Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4176

Search results for: garment industry

4176 The Happy Workplace Program Promoting Health Literate Workplace in Thai Garment Industry

Authors: Kwanmuang Kaeodumkoeng, Jumnian Junhasobhaga

Abstract:

This action research on the happy workplace program (HWP) promoting health literate workplace (HLW) in Thai Garment Industry Companies aimed to categorize activities promoting HLW and results of HWP in the Thai garment industry. Thirteen program reports purposely selected from sampled companies. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test and content analysis. The results showed that the end of the program, the significant higher levels of work skills, life skills, and factors promoting happy workplace were found compared to before the program in all 13 companies. The activities and results of the HWP could be categorized in five steps of implementing an HWP, compared with the attributes of HLW were composed of 1) Leadership promotion; 2) Preparing workforce; 3) Planning, evaluating, and improving; 4) Communicating effectively; and 5) Designing easy to use materials and ensuring easy access.

Keywords: happy workplace program, health literate workplace, garment industry, indicators

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4175 Analysis of Supply Chain Complexity Sub-Dimensions for Garment Industry

Authors: Niyanta Mehra, Aakriti Khurania, Kshitij Rastogi, S. K. Garg

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There is plenty of literature available that accounts for complexity management in a supply chain. A major fraction of this literature considers a large number of parameters in order to devise management techniques. However, multiple such parameters do not directly affect the result, and incorporating these can make the analyses overly complicated. Most of the causes of supply chain inefficiencies are due to the interconnectedness and interdependencies in the structure, processes, and environment of the supply chains. The level of complexity varies across industries in terms of intensity and ease of management. After a review of the literature related to complexities in supply chains, the paper attempts to build a framework to study the relative significance of these complexities. This paper aims to identify critical complexities for the garment industry. Understanding and controlling these complexities open avenues for better supply chain management and also assist decision-makers in the garment industry in formulating risk mitigation strategies.

Keywords: complexity dimensions, garment industry, supply chain complexity, supply chain management

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4174 Quality Approaches for Mass-Produced Fashion: A Study in Malaysian Garment Manufacturing

Authors: N. J. M. Yusof, T. Sabir, J. McLoughlin

Abstract:

Garment manufacturing industry involves sequential processes that are subjected to uncontrollable variations. The industry depends on the skill of labour in handling the varieties of fabrics and accessories, machines, and also a complicated sewing operation. Due to these reasons, garment manufacturers created systems to monitor and control the product’s quality regularly by conducting quality approaches to minimize variation. The aims of this research were to ascertain the quality approaches deployed by Malaysian garment manufacturers in three key areas-quality systems and tools; quality control and types of inspection; sampling procedures chosen for garment inspection. The focus of this research also aimed to distinguish quality approaches used by companies that supplied the finished garments to both domestic and international markets. The feedback from each of company’s representatives was obtained using the online survey, which comprised of five sections and 44 questions on the organizational profile and quality approaches used in the garment industry. The results revealed that almost all companies had established their own mechanism of process control by conducting a series of quality inspection for daily production either it was formally been set up or vice versa. Quality inspection was the predominant quality control activity in the garment manufacturing and the level of complexity of these activities was substantially dictated by the customers. AQL-based sampling was utilized by companies dealing with the export market, whilst almost all the companies that only concentrated on the domestic market were comfortable using their own sampling procedures for garment inspection. This research provides an insight into the implementation of quality approaches that were perceived as important and useful in the garment manufacturing sector, which is truly labour-intensive.

Keywords: garment manufacturing, quality approaches, quality control, inspection, Acceptance Quality Limit (AQL), sampling

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4173 Automatic Measurement of Garment Sizes Using Deep Learning

Authors: Maulik Parmar, Sumeet Sandhu

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The online fashion industry experiences high product return rates. Many returns are because of size/fit mismatches -the size scale on labels can vary across brands, the size parameters may not capture all fit measurements, or the product may have manufacturing defects. Warehouse quality check of garment sizes can be semi-automated to improve speed and accuracy. This paper presents an approach for automatically measuring garment sizes from a single image of the garment -using Deep Learning to learn garment keypoints. The paper focuses on the waist size measurement of jeans and can be easily extended to other garment types and measurements. Experimental results show that this approach can greatly improve the speed and accuracy of today’s manual measurement process.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, deep learning, distortion, garment measurements, image warping, keypoints

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4172 Health Hazards in SME Garment Industries in India

Authors: Pranab Kumar Goswami

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According to WHO, over 1000 million people worldwide are employed in small-scale industries. The ‘garment’ industry’ is one such industry in developing countries. These garment SMEs are mostly run by private establishments in the unorganized sector to avoid legal obligations of OSH provisions. The OSH standards are very poor and even basic health and safety provisions are not provided in such units. The study has been conducted in India among workers employed in the ‘garment’ industry with the objectives to analyze the types and extent of occupational health hazards of the garment workers and to assess the relationship of sociodemographic and occupational factors with various health hazards. The survey method, the tabular method followed by applying simple statistical technique, has been taken into account to analyze the data collected from three SME garment industries in Delhi (India-Asia). The study was conducted in Delhi from August-2019 to October-2020. A random sampling of 70 workers from three factories has been chosen for this study. The study shows that most of the workers were males (82%) and were in the 18-50 age group (78%), with none below 18 years of age. It was found that 26% of the workers were illiterate and most of them belonged to poor socioeconomic status. The study revealed that the nature of the hazards in garment industries in India is mostly physical and mechanical. We found that musculoskeletal problems (54%) were the commonest health problem. The body areas commonly affected were neck, low back, hand, wrist, finger, and shoulder. If garment workers’ health is affected by occupational hazards, it will impact on national health and economic growth of developing countries. Health is a joint responsibility of both government and employing authority.

Keywords: garment, MSD, health hazard, social factor

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4171 Investigation of Garment Fit Using Virtual Try-On Technology

Authors: Kristina Ancutiene, Agne Lage, Ada Gulbiniene

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Virtual garment fitting has gotten considerable attention for researchers currently. Virtual try-on technologies provide the opportunity to check garment fit using various fabrics and sizes. Differences in fabric mechanical properties produce differences in garment fit. This research aimed to investigate the virtual garment fit concerning the fabric's mechanical properties by determining distance ease between the body and the garment. In this research, virtual women mannequin was covered with straight fit virtual dress stitched in Modaris 3D (CAD Lectra). Garment fitting was investigated using seven cotton/cotton blended plain weave fabrics. Ease allowance value at bust, waist and hip girths in 2D basic patterns was changed uniformly from 0 cm to 8 cm. The values of distance ease in 3D virtual garments at the three main girths were investigated. Distance ease distribution in the virtual garment was investigated also. It was defined that by increasing of 2D patterns ease allowance, 3D garment distance ease changes proportionally but differently using various fabrics. Correlation analysis between 3D garment ease and mechanical properties showed that tensile strain in weft direction had the strongest relation.

Keywords: 3D CAD, distance ease, fabric, garment fit, virtual try-on

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4170 A Study Problem and Needs Compare the Held of the Garment Industries in Nonthaburi and Bangkok Area

Authors: Thepnarintra Praphanphat

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The purposes of this study were to investigate garment industry’s condition, problems, and need for assistance. The population of the study was 504 managers or managing directors of garment establishments finished apparel industrial manager and permission of the Department of Industrial Works 28, Ministry of Industry until January 1, 2012. In determining the sample size with the opening of the Taro Yamane finished at 95% confidence level is ± 5% deviation was 224 managers. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. Percentage, frequency, arithmetic mean, standard deviation, t-test, ANOVA, and LSD were used to analyze the data. It was found that most establishments were of a large size, operated in a form of limited company for more than 15 years most of which produced garments for working women. All investment was made by Thai people. The products were made to order and distributed domestically and internationally. The total sale of the year 2010, 2011, and 2012 was almost the same. With respect to the problems of operating the business, the study indicated, as a whole, by- aspects, and by-items, that they were at a high level. The comparison of the level of problems of operating garment business as classified by general condition showed that problems occurring in business of different sizes were, as a whole, not different. In taking aspects into consideration, it was found that the level of problem in relation to production was different; medium establishments had more problems in production than those of small and large sizes. According to the by-items analysis, five problems were found different; namely, problems concerning employees, machine maintenance, number of designers, and price competition. Such problems in the medium establishments were at a higher level than those in the small and large establishments. Regarding business age, the examination yielded no differences as a whole, by-aspects, and by-items. The statistical significance level of this study was set at .05.

Keywords: garment industry, garment, fashion, competitive enhancement project

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4169 Application of a Hybrid QFD-FEA Methodology for Nigerian Garment Designs

Authors: Adepeju A. Opaleye, Adekunle Kolawole, Muyiwa A. Opaleye

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Consumers’ perceived quality of imported product has been an impediment to business in the Nigeria garment industry. To improve patronage of made- in-Nigeria designs, the first step is to understand what the consumer expects, then proffer ways to meet this expectation through product redesign or improvement of the garment production process. The purpose of this study is to investigate drivers of consumers’ value for typical Nigerian garment design (NGD). An integrated quality function deployment (QFD) and functional, expressive and aesthetic (FEA) Consumer Needs methodology helps to minimize incorrect understanding of potential consumer’s requirements in mass customized garments. Six themes emerged as drivers of consumer’s satisfaction: (1) Style variety (2) Dimensions (3) Finishing (4) Fabric quality (5) Garment Durability and (6) Aesthetics. Existing designs found to lead foreign designs in terms of its acceptance for informal events, style variety and fit. The latter may be linked to its mode of acquisition. A conceptual model of NGD acceptance in the context of consumer’s inherent characteristics, social and the business environment is proposed.

Keywords: Perceived quality, Garment design, Quality function deployment, FEA Model , Mass customisation

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4168 Evolution of Economic Urban Spaces: Barcelona's Trafalgar Garment District, 1940-2017

Authors: Rafael Vicente Salar

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Cities are steadily transforming their productive systems based on value-adding strategies, with the aim of becoming more competitive in a globalized economy. This fact is reflected in inner urban spaces which are increasingly accommodating new economic activities related to knowledge, culture, creativity, and tourism, to the detriment of traditional activities. This is the case of the Trafalgar Garment District (TGD), located in Barcelona´s Eixample Dret neighborhood, an economic urban space historically devoted to the garment wholesale trade. This district is currently experiencing the transformation of its traditional economic specialization. In the last 50 years, external and internal factors have caused, firstly, the disintegration of the Catalonian garment regional cluster. This has resulted in the closure of the majority of metropolitan garment workshops. Secondly, this has also caused either the disappearance of wholesale firms or their relocation to more suitable spaces in the metropolitan area. Specifically, the TGD's economic restructuration is related to the attraction of firms related to the lodging industry and the new economy. In addition, some of the wholesale businesses are adopting new management strategies in order to remain in the TGD. These initiatives are thought to allow them, on one hand, to upgrade their products and, on the other, to reconfigure their internal organization in order to be more competitive.

Keywords: Barcelona, garment district, new economy, tourism, garmen wholesale trade

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4167 Changing Patterns of Marriage and Sexual Relations among Young Single Female Workers in Garment Factories in Gazipur, Bangladesh

Authors: Runa Laila

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In Bangladesh, migration and employment opportunities in the ready-made garment factories presented an alternative to early and arranged-marriage to many young women from the countryside. Although the positive impact of young women’s labour migration and employment in the garment industry on economic independence, increased negotiation power, and enhancement of self-esteem have been well documented, impact of employment on sexual norms and practices remained under-researched. This ethnographic study comprising of an in-depth interview of 21 single young women working in various garment factories in Gazipur, Dhaka, explores the implication of work on sexual norms and practices. This study found young single garment workers experience a range of consensual and coercive sexual relations. The mixed-sex work environment in the garment manufacturing industry and private housing arrangements provide young single women opportunities to develop romantic and sexual relationships in the transient urban space, which was more restricted in the rural areas. The use of mobile phones further aids lovers to meet in amusement parks, friends’ houses, or residential hotels beyond the gaze of colleagues and neighbors. Due to sexual double standard, men’s sexual advantage is seen as natural and accepted, while women are being blamed as immoral for being engaged in pre-marital sex. Although self-choice marriage and premarital relations reported to be common among garment workers, stigma related to premarital sex lead young single women to resort to secret abortion practices. Married men also use power position to lure women in a subordinate position in coerce sexual relations, putting their reproductive and psychological health at risk. To improve sexual and reproductive health and wellbeing of young female garment workers, it is important to understand these changing sexual practices which otherwise remain taboo in public health discourses.

Keywords: female migration, ready-made garment, reproductive health, sexual practice

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4166 Clustering Locations of Textile and Garment Industries to Compare with the Future Industrial Cluster in Thailand

Authors: Kanogkan Leerojanaprapa

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Textile and garment industry is used to a major exporting industry of Thailand. According to lacking of the nation's price-competitiveness by stopping the EU's GSP (Generalised Scheme of Preferences) and ‘Nationwide Minimum Wage Policy’ that Thailand’s employers must pay all employees at least 300 baht (about $10) a day, the supply chains of the Thai textile and garment industry is affected and need to be reformed. Therefore, either Thai textile or garment industry will be existed or not would be concerned. This is also challenged for the government to decide which industries should be promoted the future industries of Thailand. Recently Thai government launch The Cluster-based Special Economic Development Zones Policy for promoting business cluster (effect on September 16, 2015). They define a cluster as the concentration of interconnected businesses and related institutions that operate within the same geographic areas and textiles and garment is one of target industrial clusters and 9 provinces are targeted (Bangkok, Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Pathom, Ratchaburi, Samut Sakhon, Chonburi, Chachoengsao, Prachinburi, and Sa Kaeo). The cluster zone are defined to link west-east corridor connected to manufacturing source in Cambodia and Mynmar to Bangkok where are promoted to be design, sourcing, and trading hub. The Thai government will provide tax and non-tax incentives for targeted industries within the clusters and expects these businesses are scattered to where they can get the most benefit which will identify future industrial cluster. This research will show the difference between the current cluster and future cluster following the target provinces of the textile and garment. The current cluster is analysed from secondary data. The four characteristics of the numbers of plants in Spinning, weaving and finishing of textiles, Manufacture of made-up textile articles, except apparel, Manufacture of knitted and crocheted fabrics, and Manufacture of other textiles, not elsewhere classified in particular 77 provinces (in total) are clustered by K-means cluster analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. In addition, the cluster can be confirmed and showed which variables contribute the most to defined cluster solution with ANOVA test. The results of analysis can identify 22 provinces (which the textile or garment plants are located) into 3 clusters. Plants in cluster 1 tend to be large numbers of plants which is only Bangkok, Next plants in cluster 2 tend to be moderate numbers of plants which are Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon and Nakhon Pathom. Finally plants in cluster 3 tend to be little numbers of plants which are other 18 provinces. The same methodology can be implemented in other industries for future study.

Keywords: ANOVA, hierarchical cluster analysis, industrial clusters, K -means cluster analysis, textile and garment industry

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4165 Comparative Analysis of Real and Virtual Garment Fit

Authors: Kristina Ancutiene

Abstract:

The goal of this research is to perform comparative analysis between the virtual fit of the woman's dress and the fit on a real person. The dress fitting was done using mechanical and structural parameters of the 100 % linen fabric and using Modaris_3D_Fit software (CAD Lectra). The dress was also sawn after which garment fit differences of real and virtual dress was researched. Four respondents whose figures were similar were used to evaluate the ease and strain deformations of the real and virtual dress. The scores that were given by the respondents wearing the real dress were compared to the ease and strain results that were given by the software. The main result was that respondents feel similar to the virtual stretch deformations but their ease feeling is not always matching the virtual ones. The results may be influenced by psychological factors and different understanding about purpose of garment.

Keywords: virtual garment, 3D CAD, garment fit, mechanical properties

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4164 Human Rights Abuse in the Garment Factory in Bekasi Indonesia

Authors: Manotar Tampubolon

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Although the Indonesian human rights protection has increased in recent years, but human rights violations still occur in the industrial sector. Crimes against human rights continue to occur and go unnoticed in spite of the government's legislation on human rights, employment law in addition to an international treaty that has been ratified by Indonesia. The increasing number of garment companies in Bekasi, also give rise to increased human rights violations since the government does not have a commitment to protect it. The Indonesian government and industry owners should pay attention to and protect the human rights of workers and treat them accordingly. This paper will review the human rights violations experienced by workers at garment factories in the context of the law, as well as ideas to improve the protection of workers' rights.

Keywords: human rights protection, human rights violations, workers’ rights, justice, security

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4163 Assessment of the Impact of Social Compliance Certification on Abolition of Forced Labour and Discrimination in the Garment Manufacturing Units in Bengaluru: A Perspective of Women Sewing Operators

Authors: Jonalee Das Bajpai, Sandeep Shastri

Abstract:

The Indian Textile and Garment Industry is one of the major contributors to the country’s economy. This industry is also one of the largest labour intensive industries after agriculture and livestock. This Indian garment industry caters to both the domestic and international market. Although this industry comes under the purview of Indian Labour Laws and other voluntary work place standards yet, this industry is often criticized for the undue exploitation of the workers. This paper explored the status of forced labour and discrimination at work place in the garment manufacturing units in Bengaluru. This study is conducted from the perspective of women sewing operators as majority of operators in Bengaluru are women. The research also explored to study the impact of social compliance certification in abolishing forced labour and discrimination at work place. Objectives of the Research: 1. To study the impact of 'Social Compliance Certification' on abolition of forced labour among the women workforce. 2. To study the impact of 'Social Compliance Certification' on abolition of discrimination at workplace among the women workforce. Sample Size and Data Collection Techniques: The main backbone of the data which is the primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire attempted to explore the extent of prevalence of forced labour and discrimination against women workers from the perspective of women workers themselves. The sample size for the same was 600 (n) women sewing operators from the garment industry with minimum one year of work experience. Three hundred samples were selected from units with Social Compliance Certification like SA8000, WRAP, BSCI, ETI and so on. Other three hundred samples were selected from units without Social Compliance Certification. Out of these three hundred samples, one hundred and fifty samples were selected from units with Buyer’s Code of Conduct and another one hundred and fifty were from domestic units that do not come under the purview of any such certification. The responses of the survey were further authenticated through on sight visit and personal interactions. Comparative analysis of the workplace environment between units with Social Compliance certification, units with Buyer’s Code of Conduct and domestic units that do not come under the purview of any such voluntary workplace environment enabled to analyze the impact of Social Compliance certification on abolition of workplace environment and discrimination at workplace. Correlation analysis has been conducted to measure the relationship between impact of forced labour and discrimination at workplace on the level of job satisfaction. The result displayed that abolition of forced labour and abolition of discrimination at workplace have a higher level of job satisfaction among the women workers.

Keywords: discrimination, garment industry, forced labour, social compliance certification

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4162 Social Problems and Gender Wage Gap Faced by Working Women in Readymade Garment Sector of Pakistan

Authors: Narjis Kahtoon

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The issue of the wage discrimination on the basis of gender and social problem has been a significant research problem for several decades. Whereas lots of have explored reasons for the persistence of an inequality in the wages of male and female, none has successfully explained away the entire differentiation. The wage discrimination on the basis of gender and social problem of working women is a global issue. Although inequality in political and economic and social make-up of countries all over the world, the gender wage discrimination, and social constraint is present. The aim of the research is to examine the gender wage discrimination and social constraint from an international perspective and to determine whether any pattern exists among cultural dimensions of a country and the man and women remuneration gap in Readymade Garment Sector of Pakistan. Population growth rate is significant indicator used to explain the change in population and play a crucial point in the economic development of a country. In Pakistan, readymade garment sector consists of small, medium and large sized firms. With an estimated 30 percent of the workforce in textile- Garment is females’. Readymade garment industry is a labor intensive industry and relies on the skills of individual workers and provides highest value addition in the textile sector. In the Garment sector, female workers are concentrated in poorly paid, labor-intensive down-stream production (readymade garments, linen, towels, etc.), while male workers dominate capital- intensive (ginning, spinning and weaving) processes. Gender wage discrimination and social constraint are reality in Pakistan Labor Market. This research allows us not only to properly detect the size of gender wage discrimination and social constraint but to also fully understand its consequences in readymade garment sector of Pakistan. Furthermore, research will evaluated this measure for the three main clusters like Lahore, Karachi, and Faisalabad. These data contain complete details of male and female workers and supervisors in the readymade garment sector of Pakistan. These sources of information provide a unique opportunity to reanalyze the previous finding in the literature. The regression analysis focused on the standard 'Mincerian' earning equation and estimates it separately by gender, the research will also imply the cultural dimensions developed by Hofstede (2001) to profile a country’s cultural status and compare those cultural dimensions to the wage inequalities. Readymade garment of Pakistan is one of the important sectors since its products have huge demand at home and abroad. These researches will a major influence on the measures undertaken to design a public policy regarding wage discrimination and social constraint in readymade garment sector of Pakistan.

Keywords: gender wage differentials, decomposition, garment, cultural

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4161 Supply Chain Control and Inventory Management in Garment Industry

Authors: Nisa Nur Duman, Sümeyya Kiliç

Abstract:

In global competition conditions, survival of the plants by obtaining competitive advantage relies on the effective usage of existing sources. By this way, the plants can minimize their costs without losing their quality. They also take advantage took advantage on their competitors and enlarge customer portfolio by increasing profit margins. Changing structure of market and customer demands also change the structure of the competition between companies. Furthermore, competition is not only between the companies. By this manner, supply chain and supply chain management get importance by considering company performances. Companies that want to survive, search the ways of decreasing costs and the ways of meeting customer expectations. One of the important tools for reaching these goals is inventory managemet. The best inventory management system is meeting the demands by considering plant goals.

Keywords: Supply chain, inventory management, apparel sector, garment industry

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4160 Taguchi Approach for the Optimization of the Stitching Defects of Knitted Garments

Authors: Adel El-Hadidy

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For any industry, the production and quality management or wastages reductions have major impingement on overall factory economy. This work discusses the quality improvement of garment industry by applying Pareto analysis, cause and effect diagram and Taguchi experimental design. The main purpose of the work is to reduce the stitching defects, which will also minimize the rejection and reworks rate. Application of Pareto chart, fish bone diagram and Process Sigma Level/and or Performance Level tools helps solving those problems on priority basis. Among all, only sewing, defects are responsible form 69.3% to 97.3 % of total defects. Process Sigma level has been improved from 0.79 to 1.3 and performance rate improved, from F to D level. The results showed that the new set of sewing parameters was superior to the original one. It can be seen that fabric size has the largest effect on the sewing defects and that needle size has the smallest effect on the stitching defects.

Keywords: garment, sewing defects, cost of rework, DMAIC, sigma level, cause and effect diagram, Pareto analysis

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4159 Softener Washes Affecting the Shrinkage and Appearance of Knitted Garments

Authors: Ezza Nasir, Babar Ramzan

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Silicon washes on altered knitted fabrics will provide diverse shrinkage trends. The expectation on shrinkage for various apparel products are also changed. However, the effect of shrinkage in garment is still ambiguous. As a result, analysis of shrinkage after different concentrations of silicon washes can provide a more realistic study. The purpose of this study is to analyze the shrinkage with commercial sewing threads in knitted fabric. Study focuses on the effect of different washes on garment measurement and to study the effect of washes on fabric shrinkage. Four different types of knitted fabric were sewn with same length and width measurements. To study the effect of softener washes on shrinkage of garment through subjective ranking, there were critical dimensions for measurements done on body length and width garment appearance and shrinkage.

Keywords: shrinkage, dimensions, knitted fabric, silicon

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4158 Influence of Stress Relaxation and Hysteresis Effect for Pressure Garment Design

Authors: Chia-Wen Yeh, Ting-Sheng Lin, Chih-Han Chang

Abstract:

Pressure garment has been used to prevent and treat the hypertrophic scars following serious burns since 1970s. The use of pressure garment is believed to hasten the maturation process and decrease the highness of scars. Pressure garment is custom made by reducing circumferential measurement of the patient by 10%~20%, called Reduction Factor. However the exact reducing value used depends on the subjective judgment of the therapist and the feeling of patients throughout the try and error process. The Laplace Law can be applied to calculate the pressure from the dimension of the pressure garment by the circumferential measurements of the patients and the tension profile of the fabrics. The tension profile currently obtained neglects the stress relaxation and hysteresis effect within most elastic fabrics. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the tension attenuation, from stress relaxation and hysteresis effect of the fabrics. Samples of pressure garment were obtained from Sunshine Foundation Organization, a nonprofit organization for burn patients in Taiwan. The wall tension profile of pressure garments were measured on a material testing system. Specimens were extended to 10% of the original length, held for 1 hour for the influence of the stress relaxation effect to take place. Then, specimens were extended to 15% of the original length for 10 seconds, then reduced to 10% to simulate donning movement for the influence of the hysteresis effect to take place. The load history was recorded. The stress relaxation effect is obvious from the load curves. The wall tension is decreased by 8.5%~10% after 60mins of holding. The hysteresis effect is obvious from the load curves. The wall tension is increased slightly, then decreased by 1.5%~2.5% and lower than stress relaxation results after 60mins of holding. The wall tension attenuation of the fabric exists due to stress relaxation and hysteresis effect. The influence of hysteresis is more than stress relaxation. These effect should be considered in order to design and evaluate the pressure of pressure garment more accurately.

Keywords: hypertrophic scars, hysteresis, pressure garment, stress relaxation

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4157 Prevalence and Occupational Factors Associated with Low Back Pain among the Female Garment Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

Authors: Fazle Rabbi, Mashuda Khanom Tithi, Tasnim Mirza, Sanjida Rowshan Anannya, Ahmed Hossain

Abstract:

Background: Low Back Pain (LBP) is one of the common health problems among the garment workers that causes workers absenteeism from the work. The purpose of the study is to identify the association between occupational factors and LBP among the female garment workers in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 487 female garment workers from three compliant garment factories of Bangladesh. Face-to-face interview on four different LBP measures along with questions on socio-demographic, occupational, and physical factors were used to collect the data. Result: The prevalence rates for LBP lasts for at least one day during the last six months, chronic pain, intense pain, and seeking medical care for LBP were found 63.04%, 38.60%, 13.76%, and 18.89%, respectively among the female garments workers. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates that duration of employment (>5 years), regular weight bearing and extended weekly working hours (>48 hours) are positively associated with LBP. Besides, age, BMI, family income, marital status and number of children are also found positively associated with the LBP measures. Conclusion: The prevalence of LBP among female garment workers in Bangladesh is found high. The duration of employment (>5 years), regular weight bearing and extended weekly working hours (>48 hours) play a significant role in developing LBP among the female workers. Factories need to consider training programs on the appropriate technique of weight bearing. It is also important to conduct regular screening programs to identify LBP, especially with married, overweight/obese and older age group to reduce the occurrence of LBP.

Keywords: Bangladesh, garment workers, low back pain, occupational health

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4156 Studying the Implementation of 5S System in Egyptian Garment Enterprises

Authors: K. M. Seddik

Abstract:

This paper explores the implementation of 5S elements in the Egyptian garment enterprises. The paper depended on a survey questionnaire (established from Summit Business Solutions, New York) and observations to collect data from the respondents. The observations are based on the on-site visits and interviews with the managers, supervisors and labors. The enterprises divided into three groups according to the nature activity. The first group of enterprises encompassed 49.52% of the total samples, the second and third group of enterprises represented 50.48% The results of this research indicated to the influence of the nature activity in implementing 5S systems and conclude that sustain is a difficult element which involve encourage workers for developing and practicing a highly discipline. In addition the results demonstrate that although the enterprises may achieve a higher executing of 5S elements but it may realize a low coherence in implementation.

Keywords: 5S elements, garment enterprises, implementation, lean manufacturing

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4155 Concept of Using an Indicator to Describe the Quality of Fit of Clothing to the Body Using a 3D Scanner and CAD System

Authors: Monika Balach, Iwona Frydrych, Agnieszka Cichocka

Abstract:

The objective of this research is to develop an algorithm, taking into account material type and body type that will describe the fabric properties and quality of fit of a garment to the body. One of the objectives of this research is to develop a new algorithm to simulate cloth draping within CAD/CAM software. Existing virtual fitting does not accurately simulate fabric draping behaviour. Part of the research into virtual fitting will focus on the mechanical properties of fabrics. Material behaviour depends on many factors including fibre, yarn, manufacturing process, fabric weight, textile finish, etc. For this study, several different fabric types with very different mechanical properties will be selected and evaluated for all of the above fabric characteristics. These fabrics include woven thick cotton fabric which is stiff and non-bending, woven with elastic content, which is elastic and bends on the body. Within the virtual simulation, the following mechanical properties can be specified: shear, bending, weight, thickness, and friction. To help calculate these properties, the KES system (Kawabata) can be used. This system was originally developed to calculate the mechanical properties of fabric. In this research, the author will focus on three properties: bending, shear, and roughness. This study will consider current research using the KES system to understand and simulate fabric folding on the virtual body. Testing will help to determine which material properties have the largest impact on the fit of the garment. By developing an algorithm which factors in body type, material type, and clothing function, it will be possible to determine how a specific type of clothing made from a particular type of material will fit on a specific body shape and size. A fit indicator will display areas of stress on the garment such as shoulders, chest waist, hips. From this data, CAD/CAM software can be used to develop garments that fit with a very high degree of accuracy. This research, therefore, aims to provide an innovative solution for garment fitting which will aid in the manufacture of clothing. This research will help the clothing industry by cutting the cost of the clothing manufacturing process and also reduce the cost spent on fitting. The manufacturing process can be made more efficient by virtual fitting of the garment before the real clothing sample is made. Fitting software could be integrated into clothing retailer websites allowing customers to enter their biometric data and determine how the particular garment and material type would fit their body.

Keywords: 3D scanning, fabric mechanical properties, quality of fit, virtual fitting

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4154 Enhancing Traditional Saudi Designs Pattern Cutting to Integrate Them Into Current Clothing Offers

Authors: Faizah Almalki, Simeon Gill, Steve G. Hayes, Lisa Taylor

Abstract:

A core element of cultural identity is the traditional costumes that provide insight into the heritage that has been acquired over time. This heritage is apparent in the use of colour, the styles and the functions of the clothing and it also reflects the skills of those who created the items and the time taken to produce them. Modern flat pattern drafting methods for making garment patterns are simple in comparison to the relatively laborious traditional approaches that would require personal interaction with the wearer throughout the production process. The current study reflects on the main elements of the pattern cutting system and how this has evolved in Saudi Arabia to affect the design of the Sawan garment. Analysis of the traditional methods for constructing Sawan garments was undertaken through observation of the practice and the garments and consulting documented guidance. This provided a foundation through which to explore how modern technology can be applied to improve the process. In this research, modern methods are proposed for producing traditional Saudi garments more efficiently while retaining elements of the conventional style and design. The current study has documented the vital aspects of Sawan garment style. The result showed that the method had been used to take the body measurements and pattern making was elementary and offered simple geometric shape and the Sawan garment is composed of four pieces. Consequently, this research allows for classical pattern shapes to be embedded in garments now worn in Saudi Arabia and for the continuation of cultural heritage.

Keywords: traditional Sawan garment technique, modern pattern cutting technique, the shape of the garment and software, Lectra Modaris

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
4153 Drape Simulation by Commercial Software and Subjective Assessment of Virtual Drape

Authors: Evrim Buyukaslan, Simona Jevsnik, Fatma Kalaoglu

Abstract:

Simulation of fabrics is more difficult than any other simulation due to complex mechanics of fabrics. Most of the virtual garment simulation software use mass-spring model and incorporate fabric mechanics into simulation models. The accuracy and fidelity of these virtual garment simulation software is a question mark. Drape is a subjective phenomenon and evaluation of drape has been studied since 1950’s. On the other hand, fabric and garment simulation is relatively new. Understanding drape perception of subjects when looking at fabric simulations is critical as virtual try-on becomes more of an issue by enhanced online apparel sales. Projected future of online apparel retailing is that users may view their avatars and try-on the garment on their avatars in the virtual environment. It is a well-known fact that users will not be eager to accept this innovative technology unless it is realistic enough. Therefore, it is essential to understand what users see when they are displaying fabrics in a virtual environment. Are they able to distinguish the differences between various fabrics in virtual environment? The purpose of this study is to investigate human perception when looking at a virtual fabric and determine the most visually noticeable drape parameter. To this end, five different fabrics are mechanically tested, and their drape simulations are generated by commercial garment simulation software (Optitex®). The simulation images are processed by an image analysis software to calculate drape parameters namely; drape coefficient, node severity, and peak angles. A questionnaire is developed to evaluate drape properties subjectively in a virtual environment. Drape simulation images are shown to 27 subjects and asked to rank the samples according to their questioned drape property. The answers are compared to the calculated drape parameters. The results show that subjects are quite sensitive to drape coefficient changes while they are not very sensitive to changes in node dimensions and node distributions.

Keywords: drape simulation, drape evaluation, fabric mechanics, virtual fabric

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
4152 Efficiency Analysis of Trader in Thailand and Laos Border Trade: Case Study of Textile and Garment Products

Authors: Varutorn Tulnawat, Padcharee Phasuk

Abstract:

This paper investigates the issue of China’s dumping on border trade between Thailand and Laos. From the pass mostly, the border trade goods are traditional textile and garment mainly served locals and tourists which majority of traders is of small and medium size. In the present day the competition is fierce, the volume of trade has expanded far beyond its original intent. The major competitors in Thai-Laos border trade are China, Vietnam and also South Korea. This research measures and compares the efficiency and ability to survive the onslaught of Thai and Laos firm along Thailand (Nong Kai province) and Laos (Vientiane) border. Two attack strategies are observed, price cutting and incense such as full facilitation for big volume order. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is applied to data surveyed from 90 Thai and Laos entrepreneurs. The expected results are the proportion of efficiency and inefficiency firms. Points of inefficiency and suggested improvement are also discussed.

Keywords: border trade, dea, textile, garment

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
4151 Examining Pre-Consumer Textile Waste Recycling, Barriers to Implementation, and Participant Demographics: A Review of Literature

Authors: Madeline W. Miller

Abstract:

The global textile industry produces pollutants in the form of liquid discharge, solid waste, and emissions into the natural environment. Textile waste resulting from garment production and other manufacturing processes makes a significant contribution to the amount of waste landfilled globally. While the majority of curbside and other convenient recycling methods cater to post-consumer paper and plastics, pre-consumer textile waste is often discarded with trash and is commonly classified as ‘other’ in municipal solid waste breakdowns. On a larger scale, many clothing manufacturers and other companies utilizing textiles have not yet identified or began using the most sustainable methods for discarding their post-industrial, pre-consumer waste. To lessen the amount of waste sent to landfills, there are post-industrial, pre-consumer textile waste recycling methods that can be used to give textiles a new life. This process requires that textile and garment manufacturers redirect their waste to companies that use industrial machinery to shred or fiberize these materials in preparation for their second life. The goal of this literature review is to identify the recycling and reuse challenges faced by producers within the clothing and textile industry that prevent these companies from utilizing the described recycling methods, causing them to opt for landfill. The literature analyzed in this review reflects manufacturer sentiments toward waste disposal and recycling. The results of this review indicate that the cost of logistics is the determining factor when it comes to companies recycling their pre-consumer textile waste and that the most applicable and successful textile waste recycling methods require a company separate from the manufacturer to account for waste production, provide receptacles for waste, arrange waste transport, and identify a secondary use for the material at a price-point below that of traditional waste disposal service.

Keywords: leadership demographics, post-industrial textile waste, pre-consumer textile waste, industrial shoddy

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
4150 Eco-Fashion Dyeing of Denim and Knitwear with Particle-Dyes

Authors: Adriana Duarte, Sandra Sampaio, Catia Ferreira, Jaime I. N. R. Gomes

Abstract:

With the fashion of faded worn garments the textile industry has moved from indigo and pigments to dyes that are fixed by cationization, with products that can be toxic, and that can show this effect after washing down the dye with friction and/or treating with enzymes in a subsequent operation. Increasingly they are treated with bleaches, such as hypochlorite and permanganate, both toxic substances. An alternative process is presented in this work for both garment and jet dyeing processes, without the use of pre-cationization and the alternative use of “particle-dyes”. These are hybrid products, made up by an inorganic particle and an organic dye. With standard soluble dyes, it is not possible to avoid diffusion into the inside of the fiber unless using previous cationization. Only in this way can diffusion be avoided keeping the centre of the fibres undyed so as to produce the faded effect by removing the surface dye and showing the white fiber beneath. With “particle-dyes”, previous cationization is avoided. By applying low temperatures, the dye does not diffuse completely into the inside of the fiber, since it is a particle and not a soluble dye, being then able to give the faded effect. Even though bleaching can be used it can also be avoided, by the use of friction and enzymes they can be used just as for other dyes. This fashion brought about new ways of applying reactive dyes by the use of previous cationization of cotton, lowering the salt, and temperatures that reactive dyes usually need for reacting and as a side effect the application of a more environmental process. However, cationization is a process that can be problematic in applying it outside garment dyeing, such as jet dyeing, being difficult to obtain level dyeings. It also should be applied by a pad-fix or Pad-batch process due to the low affinity of the pre-cationization products making it a more expensive process, and the risk of unlevelness in processes such as jet dyeing. Wit particle-dyes, since no pre-cationizartion is necessary, they can be applied in jet dyeing. The excess dye is fixed by a fixing agent, fixing the insoluble dye onto the surface of the fibers. By applying the fixing agent only one to 1-3 rinses in water at room temperature are necessary, saving water and improving the washfastness.

Keywords: denim, garment dyeing, worn look, eco-fashion

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
4149 Prototype Development of Knitted Buoyant Swimming Vest for Children

Authors: Nga-Wun Li, Chu-Po Ho, Kit-Lun Yick, Jin-Yun Zhou

Abstract:

The use of buoyant vests incorporated with swimsuits can develop children’s confidence in the water, particularly for novice swimmers. Consequently, parents intend to purchase buoyant swimming vests for the children to reduce their anxiety to water. Although the conventional buoyant swimming vests can provide the buoyant function to the wearer, their bulkiness and hardness make children feel uncomfortable and not willing to wear. This study aimed to apply inlay knitting technology to design new functional buoyant swimming vests for children. This prototype involved a shell and a buoyant knitted layer, which is the main media to provide buoyancy. Polypropylene yarn and 6.4 mm of Expandable Polyethylene (EPE) foam were fabricated in Full needle stitch with inlay knitting technology and were then linked by sewing to form the buoyant layer. The shell of the knitted buoyant vest was made of Polypropylene circular knitted fabric. The structure of knitted fabrics of the buoyant swimsuit makes them inherently stretchable, and the arrangement of the inlaid material was designed based on the body movement that can improve the ease with which the swimmer moves. Further, the shoulder seam is designed at the back to minimize the irritation of the wearer. Apart from maintaining the buoyant function to them, this prototype shows its contribution in reducing bulkiness and improving softness to the conventional buoyant swimming vest by taking the advantages of a knitted garment. The results in this study are significant to the development of the buoyant swimming vest for both the textile and the fast-growing sportswear industry.

Keywords: knitting technology, buoyancy, inlay, swimming vest, functional garment

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
4148 Sub-Saharan Africa: Role of Global Fashion System in Turbo-Charging Growth of Apparel Industry

Authors: Rajkishore Nayak, Tarun Panwar, Majo George

Abstract:

The study focuses on investigating the factors that influence the growth of fashion and textile manufacturing in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. This paper endeavours to identify, analyse and evaluate the critical factors associated with the growth of fashion and textile manufacturing in SSA countries. This research has done a Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis based on the available literature and the knowledge of authors in garment manufacturing and export. It was found that the SSA countries have shown little growth in fashion and textile manufacturing and export from the starting of the year 2000. Unlike the developing countries such as Vietnam and Bangladesh, the total export to the US, the EU and other parts of the world has declined. On the other hand, the total supply of fashion and textiles to the domestic market has been in rise. However, the local communities still need to rely on other countries to meet their demand. Availability of cheaper imported clothes from other countries such as Bangladesh, China and Vietnam have made it difficult for the local manufacturers to produce at a cheaper price.

Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, developing countries, apparel industry, fashion and textile, sustainable fashion

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
4147 Fabric Drapemeter Development towards the Analysis of Its Behavior in 3-D Design

Authors: Aida Sheeta, M. Nashat Fors, Sherwet El Gholmy, Marwa Issa

Abstract:

Globalization has raised the customer preferences not only towards the high-quality garments but also the right fitting, comfort and aesthetic apparels. This only can be accomplished by the good interaction between fabric mechanical and physical properties as well as the required style. Consequently, this paper provides an integrated review of the fabric drape terminology because it is considered as an essential feature in which the fabric can form folds with the help of the gravity. Moreover, an instrument has been fabricated in order to analyze the static and dynamic drape behaviors using different fabric types. In addition, the obtained results find out the parameters affecting the drape coefficient using digital image processing for various kind of commercial fabrics. This was found to be an essential first step in order to analyze the behavior of this fabric when it is fabricated in a certain 3-D garment design.

Keywords: cloth fitting, fabric drape nodes, garment silhouette, image processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 104