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages and also participatory methodologies such as focus group discussion and pair wise ranking were used to analyze the data. Results showed that majority of the beneficiaries (75%) were married and undertook animal rearing as their major occupation. Results further showed that (85%) of the beneficiaries were involved in decision making, which enhanced their participation. Pair-wise ranking showed dug well as the most preferred activity, followed by construction of Islamic school in Kwacciyar-lalle while well construction followed by provision of improved animal species were most preferred in Mogonho. Recommendations made in the light of achieving people’s participation include provision of more infrastructural facilities and working materials.

Keywords: community development, focus group, pair-wise ranking, infrastructure

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12643 Sustainable Development of HV Substation in Urban Areas Considering Environmental Aspects

Authors: Mahdi Naeemi Nooghabi, Mohammad Tofiqu Arif

Abstract:

Gas Insulated Switchgears by using an insulation material named SF6 (Sulphur Hexafluoride) and its significant dielectric properties have been the only choice in urban areas and other polluted industries. However, the initial investment of GIS is more than conventional AIS substation, its total life cycle costs caused to reach huge amounts of electrical market share. SF6 environmental impacts on global warming, atmosphere depletion, and decomposing to toxic gases in high temperature situation, and highest rate in Global Warming Potential (GWP) with 23900 times of CO2e and a 3200-year period lifetime was the only undeniable concern of GIS substation. Efforts of international environmental institute and their politic supports have been able to lead SF6 emission reduction legislation. This research targeted to find an appropriate alternative for GIS substations to meet all advantages in land occupation area and to improve SF6 environmental impacts due to its leakage and emission. An innovative new conceptual design named Multi-Storey prepared a new AIS design similar in land occupation, extremely low Sf6 emission, and maximum greenhouse gas emission reduction. Surprisingly, by considering economic benefits due to carbon price saving, it can earn more than $675 million during the 30-year life cycle by replacing of just 25% of total annual worldly additional GIS switchgears.

Keywords: AIS substation, GIS substation, SF6, greenhouse gas, global warming potential, carbon price, emission

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12642 The Influence of an Occupation as a Calling on the Value of Job Security and Its Connection with Wage Levels

Authors: Malul Miki, Rafi Bar-El, Eithan Hourie

Abstract:

In this article, we test the influence of an occupation as a calling on the value of job security and its connection with wage levels. Our sample consists of 495 workers in Israel from 10 occupations in the public sector, who are assumed to have a relatively high level of job security, and the private sector, who are assumed to have less job security or none at all. These 10 occupations are social workers, lecturers, lawyers, administration workers, accountants, high school teachers, bank workers, high-tech worker, nurses and psychologists. Using regression analysis, we find that those who have occupations that the literature has defined as a calling value job security less than those in ordinary employment. In addition, salary level has no effect on this relationship. Finally, those who work in occupations that are regarded as a calling have less status quo bias than those in ordinary employment.

Keywords: calling, loss aversion, job security, status quo bias

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12641 Sustainable Technology and the Production of Housing

Authors: S. Arias

Abstract:

New housing developments and the technological changes that this implies, adapt the styles of living of its residents, as well as new family structures and forms of work due to the particular needs of a specific group of people which involves different techniques of dealing with, organize, equip and use a particular territory. Currently, own their own space is increasingly important and the cities are faced with the challenge of providing the opportunity for such demands, as well as energy, water and waste removal necessary in the process of construction and occupation of new human settlements. Until the day of today, not has failed to give full response to these demands and needs, resulting in cities that grow without control, badly used land, avenues and congested streets. Buildings and dwellings have an important impact on the environment and on the health of the people, therefore environmental quality associated with the comfort of humans to the sustainable development of natural resources. Applied to architecture, this concept involves the incorporation of new technologies in all the constructive process of a dwelling, changing customs of developers and users, what must be a greater effort in planning energy savings and thus reducing the emissions Greenhouse Gases (GHG) depending on the geographical location where it is planned to develop. Since the techniques of occupation of the territory are not the same everywhere, must take into account that these depend on the geographical, social, political, economic and climatic-environmental circumstances of place, which in modified according to the degree of development reached. In the analysis that must be undertaken to check the degree of sustainability of the place, it is necessary to make estimates of the energy used in artificial air conditioning and lighting. In the same way is required to diagnose the availability and distribution of the water resources used for hygiene and for the cooling of artificially air-conditioned spaces, as well as the waste resulting from these technological processes. Based on the results obtained through the different stages of the analysis, it is possible to perform an energy audit in the process of proposing recommendations of sustainability in architectural spaces in search of energy saving, rational use of water and natural resources optimization. The above can be carried out through the development of a sustainable building code in develop technical recommendations to the regional characteristics of each study site. These codes would seek to build bases to promote a building regulations applicable to new human settlements looking for is generated at the same time quality, protection and safety in them. This building regulation must be consistent with other regulations both national and municipal and State, such as the laws of human settlements, urban development and zoning regulations.

Keywords: building regulations, housing, sustainability, technology

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12640 Internal Displacement in Iraq due to ISIS Occupation and Its Effects on Human Security and Coexistence

Authors: Feisal Khudher Mahmood, Abdul Samad Rahman Sultan

Abstract:

Iraq had been a diverse society with races, cultures and religions that peacefully coexistence. The phenomenon of internal displacement occurred after April 2003, because of political instability as will as the deterioration of the political and security situation as a result of United States of America occupation. Biggest internal displacement have occurred (and keep happening) since 10th of June 2014 due to rise of Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) and it’s occupation of one third of country territories. This crisis effected directly 3,275,000 people and reflected negatively on the social fabric of Iraq community and led to waves of sectorial violence that swept the country. Internal displaced communities are vulnerable, especially under non functional and weak government, that led to lose of essential human rights and dignity. Using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Geospatial Techniques, two types of internal displacement have been found; voluntary and forced. Both types of displacement are highly influenced by location, race and religion. The main challenge for Iraqi government and NGOs will be after defeating ISIS. Helping the displaced to resettle within their community and to re-establish the coexistence. By spatial-statical analysis hot spots of future conflicts among displaced community have been highlighted. This will help the government to tackle future conflicts before they occur. Also, it will be the base for social conflict early warning system.

Keywords: internal displacement, Iraq, ISIS, human security, human rights, GIS, spatial-statical analysis

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12639 The Foundation Binary-Signals Mechanics and Actual-Information Model of Universe

Authors: Elsadig Naseraddeen Ahmed Mohamed

Abstract:

In contrast to the uncertainty and complementary principle, it will be shown in the present paper that the probability of the simultaneous occupation event of any definite values of coordinates by any definite values of momentum and energy at any definite instance of time can be described by a binary definite function equivalent to the difference between their numbers of occupation and evacuation epochs up to that time and also equivalent to the number of exchanges between those occupation and evacuation epochs up to that times modulus two, these binary definite quantities can be defined at all point in the time’s real-line so it form a binary signal represent a complete mechanical description of physical reality, the time of these exchanges represent the boundary of occupation and evacuation epochs from which we can calculate these binary signals using the fact that the time of universe events actually extends in the positive and negative of time’s real-line in one direction of extension when these number of exchanges increase, so there exists noninvertible transformation matrix can be defined as the matrix multiplication of invertible rotation matrix and noninvertible scaling matrix change the direction and magnitude of exchange event vector respectively, these noninvertible transformation will be called actual transformation in contrast to information transformations by which we can navigate the universe’s events transformed by actual transformations backward and forward in time’s real-line, so these information transformations will be derived as an elements of a group can be associated to their corresponded actual transformations. The actual and information model of the universe will be derived by assuming the existence of time instance zero before and at which there is no coordinate occupied by any definite values of momentum and energy, and then after that time, the universe begin its expanding in spacetime, this assumption makes the need for the existence of Laplace’s demon who at one moment can measure the positions and momentums of all constituent particle of the universe and then use the law of classical mechanics to predict all future and past of universe’s events, superfluous, we only need for the establishment of our analog to digital converters to sense the binary signals that determine the boundaries of occupation and evacuation epochs of the definite values of coordinates relative to its origin by the definite values of momentum and energy as present events of the universe from them we can predict approximately in high precision it's past and future events.

Keywords: binary-signal mechanics, actual-information model of the universe, actual-transformation, information-transformation, uncertainty principle, Laplace's demon

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12638 Mobile Phone Banking Applies and Customer Intention: A Case Study in Libya

Authors: Iman E. Bouthahab, Badea B. Geador

Abstract:

Aim of this paper is to explore the prospect of a new approach of mobile phone banking in Libya. This study evaluates customer knowledge on commercial mobile banking in Libya. To examine the relationship between age, occupation and intention for using mobile banking for commercial purpose, a survey was conducted to gather information from one hundred Libyan bank clients. The results indicate that Libyan customers have accepted the new technology and they are ready to use it. There is no significant joint relationship between age and occupation found in intention to use mobile banking in Libya. On the other hand, the customers’ knowledge about mobile banking has a greater relationship with the intention. This study has implications for demographic researches and consumer behaviour disciplines. It also has profitable implications for banks and managers in Libya, as it will assist in better understanding of the Libyan consumers and their activities, when they develop their market strategies and new service.

Keywords: mobile banking, intention, customer knowledge, banks in Libya

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12637 Food Intake Pattern and Nutritional Status of Preschool Children of Chakma Ethnic Community

Authors: Md Monoarul Haque

Abstract:

Nutritional status is a sensitive indicator of community health and nutrition among preschool children, especially the prevalence of undernutrition that affects all dimensions of human development and leads to growth faltering in early life. The present study is an attempt to assess the food intake pattern and nutritional status of pre-school Chakma tribe children. It was a cross-sectional community based study. The subjects were selected purposively. This study was conducted at Savar Upazilla of Rangamati. Rangamati is located in the Chittagong Division. Anthropometric data height and weight of the study subjects were collected by standard techniques. Nutritional status was measured using Z score according WHO classification. χ2 test, independent t-test, Pearson’s correlation, multiple regression and logistic regression was performed as P<0.05 level of significance. Statistical analyses were performed by appropriate univariate and multivariate techniques using SPSS windows 11.5. Moderate (-3SD to <-2SD) to severe underweight (<-3SD) were 23.8% and 76.2% study subjects had normal weight for their age. Moderate (-3SD to <-2SD) to severe (<-3SD) stunted children were only 25.6% and 74.4% children were normal and moderate to severe wasting were 14.7% whereas normal child was 85.3%. Significant association had been found between child nutritional status and monthly family income, mother education and occupation of father and mother. Age, sex and incomes of the family, education of mother and occupation of father were significantly associated with WAZ and HAZ of the study subjects (P=0.0001, P=0.025, P=0.001 and P=0.0001, P=0.003, P=0.031, P=0.092, P=0.008). Maximum study subjects took local small fish and some traditional tribal food like bashrool, jhijhipoka and pork very much popular food among tribal children. Energy, carbohydrate and fat intake was significantly associated with HAZ, WAZ, BAZ and MUACZ. This study demonstrates that malnutrition among tribal children in Bangladesh is much better than national scenario in Bangladesh. Significant association was found between child nutritional status and family monthly income, mother education and occupation of father and mother. Most of the study subjects took local small fish and some traditional tribal food. Significant association was also found between child nutritional status and dietary intake of energy, carbohydrate and fat.

Keywords: food intake pattern, nutritional status, preschool children, Chakma ethnic community

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12636 Sustainable Development as a Part of Development and Foreign Trade in Turkey

Authors: Sadife Güngör, Sevilay Konya

Abstract:

Sustainable development is an economic development scope which covers the economic growth included environmental factors. With the help of economic development, the needs of the future generations are going to be met the needs. As it is aimed the environmental conscious, sustainable development focuses on decreasing the damage of natural sources. From this point of view, while sustainable development is environmentally conscious, it also improving the life standards of individuals. The relationship between development and foreign trade on sustainable development is theoretically searched in this study. In the second part, sustainable development at world and EU is searched and in the last part, the sustainability of trade and development in Turkey is stated.

Keywords: development, sustainable development, foreign trade, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
12635 The Social Origin Pay Gap in the UK Household Longitudinal Study

Authors: Michael Vallely

Abstract:

This paper uses data from waves 1 to 10 (2009-2019) of the UK Household Longitudinal Study to examine the social origin pay gap in the UK labour market. We find that regardless of how we proxy social origin, whether it be using the dominance approach, total parental occupation, parental education, total parental education, or the higher parental occupation and higher parental education, the results have one thing in common; in all cases, we observe a significant social origin pay gap for those from the lower social origins with the largest pay gap observed for those from the ‘lowest’ social origin. The results may indicate that when we consider the occupational status and education of both parents, previous estimates of social origin pay gaps and the number of individuals affected may have been underestimated. We also observe social origin pay gaps within educational attainment groups, such as degree holders, and within professional and managerial occupations. Therefore, this paper makes a valuable contribution to the social origin pay gap literature as it provides empirical evidence of a social origin pay gap using a large-scale UK dataset and challenges the argument that education is the great ‘social leveller’.

Keywords: social class, social origin, pay gaps, wage inequality

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12634 The Lasting Legacy of Six-Day War: How Six Days Changed the Life of Palestinians, Israelis and Their Relationship

Authors: Ziling Chen

Abstract:

Within six days in June 1967, Israeli armies defeated the combined forces of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. This war was later named the Six-Day War, or Third Arab-Israeli War. This paper examines the lasting legacy of the Six-Day War in the life of Palestinians and Israelis economically, politically, and religiously. The long-term Israeli occupation resulted in Palestinian displacement, impeded the development of the Palestinian economy, as well as a created division within Israeli society. Although the war ended, the conflicts persist, most notably in the Old City of Jerusalem. Due to its sacred nature, the Old City became the center of religious conflicts after the Six-Day War.

Keywords: Israelis, Jerusalem, Palestinians, Six-Day War

Procedia PDF Downloads 48