Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1614

Search results for: steel slag

1614 Experimental Study of Application of Steel Slag as Aggregate in Road Construction

Authors: Meftah M. Elsaraiti, Samir Milad Elsariti

Abstract:

Steel slag is a by-product of the steel production and utilizing it potentially as new or substitute materials in road construction is advantageous regarding cost reduction and flattening improvement or properties pavement. Ease of use, low cost, and resource availability are some of few advantages of reuse and recycling of steel slag. This study assesses the use of Steel Slag Aggregates (SSA) as an alternative to natural road building aggregates. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of steel slag based on extensive laboratory tests, and to determine the possibilities of using steel slag in road construction. Samples were taken from the furnaces directly at different times and dates. Moreover, random samples were also taken from the slag field from various areas at different far distances from each other. A necessary analysis was performed through the use of (XRF). Three different percentages of SSA (0, 50 and 100%) were added as an alternative to natural aggregate in hot mix asphalt (HMA) production. The proposed design of the mix was made according to the Marshall mix design. The results of the experiments revealed that the percentages of iron oxide ranged from (9 to 26%) and that the addition of SSA has a significant improvement on HMA properties. It was observed that the Marshall stability obtained in the mix of 100% slag ranged from 600 to 800 N as a minimum, and the flow of Marshall obtained from 2.4 to 3.23 mm and the specification requires from 2 to 4 mm. The results may be showed possibilities to use steel slag as new or substitute materials in road construction in Libya.

Keywords: by-product material, properties, road construction, steel slag

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1613 Effect of Local Steel Slag as a Coarse Aggregate in the Properties of Fly Ash Based-Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: O. M. Omar, A. M. Heniegal, G. D. Abd Elhameed, H. A. Mohamadien

Abstract:

Local steel slag is produced as a by-product during the oxidation of steel pellets in an electric arc furnace. Using local steel slag waste as a hundred substitute of crushed stone in construction materials would resolve the environmental problems caused by the large-scale depletion of the natural sources of dolomite. This paper reports the experimental study to investigate the influence of a hundred replacement of dolomite as a coarse aggregate with local steel slag, on the fresh and hardened geopolymer concrete properties. The investigation includes traditional testing of hardening concrete, for selected mixes of cement and geopolymer concrete. It was found that local steel slag as a coarse aggregate enhanced the slump test of the fresh state of cement and geopolymer concretes. Nevertheless the unit weight of concretes was affected. Meanwhile, the good performance was observed when fly ash used as geopolymer concrete based.

Keywords: geopolymer, molarity, steel slag, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate

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1612 Effect of Steel Slag on Cold Bituminous Emulsion Mix

Authors: Amol Rakhunde, Namdeo Hedaoo

Abstract:

Cold bituminous emulsion mixes (CBEM) are preferred due to their low cost for the construction of low volume roads in India. Due to the low strength of CBEM’s, the strength is generally increased by the addition of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and hydrated lime. To improve the performance of CBEM’s, the use of industrial waste material is also an alternative. Steel slag is by product of steel industry which is sustainable construction material. Due to limited modes of practice of utilization steel slag, huge amount of steel slag dumped in yards of each steel industry and engaging of important agricultural land and gave pollution to whole environment. The effective use of steel slag as additives in CBEM’s has ultimate benefits such improvement in strength of CBEM’s, waste disposal steel slag, saving natural aggregate and lowering cost of roadways. Studies carried out in the past have shown a significant improvement in the strength of CBEM’s prepared with the replacement of natural aggregate with industrial waste materials such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag. In this study, effect of modified mix which is mixes prepared with steel slag compared with the control mix and the mixes prepared with OPC. Experimental work was carried out on the sample of control mix, OPC mix, and modified mix. For modified mix, aggregate was replaced with steel slag by 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of weight of aggregate of same size as of steel slag in aggregate gradation. For OPC mix, filler was replaced by 1%, 2% and 3% of weight of total aggregate with OPC. Optimum emulsion content of each mix obtained by using Marshall stability test and comparison of stability values were carried out. Marshall stability, indirect tensile strength test, and retained stability tests are performed on control mixes, OPC mixes and modified mixes. Significant improvement in Marshall stability retained stability and indirect tensile strength of modified mix compared to control mix and OPC mix.

Keywords: CBEM, indirect tensile strength test, Marshall stability test, OPC, optimum emulsion content, retained stability test, steel slag

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1611 Interaction of Steel Slag and Zeolite on Ammonium Nitrogen Removal and Its Illumination on a New Carrier Filling Configuration for Constructed Wetlands

Authors: Hongtao Zhu, Dezhi Sun

Abstract:

Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential nutrients for biomass growth. But excessive nitrogen and phosphorus can contribute to accelerated eutrophication of lakes and rivers. Constructed wetland is an efficient and eco-friendly wastewater treatment technology with low operating cost and low-energy consumption. Because of high affinity with ammonium ion, zeolite, as a common substrate, is applied in constructed wetlands worldwide. Another substrate seen commonly for constructed wetlands is steel slag, which has high contents of Ca, Al, or Fe, and possesses a strong affinity with phosphate. Due to the excellent ammonium removal ability of zeolite and phosphate removal ability of steel slag, they were considered to be combined in the substrate bed of a constructed wetland in order to enhance the simultaneous removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus. In our early tests, zeolite and steel slag were combined with each other in order to simultaneously achieve a high removal efficiency of ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate-phosphorus. However, compared with the results when only zeolite was used, the removal efficiency of ammonia was sharply decreased when zeolite and steel slag were used together. The main objective of this study was to establish an overview of the interaction of steel slag and zeolite on ammonium nitrogen removal. The CaO dissolution from slag, as well as the effects of influencing parameters (i.e. pH and Ca2+ concentration) on the ammonium adsorption onto zeolite, was systematically studied. Modeling results of Ca2+ and OH- release from slag indicated that pseudo-second order reaction had a better fitness than pseudo-first order reaction. Changing pH value from 7 to 12 would result in a drastic reduction of the ammonium adsorption capacity on zeolite, from the peak at pH7. High Ca2+ concentration in solution could also inhibit the adsorption of ammonium onto zeolite. The mechanism for steel slag inhibiting the ammonium adsorption capacity of zeolite includes: on one hand, OH- released from steel slag can react with ammonium ions to produce molecular form ammonia (NH3∙H2O), which would cause the dissociation of NH4+ from zeolite. On the other hand, Ca2+ could replace the NH4+ ions to adhere onto the surface of zeolite. An innovative substrate filling configuration that zeolite and steel slag are placed sequentially was proposed to eliminate the disadvantageous effects of steel slag. Experimental results showed that the novel filling configuration was superior to the other two contrast filling configurations in terms of ammonium removal.

Keywords: ammonium nitrogen, constructed wetlands, steel slag, zeolite

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1610 Characterization and Evaluation of LD Slag and Fly Ash Mixture for Their Possible Utilization in Different Sectors

Authors: Jagdeep Nayak, Biswajit Paul, Anup Gupta

Abstract:

Characterization of coal refuses to fly ash, and steel slag from steel industries have been performed to develop a mixture of both these materials to enhance strength properties of their utilization in other sectors like mine fill, construction work, etc. A large amount of Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag and fly ash waste are generated from steel and thermal power industries respectively. Management of these wastes is problematic, and their reutilization may provide a sustainable waste management option. LD slag and fly ash mixed in different proportions were tested to analyse the micro structural improvement and hardening rate of the matrix. Mixing of activators such as sodium hydroxide and potassium silicate with silica-alumina of LD slag-fly ash mixture, geopolymeric structure were found to be developed. The effect of geo-polymerization behaviour and subsequent structural rearrangement has been studied using compressibility; shear strength and permeability tests followed by micro-graphical analysis. Densification in the mixture was observed along with an improvement of geotechnical properties due to the addition of LD slag. Due to suitable strength characteristics of these two waste materials as mixture, it can be used in the various construction field or may be used as a filling material in mine voids.

Keywords: LD slag, fly-ash, geopolymer, strength property, compressibility

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1609 Making of Alloy Steel by Direct Alloying with Mineral Oxides during Electro-Slag Remelting

Authors: Vishwas Goel, Kapil Surve, Somnath Basu

Abstract:

In-situ alloying in steel during the electro-slag remelting (ESR) process has already been achieved by the addition of necessary ferroalloys into the electro-slag remelting mold. However, the use of commercially available ferroalloys during ESR processing is often found to be financially less favorable, in comparison with the conventional alloying techniques. However, a process of alloying steel with elements like chromium and manganese using the electro-slag remelting route is under development without any ferrochrome addition. The process utilizes in-situ reduction of refined mineral chromite (Cr₂O₃) and resultant enrichment of chromium in the steel ingot produced. It was established in course of this work that this process can become more advantageous over conventional alloying techniques, both economically and environmentally, for applications which inherently demand the use of the electro-slag remelting process, such as manufacturing of superalloys. A key advantage is the lower overall CO₂ footprint of this process relative to the conventional route of production, storage, and the addition of ferrochrome. In addition to experimentally validating the feasibility of the envisaged reactions, a mathematical model to simulate the reduction of chromium (III) oxide and transfer to chromium to the molten steel droplets was also developed as part of the current work. The developed model helps to correlate the amount of chromite input and the magnitude of chromium alloying that can be achieved through this process. Experiments are in progress to validate the predictions made by this model and to fine-tune its parameters.

Keywords: alloying element, chromite, electro-slag remelting, ferrochrome

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1608 Effect of Cooling Approaches on Chemical Compositions, Phases, and Acidolysis of Panzhihua Titania Slag

Authors: Bing Song, Kexi Han, Xuewei Lv

Abstract:

Titania slag is a high quality raw material containing titanium in the subsequent process of titanium pigment. The effects of cooling approaches of granulating, water cooling, and air cooling on chemical, phases, and acidolysis of Panzhihua titania slag were investigated. Compared to the original slag which was prepared by the conventional processing route, the results show that the titania slag undergoes oxidation of Ti3+during different cooling ways. The Ti2O3 content is 17.50% in the original slag, but it is 16.55% and 16.84% in water cooled and air-cooled slag, respectively. Especially, the Ti2O3 content in granulated slag is decreased about 27.6%. The content of Fe2O3 in granulated slag is approximately 2.86% also obviously higher than water (<0.5%) or air-cooled slag (<0.5%). Rutile in cooled titania slag was formed because of the oxidation of Ti3+. The rutile phase without a noticeable change in water cooled and air-cooled slag after the titania slag was cooled, but increased significantly in the granulated slag. The rate of sulfuric acid acidolysis of cooled slag is less than the original slag. The rate of acidolysis is 90.61% and 92.46% to the water-cooled slag and air-cooled slag, respectively. However, the rate of acidolysis of the granulated slag is less than that of industry slag about 20%, only 74.72%.

Keywords: cooling approaches, titania slag, granulating, sulfuric acid acidolysis

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1607 A Study on the Possibility of Utilizing the Converter Slag as the Cement Admixture

Authors: Choi Woo-Seok, Kim Eun-Sup, Ha Eun-Ryong

Abstract:

Converter slag is used as a low-value product like a construction fill material and soil stabilizer unlike electric furnace slag and blast furnace slag. This study is fundamental research for utilizing the converter slag as the cement admixture. Magnetic separation was conducted for quality improvement of the converter slag, and it was classified according to into 3 types; SA: pure slag, SB: separated slag, SC: remained slag after separating. In XRF result, SB slag was Fe₂CO₃ ratio was higher, and CaO ratio was lower than SA. SC slag was Fe₂CO₃ ratio was lower, and CaO ratio was higher than SA. In compressive strength test for soil cement using SA, SB, SC as the cement admixture, SC slag was more effective in terms of 28days compressive strength than SA, SB slag. In this result, it is considered that the remained material (SC) after magnetic separation is available as the cement admixture.

Keywords: converter slag, magnetic separation, cement admixture, compressive strength

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1606 Processing and Characterization of Glass-Epoxy Composites Filled with Linz-Donawitz (LD) Slag

Authors: Pravat Ranjan Pati, Alok Satapathy

Abstract:

Linz-Donawitz (LD) slag a major solid waste generated in huge quantities during steel making. It comes from slag formers such as burned lime/dolomite and from oxidizing of silica, iron etc. while refining the iron into steel in the LD furnace. Although a number of ways for its utilization have been suggested, its potential as a filler material in polymeric matrices has not yet been explored. The present work reports the possible use of this waste in glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites as a filler material. Hybrid composites consisting of bi-directional e-glass-fiber reinforced epoxy filled with different LD slag content (0, 7.5, 15, 22.5 wt%) are prepared by simple hand lay-up technique. The composites are characterized in regard to their density, porosity, micro-hardness and strength properties. X-ray diffractography is carried out in order to ascertain the various phases present in LDS. This work shows that LD slag, in spite of being a waste, possesses fairly good filler characteristics as it modifies the strength properties and improves the composite micro-hardness of the polymeric resin.

Keywords: characterization, glass-epoxy composites, LD slag, waste utilization

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1605 High Performance Fibre Reinforced Alkali Activated Slag Concrete

Authors: A. Sivakumar, K. Srinivasan

Abstract:

The main objective of the study is focused in producing slag based geopolymer concrete obtained with the addition of alkali activator. Test results indicated that the reaction of silicates in slag is based on the reaction potential of sodium hydroxide and the formation of alumino-silicates. The study also comprises on the evaluation of the efficiency of polymer reaction in terms of the strength gain properties for different geopolymer mixtures. Geopolymer mixture proportions were designed for different binder to total aggregate ratio (0.3 & 0.45) and fine to coarse aggregate ratio (0.4 & 0.8). Geopolymer concrete specimens casted with normal curing conditions reported a maximum 28 days compressive strength of 54.75 MPa. The addition of glued steel fibres at 1.0% Vf in geopolymer concrete showed reasonable improvements on the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural properties of different geopolymer mixtures. Further, comparative assessment was made for different geopolymer mixtures and the reinforcing effects of steel fibres were investigated in different concrete matrix.

Keywords: accelerators, alkali activators, geopolymer, hot air oven curing, polypropylene fibres, slag, steam curing, steel fibres

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1604 Using Geopolymer Technology on Stabilization and Reutilization the Expansion Behavior Slag

Authors: W. H. Lee, T. W. Cheng, K. Y. Lin, S. W. Huang, Y. C. Ding

Abstract:

Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Slag and electric arc furnace (EAF) slag is the by-product of iron making and steel making. Each of slag with produced over 100 million tons annually in Taiwan. The type of slag has great engineering properties, such as, high hardness and density, high compressive strength, low abrasion ratio, and can replace natural aggregate for building materials. However, no matter BOF or EAF slag, both have the expansion problem, due to it contains free lime. The purpose of this study was to stabilize the BOF and EAF slag by using geopolymer technology, hoping can prevent and solve the expansion problem. The experimental results showed that using geopolymer technology can successfully solve and prevent the expansion problem. Their main properties are analyzed with regard to their use as building materials. Autoclave is used to study the volume stability of these specimens. Finally, the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar with BOF/FAF slag can be reached over 21MPa after curing for 28 days. After autoclave testing, the volume expansion does not exceed 0.2%. Even after the autoclave test, the compressive strength can be grown to over 35MPa. In this study have success using these results on ready-mixed concrete plant, and have the same experimental results as laboratory scale. These results gave encouragement that the stabilized and reutilized BOF/EAF slag could be replaced as a feasible natural fine aggregate by using geopolymer technology.

Keywords: BOF slag, EAF slag, autoclave test, geopolymer

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1603 Experimental Investigation on the Shear Strength Parameters of Sand-Slag Mixtures

Authors: Ayad Salih Sabbar, Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz

Abstract:

Utilizing waste materials in civil engineering applications has a positive influence on the environment by reducing carbon dioxide emissions and issues associated with waste disposal. Granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS) is a by-product of the iron and steel industry, with millions of tons of slag being annually produced worldwide. Slag has been widely used in structural engineering and for stabilizing clay soils; however, studies on the effect of slag on sandy soils are scarce. This article investigates the effect of slag content on shear strength parameters through direct shear tests and unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests on mixtures of Perth sand and slag. For this purpose, sand-slag mixtures, with slag contents of 2%, 4%, and 6% by weight of samples, were tested with direct shear tests under three normal stress values, namely 100 kPa, 150 kPa, and 200 kPa. Unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests were performed under a single confining pressure of 100 kPa and relative density of 80%. The internal friction angles and shear stresses of the mixtures were determined via the direct shear tests, demonstrating that shear stresses increased with increasing normal stress and the internal friction angles and cohesion increased with increasing slag. There were no significant differences in shear stresses parameters when slag content rose from 4% to 6%. The unconsolidated undrained triaxial tests demonstrated that shear strength increased with increasing slag content.

Keywords: direct shear, shear strength, slag, UU test

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1602 Thermodynamic Performance Tests for 3D Printed Steel Slag Powder Concrete Walls

Authors: Li Guoyou, Zhang Tao, Ji Wenzhan, Huo Liang, Lin Xiqiang, Zhang Nan

Abstract:

The three dimensional (3D) printing technology has undergone rapid development in the last few years and it is possible to print engineering structures. 3D printing buildings use wastes from constructions, industries and mine tailings as “ink”, and mix it with property improved materials, such as cement, fiber etc. This paper presents a study of the Thermodynamic performance of 3D printed walls using cement and steel slag powder. Analyses the thermal simulation regarding 3D printed walls and solid brick wall by the way of the hot-box methods and the infrared technology, and the results were contrasted with theoretical calculation. The results show that the excellent thermodynamic performance of 3D printed concrete wall made it suitable as the partial materials for self-thermal insulation walls in residential buildings. The thermodynamic performance of 3D printed concrete walls depended on the density of materials, distribution of holes, and the filling materials. Decreasing the density of materials, increasing the number of holes or replacing the filling materials with foamed concrete could improve its thermodynamic performance significantly. The average of heat transfer coefficient and thermal inertia index of 3D printed steel slag powder concrete wall all better than the traditional solid brick wall with a thickness of 240mm.

Keywords: concrete, 3D printed walls, thermodynamic performance, steel slag powder

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1601 Investigating the Properties of Asphalt Concrete Containing Recycled Fillers

Authors: Hasan Taherkhani

Abstract:

Increasingly accumulation of the solid waste materials has become a major environmental problem of communities. In addition to the protection of environment, the recycling and reusing of the waste materials are financially beneficial. Waste materials can be used in highway construction. This study aimed to investigate the applicability of recycled concrete, asphalt and steel slag powder, as a replacement of the primary mineral filler in asphalt concrete has been investigated. The primary natural siliceous aggregate filler, as control, has been replaced with the secondary recycled concrete, asphalt and steel slag powders, and some engineering properties of the mixtures have been evaluated. Marshal Stability, flow, indirect tensile strength, moisture damage, static creep and volumetric properties of the mixtures have been evaluated. The results show that, the Marshal Stability of the mixtures containing recycled powders is higher than that of the control mixture. The flow of the mixtures containing recycled steel slag is lower, and that of the mixtures containing recycled asphalt and cement concrete powder is found to be higher than that of the control mixture. It is also found that the resistance against moisture damage and permanent deformation of the mixture can be improved by replacing the natural filler with the recycled powders. The volumetric properties of the mixtures are not significantly influenced by replacing the natural filler with the recycled powders.

Keywords: filler, steel slag, recycled concrete, recycled asphalt concrete, tensile strength, moisture damage, creep

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1600 Non-Waste Utilization of Copper Smelting Slags for Production of Demanded Products

Authors: V. D. Povolockiy, V. E. Roshchin, Y. Kapelyushin

Abstract:

Smelting of copper matte is followed by production of a large amount of slag. This slag mostly contains silicates and can be utilized in a construction industry. In addition to silicates it also contains Fe; if the Fe content is high, the density of the silicate phases increases and such a slag cannot be used as an additive for the concrete. Furthermore, slags obtained during copper matte production contain copper, sulphur, zinc and some other elements. Fe is the element with the highest price in these slags. An extraction of Fe is possible even using the conventional methods, e.g., the addition of slag to the charge materials during production of sinter for the blast furnace smelting. However, in this case, the blast furnace hot metal would accumulate sulphur and copper which is very harmful impurity for the steelmaking. An accumulation of copper by the blast furnace hot metal is unacceptable, as copper cannot be removed during further steelmaking operations having a critical effect on the properties of steel. In present work, the technological scheme for non-waste utilization of the copper smelting slags has been suggested and experimentally confirmed. This scheme includes a solid state reduction of Fe and smelting for the separation of cast iron and slag. During solid state reduction, the zinc vapor was trapped. After the reduction and smelting operations, the cast iron containing copper was used for the production of metal balls with increased mechanical properties allowing their utilization for milling of ore minerals. Such a cast iron could also be applied in the production of special types of steel with copper. The silicate slag freed from Fe might be used as a propping agent in the oil industry, or granulated for application as an additive for concrete in a construction industry. Thereby, the suggested products for a Mini Mill plant with non-waste utilization of the copper smelting slags are cast iron grinding balls for the ore minerals, special types of steel with copper, silicate slag utilized as an additive for the concrete and propping agents for the oil industry.

Keywords: utilization of copper slag, cast iron, grinding balls, propping agents

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1599 An Experimental Study on the Development of High-Strength, Self-Compacting, Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete Mixes Under Ambient Curing

Authors: Shivam Kumar, Pramod Kumar Gupta, Mohammad Ashraf Iqbal

Abstract:

In the present study, the development of high-strength, self-compacting, alkali-activated slag concrete (HS-SC-AASC) mixes under ambient curing is discussed. These HS-SC-AASC mixes are developed using steel industrial waste such as ground granulated blast furnace slag (a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide are used as an alkaline solution to activate the GGBFS) as a binder, blast furnace slag as a fine aggregate and electric arc furnace slag as a coarse aggregate. Since there are large number of controlling parameters which influence the performance and behavior of alkali-activated slag concrete mixes, so we used Taguchi’s design of experiments technique to optimize the number of test mixes. Taguchi method uses a special design based on orthogonal arrays to study the entire parameter space with only a small number of experiments. In the present experimental study, three parameters have been considered as the most controlling factors namely - Total binder content, Water- binder ratio, and Activator modulus (Ms), which influence the properties of GGBS-based AAS mixes, in both their fresh and hardened states. So in this study, there are total twenty-seven mix combinations of the process parameters, each considered at each of the three levels indicated as above. However, as per Taguchi’s method, detailed experiments corresponding to only nine of those combinations, taken systematically from the L-9 orthogonal array, have been performed and their results have been used to develop regression equations for any of the performance parameters, which then used to predict that performance parameter for any other combination of the process parameters.

Keywords: alkali-activated slag concrete, high-strength, self-compacting, steel slag sand, electric arc furnace slag

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1598 Assessment of Mechanical Properties of Induction Furnace Slag as Partial Replacement of Fine Aggregate in Concrete

Authors: Muhammad Javed Bhatti, Tariq Ali, Muazz Ali

Abstract:

Due to growing environmental awareness in Pakistan, the researchers are increasingly turning to assess and analyze properties of industrial waste and finding solutions on using industrial waste as secondary material. Due to industrialization, enormous by-products are produced and to utilize these by-products is the main challenge faced in Pakistan. Induction furnace slag is one of the industrial by-products from the iron and steel making industries. This paper highlights the true utilization of induction furnace slag as partial replacement of fine aggregate. For the experimental investigation, mixes were prepared with fine aggregate replacement using 0 percent, 5 percent, 10 percent, 15 percent, 20 percent, 25 percent, 30 percent, 35 percent and 40 percent induction furnace slag to evaluate the workability, compaction factor, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity.

Keywords: compressive strength, deflection, induction furnace slag, workability

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1597 The Study on Treatment Technology of Fused Carbonized Blast Furnace Slag

Authors: Jiaxu Huang

Abstract:

The melt carbonized blast furnace slag containing TiC was produced by carbothermal reduction of high titanium blast furnace slag. The treatment technology of melt carbonized blast furnace slag with TiC as raw material was studied, including the influence of different cooling methods, crushing atmosphere and sieving particle size on the target product TiC in the slag. The results show that air-cooling and water-cooling have little effect on TiC content of molten carbide blast furnace slag, and have great effect on crystal structure and grain size. TiC content in slag is different when carbide blast furnace slag is crushed in argon atmosphere and air atmosphere. After screening, the difference of TiC content of carbide blast furnace slag with different particle size distribution is obvious. The average TiC content of 100-400 mesh carbide blast furnace slag is 14%. And the average TiC content of carbide blast furnace slag with particle size less than 400 mesh is 10.5%.

Keywords: crushing atmosphere, cooling methods, sieving particle size, TiC

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1596 Development of Zero-Cement Binder Activated by Carbonation

Authors: Young Cheol Choi, Eun-Jin Moon, Sung-Won Yoo, Sang-Hwa Jung, In-Hwan Yang

Abstract:

Stainless steel slag (STS) is a by-product generated from the stainless steel refining process. The recycling of STS produced in Korea for construction applications is limited due to its poor hydraulic properties. On the other hand, STS has high carbonation reactivity to CO2 as it contains gamma-C2S content. This material is ideal for mineral carbonation which is one of the techniques proposed for carbon emission reduction. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of developing a zero-cement STS binder activated by carbonation as alternative cementitious material. The quantitative analyses for CO2 uptake of STS powder and STS blended cement were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the compressive strength and microstructure of STS pastes after CO2 curing were evaluated. Test results showed that STS can be activated by carbonation to gain a sufficient strength as alternative cementitious material.

Keywords: gamma-C2S, CO2 uptake, carbonation, stainless steel slag

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1595 Experimental Research on the Properties Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC)

Authors: S. Yousefi Oderji, B. Chen, M. A. Yazdi, J. Yang

Abstract:

This study investigates the influence of water-binder ratio, mineral admixtures (silica fume and ground granulated blast furnace slag), and copper coated steel fiber on fluidity diameter, compressive and flexural strengths of reactive powder concrete (RPC). The test results show that the binary combination of silica fume and blast-furnace slag provided a positive influence on the mechanical properties of RPC. Although the addition of fibers reduced the workability, results indicated a higher mechanical strength in the inclusion of fibers.

Keywords: RPC, steel fiber, fluidity, mechanical properties

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1594 Estimation of Opc, Fly Ash and Slag Contents in Blended and Composite Cements by Selective Dissolution Method

Authors: Suresh Palla

Abstract:

This research paper presents the results of the study on the estimation of fly ash, slag and cement contents in blended and composite cements by novel selective dissolution method. Types of cement samples investigated include OPC with fly ash as performance improver, OPC with slag as performance improver, PPC, PSC and Composite cement confirming to respective Indian Standards. Slag and OPC contents in PSC were estimated by selectively dissolving OPC in stage 1 and selectively dissolving slag in stage 2. In the case of composite cement sample, the percentage of cement, slag and fly ash were estimated systematically by selective dissolution of cement, slag and fly ash in three stages. In the first stage, cement dissolved and separated by leaving the residue of slag and fly ash, designated as R1. The second stage involves gravimetric estimation of fractions of OPC, residue and selective dissolution of fly ash and slag contents. Fly ash content, R2 was estimated through gravimetric analysis. Thereafter, the difference between the R1 and R2 is considered as slag content. The obtained results of cement, fly ash and slag using selective dissolution method showed 10% of standard deviation with the corresponding percentage of respective constituents. The results suggest that this novel selective dissolution method can be successfully used for estimation of OPC and SCMs contents in different types of cements.

Keywords: selective dissolution method , fly ash, ggbfs slag, edta

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1593 Effect of Blast Furnace Iron Slag on the Mechanical Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)

Authors: Ayman M. Othman, Hassan Y. Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effect of using blast furnace iron slag as a part of fine aggregate on the mechanical performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA). The mechanical performance was evaluated based on various mechanical properties that include; Marshall/stiffness, indirect tensile strength and unconfined compressive strength. The effect of iron slag content on the mechanical properties of the mixtures was also investigated. Four HMA with various iron slag contents, namely; 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% by weight of total mixture were studied. Laboratory testing has revealed an enhancement in the compressive strength of HMA when iron slag was used. Within the tested range of iron slag content, a considerable increase in the compressive strength of the mixtures was observed with the increase of slag content. No significant improvement on Marshall/stiffness and indirect tensile strength of the mixtures was observed when slag was used. Even so, blast furnace iron slag can still be used in asphalt paving for environmental advantages.

Keywords: blast furnace iron slag, compressive strength, HMA, indirect tensile strength, marshall/stiffness, mechanical performance, mechanical properties

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1592 Behaviour of Hollow Tubes Filled with Sand Slag Concrete

Authors: Meriem Senani, Noureedine Ferhoune

Abstract:

This paper presents the axial bearing capacity of thin welded rectangular steel stubs filled with concrete sand. A series of tests was conducted to study the behavior of short composite columns under axial compressive load, the cross section dimensions were: 100x70x2 mm. A total of 16 stubs have been tested, as follows: 4 filled with ordinary concrete appointed by BO columns, 6 filled with concrete witch natural sand was completely substitute a crystallized sand slag designated in this paper by BSI, and 6 others were tucked in concrete whose natural sand was partially replace by a crystallized sand slag called by BSII. The main objectives of these tests were to clarify the steel specimen's performance filled by concrete sand compared to those filled with ordinary concrete. The main parameters studied are: The height of the specimen (300mm-500mm), eccentricity of load and type of filling concrete. Based on test results obtained, it is confirmed that the length of the tubes, has a considerable effect on the bearing capacity and the failure mode. In all test tubes, fracture occurred by the convex warping of the largest, followed by the smallest due to the outward thrust of the concrete, it was observed that the sand concrete improves the bearing capacity of tubes compounds compared to those filled with ordinary concrete.

Keywords: concrete sand, crystallized slag, failure mode, buckling

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
1591 Experimental Study on Granulated Steel Slag as an Alternative to River Sand

Authors: K. Raghu, M. N. Vathhsala, Naveen Aradya, Sharth

Abstract:

River sand is the most preferred fine aggregate for mortar and concrete. River sand is a product of natural weathering of rocks over a period of millions of years and is mined from river beds. Sand mining has disastrous environmental consequences. The excessive mining of river bed is creating an ecological imbalance. This has lead to have restrictions imposed by ministry of environment on sand mining. Driven by the acute need for sand, stone dust or manufactured sand prepared from the crushing and screening of coarse aggregate is being used as sand in the recent past. However manufactured sand is also a natural material and has quarrying and quality issues. To reduce the burden on the environment, alternative materials to be used as fine aggregates are being extensively investigated all over the world. Looking to the quantum of requirements, quality and properties there has been a global consensus on a material – Granulated slags. Granulated slag has been proven as a suitable material for replacing natural sand / crushed fine aggregates. In developed countries, the use of granulated slag as fine aggregate to replace natural sand is well established and is in regular practice. In the present paper Granulated slag has been experimented for usage in mortar. Slags are the main by-products generated during iron and steel production in the steel industry. Over the past decades, the steel production has increased and, consequently, the higher volumes of by-products and residues generated which have driven to the reuse of these materials in an increasingly efficient way. In recent years new technologies have been developed to improve the recovery rates of slags. Increase of slags recovery and use in different fields of applications like cement making, construction and fertilizers help in preserving natural resources. In addition to the environment protection, these practices produced economic benefits, by providing sustainable solutions that can allow the steel industry to achieve its ambitious targets of “zero waste” in coming years. Slags are generated at two different stages of steel production, iron making and steel making known as BF(Blast Furnace) slag and steel slag respectively. The slagging agent or fluxes, such as lime stone, dolomite and quartzite added into BF or steel making furnaces in order to remove impurities from ore, scrap and other ferrous charges during smelting. The slag formation is the result of a complex series of physical and chemical reactions between the non-metallic charge(lime stone, dolomite, fluxes), the energy sources(coal, coke, oxygen, etc.) and refractory materials. Because of the high temperatures (about 15000 C) during their generation, slags do not contain any organic substances. Due to the fact that slags are lighter than the liquid metal, they float and get easily removed. The slags protect the metal bath from atmosphere and maintain temperature through a kind of liquid formation. These slags are in liquid state and solidified in air after dumping in the pit or granulated by impinging water systems. Generally, BF slags are granulated and used in cement making due to its high cementious properties, and steel slags are mostly dumped due to unfavourable physio-chemical conditions. The increasing dump of steel slag not only occupies a plenty of land but also wastes resources and can potentially have an impact on the environment due to water pollution. Since BF slag contains little Fe and can be used directly. BF slag has found a wide application, such as cement production, road construction, Civil Engineering work, fertilizer production, landfill daily cover, soil reclamation, prior to its application outside the iron and steel making process.

Keywords: steel slag, river sand, granulated slag, environmental

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
1590 Accelerated Carbonation of Construction Materials by Using Slag from Steel and Metal Production as Substitute for Conventional Raw Materials

Authors: Karen Fuchs, Michael Prokein, Nils Mölders, Manfred Renner, Eckhard Weidner

Abstract:

Due to the high CO₂ emissions, the energy consumption for the production of sand-lime bricks is of great concern. Especially the production of quicklime from limestone and the energy consumption for hydrothermal curing contribute to high CO₂ emissions. Hydrothermal curing is carried out under a saturated steam atmosphere at about 15 bar and 200°C for 12 hours. Therefore, we are investigating the opportunity to replace quicklime and sand in the production of building materials with different types of slag as calcium-rich waste from steel production. We are also investigating the possibility of substituting conventional hydrothermal curing with CO₂ curing. Six different slags (Linz-Donawitz (LD), ferrochrome (FeCr), ladle (LS), stainless steel (SS), ladle furnace (LF), electric arc furnace (EAF)) provided by "thyssenkrupp MillServices & Systems GmbH" were ground at "Loesche GmbH". Cylindrical blocks with a diameter of 100 mm were pressed at 12 MPa. The composition of the blocks varied between pure slag and mixtures of slag and sand. The effects of pressure, temperature, and time on the CO₂ curing process were studied in a 2-liter high-pressure autoclave. Pressures between 0.1 and 5 MPa, temperatures between 25 and 140°C, and curing times between 1 and 100 hours were considered. The quality of the CO₂-cured blocks was determined by measuring the compressive strength by "Ruhrbaustoffwerke GmbH & Co. KG." The degree of carbonation was determined by total inorganic carbon (TIC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The pH trends in the cross-section of the blocks were monitored using phenolphthalein as a liquid pH indicator. The parameter set that yielded the best performing material was tested on all slag types. In addition, the method was scaled to steel slag-based building blocks (240 mm x 115 mm x 60 mm) provided by "Ruhrbaustoffwerke GmbH & Co. KG" and CO₂-cured in a 20-liter high-pressure autoclave. The results show that CO₂ curing of building blocks consisting of pure wetted LD slag leads to severe cracking of the cylindrical specimens. The high CO₂ uptake leads to an expansion of the specimens. However, if LD slag is used only proportionally to replace quicklime completely and sand proportionally, dimensionally stable bricks with high compressive strength are produced. The tests to determine the optimum pressure and temperature show 2 MPa and 50°C as promising parameters for the CO₂ curing process. At these parameters and after 3 h, the compressive strength of LD slag blocks reaches the highest average value of almost 50 N/mm². This is more than double that of conventional sand-lime bricks. Longer CO₂ curing times do not result in higher compressive strengths. XRD and TIC measurements confirmed the formation of carbonates. All tested slag-based bricks show higher compressive strengths compared to conventional sand-lime bricks. However, the type of slag has a significant influence on the compressive strength values. The results of the tests in the 20-liter plant agreed well with the results of the 2-liter tests. With its comparatively moderate operating conditions, the CO₂ curing process has a high potential for saving CO₂ emissions.

Keywords: CO₂ curing, carbonation, CCU, steel slag

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1589 A Study on the Stabilization of the Swell Behavior of Basic Oxygen Furnace Slag by Using Geopolymer Technology

Authors: K. Y. Lin, W. H. Lee, T. W. Cheng, S. W. Huang

Abstract:

Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Slag is a by-product of iron making. It has great engineering properties, such as, high hardness and density, high compressive strength, low abrasion ratio, and can replace natural aggregate for building materials. However, the main problem for BOF slag is expansion, due to it contains free lime or free magnesium. The purpose of this study was to stabilize the BOF slag by using geopolymeric technology, hoping can prevent BOF slag expansion. Geopolymer processes contain a large amount of free silicon. These free silicon can react with free-lime or free magnesium oxide in BOF slag, and thus to form stable compound, therefore inhibit the expansion of the BOF slag. In this study for the successful preparation of geopolymer mortar with BOF slag, and their main properties are analyzed with regard to their use as building materials. Autoclave is used to study the volume stability of these geopolymer mortar. Finally, the compressive strength of geopolymer mortar with BOF slag can be reached 33MPa in 28 days. After autoclave testing, the volume expansion does not exceed 0.2%. Even after the autoclave test, the compressive strength can increase to 35MPa. According to the research results can be proved that using geopolymer technology for stabilizing BOF slag is very effective.

Keywords: BOF slag, autoclave test, geopolymer, swell behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
1588 In-Situ LDH Formation of Sodium Aluminate Activated Slag

Authors: Tao Liu, Qingliang Yu, H. J. H. Brouwers

Abstract:

Among the reaction products in the alkali-activated ground granulated blast furnace slag (AAS), the layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have a remarkable capacity of chloride and heavy metal ions absorption. The promotion of LDH phases in the AAS matrix can increase chloride resistance. The objective of this study is that use the different dosages of sodium aluminate to activate slag, consequently promoting the formation of in-situ LDH. The hydration kinetics of the sodium aluminate activated slag (SAAS) was tested by the isothermal calorimetry. Meanwhile, the reaction products were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The sodium hydroxide-activated slag is selected as the reference. The results of XRD, TGA, and FTIR showed that the formation of LDH in SAAS was increased by the aluminate dosages.

Keywords: ground granulated blast furnace slag, sodium aluminate activated slag, in-situ LDH formation, chloride absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
1587 Influence of Nano Copper Slag in Strength Behavior of Lime Stabilized Soil

Authors: V. K. Stalin, M. Kirithika, K. Shanmugam, K. Tharini

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has been widely used in many applications such as medical, electronics, robotics and also in geotechnical engineering area through stabilization of bore holes, grouting etc. In this paper, an attempt is made for understanding the influence of nano copper slag (1%, 2% & 3%) on the index, compaction and UCC strength properties of natural soil (CH type) with and without lime stabilization for immediate and 7 days curing period. Results indicated that upto 1% of Nano copper slag, there is an increment in UC strength of virgin soil and lime stabilised soil. Beyond 1% nano copper slag, there is a steep reduction in UC strength and increase of plasticity both in lime stabilised soil and virgin soil. The effect of lime is found to show more influence on large surface area of nano copper slag in natural soil. For both immediate and curing effect, with 1% of Nano copper slag, the maximum unconfined compressive strength was 38% and 106% higher than that of the virgin soil strength.

Keywords: lime, nano copper slag, SEM, XRD, stabilisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
1586 Characterization of Copper Slag and Jarofix Waste Materials for Road Construction

Authors: V. K. Arora, V. G. Havanagi, A. K. Sinha

Abstract:

Copper slag and Jarofix are waste materials, generated during the manufacture of copper and zinc respectively, which have potential for utility in embankment and road construction. Accordingly, a research project was carried out to study the characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix to utilize in the construction of road. In this study, copper slag and Jarofix were collected from Tuticorin, State of Tamil Nadu and Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Chittorgarh, Rajasthan state, India respectively. These materials were investigated for their physical, chemical, and geotechnical characteristics. The materials were collected from the disposal area and laboratory investigations were carried out to study its feasibility for use in the construction of embankment and sub grade layers of road pavement. This paper presents the results of physical, chemical and geotechnical characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix. It was concluded that copper slag and Jarofix may be utilized in the construction of road.

Keywords: copper slag, Jarofix waste, material, road construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
1585 Evaluation of Corrosion by Impedance Spectroscopy of Embedded Steel in an Alternative Concrete Exposed a Chloride Ion

Authors: E. Ruíz, W. Aperador

Abstract:

In this article evaluates the protective effect of the concrete alternative obtained from the fly ash and iron and steel slag mixed in binary form and were placed on structural steel ASTM A 706. The study was conducted comparatively with specimens exposed to natural conditions free of chloride ion. The effect of chloride ion on the specimens was generated of form accelerated under controlled conditions (3.5% NaCl and 25 ° C temperature). The Impedance data were acquired over a range of 1 mHz to 100 kHz. At frequencies high is found the response of the interface means of the exposure-concrete and to frequency low the response of the interface corresponding to concrete-steel.

Keywords: alternative concrete, corrosion, alkaline activation, impedance spectroscopy

Procedia PDF Downloads 298